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4.
Nature ; 583(7814): 72-77, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612223

RESUMEN

Forests provide a series of ecosystem services that are crucial to our society. In the European Union (EU), forests account for approximately 38% of the total land surface1. These forests are important carbon sinks, and their conservation efforts are vital for the EU's vision of achieving climate neutrality by 20502. However, the increasing demand for forest services and products, driven by the bioeconomy, poses challenges for sustainable forest management. Here we use fine-scale satellite data to observe an increase in the harvested forest area (49 per cent) and an increase in biomass loss (69 per cent) over Europe for the period of 2016-2018 relative to 2011-2015, with large losses occurring on the Iberian Peninsula and in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Satellite imagery further reveals that the average patch size of harvested area increased by 34 per cent across Europe, with potential effects on biodiversity, soil erosion and water regulation. The increase in the rate of forest harvest is the result of the recent expansion of wood markets, as suggested by econometric indicators on forestry, wood-based bioenergy and international trade. If such a high rate of forest harvest continues, the post-2020 EU vision of forest-based climate mitigation may be hampered, and the additional carbon losses from forests would require extra emission reductions in other sectors in order to reach climate neutrality by 20503.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultura Forestal/tendencias , Bosques , Biodiversidad , Biomasa , Secuestro de Carbono , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental/economía , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Europa (Continente) , Unión Europea/economía , Agricultura Forestal/economía , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Calentamiento Global/prevención & control , Historia del Siglo XXI , Imágenes Satelitales , Madera/economía
9.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224788, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693689

RESUMEN

Forest development is a complex phenomenon which, for the number of actors involved and the response time expressed by forests, is difficult to understand and explore. Forests in Italy, as in several areas of Europe, are experiencing intensive management and recently, an increasing impact by ungulates. The effects on forest development of these two disturbances combined are difficult to predict, and consequently to be properly managed. We used a forest landscape change model, LANDIS-II, to simulate forest development as driven by forestry practices and roe deer impact for 200 years in a mountain forest of the Italian Apennines. We found that each disturbance alters forest tree species richness, forest type abundance and distribution, and forest structure. When considered combined, the two disturbances show additive behavior, enhancing or moderating each other's effects. Forest management has a negative effect on tree species richness. We expected roe deer to have a negative effect on harvest yields, but this result was significant only for two of seven harvesting treatments. On the other hand, roe deer presence had a positive effect on tree species richness. All the simulation scenarios returned some extent of forest loss. The amount of the forest loss is lowest in the scenario without disturbances, and greatest when both disturbances are considered. However, the two disturbances combined, with the magnitude modelled in our simulations, have relatively low effects on the forest dynamics we analyzed in our study area. LANDIS-II was an effective approach for simulating combined management and ungulate driven trends of forest development, and to help understand the dynamics that lay behind it.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos/fisiología , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Bosques , Árboles/fisiología , Distribución Animal , Animales , Cambio Climático , Simulación por Computador , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Ambiental , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Agricultura Forestal/estadística & datos numéricos , Italia , Modelos Estadísticos , Dispersión de las Plantas
13.
Curr Biol ; 29(19): R1008-R1020, 2019 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593660

RESUMEN

If current trends continue, the tropical forests of the Anthropocene will be much smaller, simpler, steeper and emptier than they are today. They will be more diminished in size and heavily fragmented (especially in lowland wet forests), have reduced structural and species complexity, be increasingly restricted to steeper, less accessible areas, and be missing many heavily hunted species. These changes, in turn, will greatly reduce the quality and quantity of ecosystem services that tropical forests can provide. Driving these changes will be continued clearance for farming and monoculture forest plantations, unsustainable selective logging, overhunting, and, increasingly, climate change. Concerted action by local and indigenous communities, environmental groups, governments, and corporations can reverse these trends and, if successful, provide future generations with a tropical forest estate that includes a network of primary forest reserves robustly defended from threats, recovering logged and secondary forests, and resilient community forests managed for the needs of local people. Realizing this better future for tropical forests and people will require formalisation of land tenure for local and indigenous communities, better-enforced environmental laws, the widescale roll-out of payments for ecosystem service schemes, and sustainable intensification of under-yielding farmland, as well as global-scale societal changes, including reduced consumerism, meat consumption, fossil fuel reliance, and population growth. But the time to act is now, while the opportunity remains to protect a semblance of intact, hyperdiverse tropical forests.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Clima Tropical , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/economía , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Agricultura Forestal/métodos
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 502, 2019 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327078

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of state ownership in forest governance in Turkey. It seeks to explore how property rights are affected by the complex, dynamic interplay of policies, economic influences, and the law. The historical development of state ownership, including its legal aspects, has been investigated in order to better understand the roots of current issues. An institutional approach has been followed. It is hypothesized that as the state exercises its property rights, it has both positive and negative effects on forest governance. This analysis confirms that state ownership may exceed its implementation capacity under the pressure of economic development objectives and that in areas where economic development is a priority, the loss of forests is inevitable. There is a need for a more adaptive approach to making policies related to property rights. The concept of the overriding public interest could be vital in achieving purposeful governance.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Bosques , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agricultura Forestal/economía , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Propiedad , Formulación de Políticas , Turquia
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(4): 219, 2019 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874902

RESUMEN

The Paris Agreement (PA), which is an important step toward mitigating climate change, has ascribed new responsibilities to the signatory parties that differ from those of the Kyoto Protocol (KP). This study is focused on the new responsibilities and the reasons why Turkey has not yet assigned the agreement into its own domestic law, although it was signed on April 22, 2016. There are several political and legal reasons for this, but the most important is Turkey's membership in the OECD as a developed country. Besides, developing countries shall be supported by the Green Climate Fund (GCF) at a $100 billion budget per year. Turkey needs GCF support in terms of technology transfer, capacity building, and financial in order to achieve the agreement's goals. Turkey has demanded privileged status similar to the one in the KP, i.e., whether or not to be deemed as a developed country.The core aim of the PA is to keep global temperature increases below 20 °C by the year 2030, insomuch as to limit temperature increases even further to 1.50 °C. This goal depends on the mitigation of CO2 levels, which means that countries should mitigate GHG emissions caused by deforestation and take further actions by primarily abandoning fossil fuels, improving/attaching importance to energy efficiency, and changing/improving land use planning. Within this context, the second part of the study analyzes the efficiency level of forestry legislation and Turkey's climate policies in terms of the responsibilities to be assigned by the PA. The analysis is based on the question as to what extent the Turkish forestry legislation fulfills the responsibilities ascribed by the PA for preventing deforestation. Consequently, it has been concluded that eight criteria determined by the PA are not adequately included in the Turkish forestry legislation and shall require an amendment on a large scale, particularly when Turkey is deemed as a developed country.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Países Desarrollados , Política Ambiental , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bosques , Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Combustibles Fósiles , Turquia
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