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1.
Conserv Biol ; : e13959, 2022 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638587

RESUMEN

Red wood ants (RWAs) are a group of keystone species widespread in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere. Despite this, there is increasing evidence of local declines and extinctions. We reviewed the current protection status of RWAs throughout Europe and their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threat classification. Only some RWA species have been assessed at a global scale, and not all national red lists of the countries where RWAs are present include these species. Different assessment criteria, inventory approaches, and risk categories are used in different countries, and data deficiency is frequent. Legislative protection is even more complex, with some countries protecting RWAs implicitly together with the wildlife fauna and others explicitly protecting the whole group or particular species. This complexity often occurs within countries, for example, in Italy, where, outside of the Alps, only the introduced species are protected, whereas the native species, which are in decline, are not. Therefore, an international, coordinated framework is needed for the protection of RWAs. This first requires that the conservation target should be defined. Due to the similar morphology, complex taxonomy, and frequent hybridization, protecting the entire RWA group seems a more efficient strategy than protecting single species, although with a distinction between autochthonous and introduced species. Second, an update of the current distribution of RWA species is needed throughout Europe. Third, a protection law cannot be effective without the collaboration of forest managers, whose activity influences RWA habitat. Finally, RWA mounds offer a peculiar microhabitat, hosting a multitude of taxa, some of which are obligate myrmecophilous species on the IUCN Red List. Therefore, RWAs' role as umbrella species could facilitate their protection if they are considered not only as target species but also as providers of species-rich microhabitats.


Las hormigas rojas de la madera (HRM) conforman un grupo de especies clave con amplia distribución en los bosques templados y boreales del Hemisferio Norte. A pesar de lo anterior, cada vez hay más evidencia de su declinación y extinción local. Revisamos el estado actual de protección de las HRM en toda Europa y su clasificación en la Lista Roja de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN). Sólo se han evaluado algunas especies de HRM a escala mundial y no todas las listas rojas nacionales de los países con presencia de HRM incluyen a estas especies. Los diferentes países usan criterios de evaluación, estrategias de inventario y categorías de riesgo distintos, además de que la información deficiente es habitual. La protección legislativa es todavía más compleja pues algunos países protegen implícitamente a las HRM junto con la fauna silvestre y otros protegen explícitamente a todo el grupo o a una especie particular. Esta complejidad ocurre a menudo en los países (por ejemplo: Italia) en donde, fuera de los Alpes, sólo se protege a las especies introducidas, mientras a las especies nativas, que están declinando, no se les protege. Por lo tanto, se requiere un marco de trabajo internacional y coordinado para proteger a las HRM. Esto necesita primero que se defina el objetivo de conservación. Ya que las HRM tienen similitudes morfológicas, una taxonomía compleja e hibridación frecuente, la protección del grupo completo, con la distinción entre las especies autóctonas y las introducidas, parece ser una estrategia más eficiente que la protección de una sola especie. Segundo, se debe actualizar la distribución actual de las HRM en Europa. Tercero, una ley de protección no puede ser efectiva sin la colaboración de los gestores forestales, cuya actividad influye sobre el hábitat de las HRM Finalmente, los montículos de las HRM ofrecen un microhábitat peculiar pues hospedan a una multitud de taxones, algunos de los cuales son especies mirmecófilas obligadas presentes en la Lista Roja de la UICN. Así, el papel de las HRM como especie paraguas podría facilitar su protección si se les considera no sólo como especies diana sino también como proveedoras de microhábitats con riqueza de especies.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 10 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663723

RESUMEN

In Indonesia, 60 million people live within 1 km of state forest. The government of Indonesia plans to grant community titles for 12.7 million hectares of land to communities living in and around forests. These titles allow for using nontimber forest products, practicing agroforestry, operating tourism businesses, and selective logging in designated production zones. Here, we estimate the early effects of the program's rollout. We use data on the delineation and introduction date of community forest titles on 2.4 million hectares of land across the country. We find that, contrary to the objective of the program, community titles aimed at conservation did not decrease deforestation; if anything, they tended to increase forest loss. In contrast, community titles in zones aimed at timber production decreased deforestation, albeit from higher baseline forest loss rates.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bosques , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Indonesia , Recursos Naturales
4.
Nature ; 597(7877): 516-521, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471291

RESUMEN

Biodiversity contributes to the ecological and climatic stability of the Amazon Basin1,2, but is increasingly threatened by deforestation and fire3,4. Here we quantify these impacts over the past two decades using remote-sensing estimates of fire and deforestation and comprehensive range estimates of 11,514 plant species and 3,079 vertebrate species in the Amazon. Deforestation has led to large amounts of habitat loss, and fires further exacerbate this already substantial impact on Amazonian biodiversity. Since 2001, 103,079-189,755 km2 of Amazon rainforest has been impacted by fires, potentially impacting the ranges of 77.3-85.2% of species that are listed as threatened in this region5. The impacts of fire on the ranges of species in Amazonia could be as high as 64%, and greater impacts are typically associated with species that have restricted ranges. We find close associations between forest policy, fire-impacted forest area and their potential impacts on biodiversity. In Brazil, forest policies that were initiated in the mid-2000s corresponded to reduced rates of burning. However, relaxed enforcement of these policies in 2019 has seemingly begun to reverse this trend: approximately 4,253-10,343 km2 of forest has been impacted by fire, leading to some of the most severe potential impacts on biodiversity since 2009. These results highlight the critical role of policy enforcement in the preservation of biodiversity in the Amazon.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sequías , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bosque Lluvioso , Incendios Forestales/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Brasil , Cambio Climático/estadística & datos numéricos , Bosques , Mapeo Geográfico , Plantas , Árboles/fisiología , Vertebrados
9.
Nature ; 583(7814): 72-77, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612223

RESUMEN

Forests provide a series of ecosystem services that are crucial to our society. In the European Union (EU), forests account for approximately 38% of the total land surface1. These forests are important carbon sinks, and their conservation efforts are vital for the EU's vision of achieving climate neutrality by 20502. However, the increasing demand for forest services and products, driven by the bioeconomy, poses challenges for sustainable forest management. Here we use fine-scale satellite data to observe an increase in the harvested forest area (49 per cent) and an increase in biomass loss (69 per cent) over Europe for the period of 2016-2018 relative to 2011-2015, with large losses occurring on the Iberian Peninsula and in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Satellite imagery further reveals that the average patch size of harvested area increased by 34 per cent across Europe, with potential effects on biodiversity, soil erosion and water regulation. The increase in the rate of forest harvest is the result of the recent expansion of wood markets, as suggested by econometric indicators on forestry, wood-based bioenergy and international trade. If such a high rate of forest harvest continues, the post-2020 EU vision of forest-based climate mitigation may be hampered, and the additional carbon losses from forests would require extra emission reductions in other sectors in order to reach climate neutrality by 20503.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultura Forestal/tendencias , Bosques , Biodiversidad , Biomasa , Secuestro de Carbono , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental/economía , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Europa (Continente) , Unión Europea/economía , Agricultura Forestal/economía , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Calentamiento Global/prevención & control , Historia del Siglo XXI , Imágenes Satelitales , Madera/economía
14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224788, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693689

RESUMEN

Forest development is a complex phenomenon which, for the number of actors involved and the response time expressed by forests, is difficult to understand and explore. Forests in Italy, as in several areas of Europe, are experiencing intensive management and recently, an increasing impact by ungulates. The effects on forest development of these two disturbances combined are difficult to predict, and consequently to be properly managed. We used a forest landscape change model, LANDIS-II, to simulate forest development as driven by forestry practices and roe deer impact for 200 years in a mountain forest of the Italian Apennines. We found that each disturbance alters forest tree species richness, forest type abundance and distribution, and forest structure. When considered combined, the two disturbances show additive behavior, enhancing or moderating each other's effects. Forest management has a negative effect on tree species richness. We expected roe deer to have a negative effect on harvest yields, but this result was significant only for two of seven harvesting treatments. On the other hand, roe deer presence had a positive effect on tree species richness. All the simulation scenarios returned some extent of forest loss. The amount of the forest loss is lowest in the scenario without disturbances, and greatest when both disturbances are considered. However, the two disturbances combined, with the magnitude modelled in our simulations, have relatively low effects on the forest dynamics we analyzed in our study area. LANDIS-II was an effective approach for simulating combined management and ungulate driven trends of forest development, and to help understand the dynamics that lay behind it.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos/fisiología , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Bosques , Árboles/fisiología , Distribución Animal , Animales , Cambio Climático , Simulación por Computador , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Ambiental , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Agricultura Forestal/estadística & datos numéricos , Italia , Modelos Estadísticos , Dispersión de las Plantas
17.
Curr Biol ; 29(19): R1008-R1020, 2019 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593660

RESUMEN

If current trends continue, the tropical forests of the Anthropocene will be much smaller, simpler, steeper and emptier than they are today. They will be more diminished in size and heavily fragmented (especially in lowland wet forests), have reduced structural and species complexity, be increasingly restricted to steeper, less accessible areas, and be missing many heavily hunted species. These changes, in turn, will greatly reduce the quality and quantity of ecosystem services that tropical forests can provide. Driving these changes will be continued clearance for farming and monoculture forest plantations, unsustainable selective logging, overhunting, and, increasingly, climate change. Concerted action by local and indigenous communities, environmental groups, governments, and corporations can reverse these trends and, if successful, provide future generations with a tropical forest estate that includes a network of primary forest reserves robustly defended from threats, recovering logged and secondary forests, and resilient community forests managed for the needs of local people. Realizing this better future for tropical forests and people will require formalisation of land tenure for local and indigenous communities, better-enforced environmental laws, the widescale roll-out of payments for ecosystem service schemes, and sustainable intensification of under-yielding farmland, as well as global-scale societal changes, including reduced consumerism, meat consumption, fossil fuel reliance, and population growth. But the time to act is now, while the opportunity remains to protect a semblance of intact, hyperdiverse tropical forests.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Clima Tropical , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/economía , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Agricultura Forestal/métodos
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