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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19655, 2021 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608258

RESUMEN

COVID-19 represents the most severe global crisis to date whose public conversation can be studied in real time. To do so, we use a data set of over 350 million tweets and retweets posted by over 26 million English speaking Twitter users from January 13 to June 7, 2020. We characterize the retweet network to identify spontaneous clustering of users and the evolution of their interaction over time in relation to the pandemic's emergence. We identify several stable clusters (super-communities), and are able to link them to international groups mainly involved in science and health topics, national elites, and political actors. The science- and health-related super-community received disproportionate attention early on during the pandemic, and was leading the discussion at the time. However, as the pandemic unfolded, the attention shifted towards both national elites and political actors, paralleled by the introduction of country-specific containment measures and the growing politicization of the debate. Scientific super-community remained present in the discussion, but experienced less reach and became more isolated within the network. Overall, the emerging network communities are characterized by an increased self-amplification and polarization. This makes it generally harder for information from international health organizations or scientific authorities to directly reach a broad audience through Twitter for prolonged time. These results may have implications for information dissemination along the unfolding of long-term events like epidemic diseases on a world-wide scale.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Análisis de Redes Sociales , Red Social
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258189, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614032

RESUMEN

Is Google Trends (GT) useful to survey populations? Extant work has shown that certain search queries reflect the attitudes of hard-to-survey populations, but we do not know if this extends to the general population. In this article, we leverage abundant data from the Covid-19 pandemic to assess whether people's worries about the pandemic match epidemiological trends as well as political preferences. We use the string 'will I die from coronavirus' on GT as the measure for people's level of distress regarding Covid-19. We also test whether concern for coronavirus is a partisan issue by contrasting GT data and 2016 election results. We find strong evidence that (1) GT search volume close matches epidemiological data and (2) significant differences exist between states that supported Clinton or Trump in 2016.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Miedo , Política , Motor de Búsqueda , Adulto , COVID-19/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eGS5914, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468592

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a p-median model for health care services accessibility based on decentralization and optimal allocation of Primary Health Care Units in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Using geographical data of Primary Health Care Units located in the State of São Paulo, potential support and supply facility allocations were simulated by means of a random approach. Several constraints were then imposed on the system to simulate different scenarios. Results were assessed according to geographic disposition. RESULTS: Using a fixed number of supply facilities, ten as a constraint, the p-median approach allocated three facilities near the state capital (the area with the highest concentration of Primary Health Care Units), while remaining facilities were spread throughout the west of the state. A second round of tests assessed the impact of fixed costs alone on optimization, ranging from 71 optimal locations with a fixed unit cost to six optimal locations at a cost 300-fold higher. This finding was relevant to decision-making, since it encompassed scenarios in which only the final number of facilities or only the budget was known. A third set of simulations contemplates an intermediate scenario. CONCLUSION: The p-median approach was capable of optimizing a wide range of scenarios with an average running time of less than 2 hours and 30 minutes while considering a large dataset of more than 4,000 locations. In spite of some shortcomings, such as estimation of Euclidean distances, the method is simple yet powerful enough to be considered a useful tool to assist decision makers in the distribution of resources, and facilities across large areas with high number of locations to be supplied.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Atención Primaria de Salud , Brasil , Humanos , Política
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3409-3421, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468638

RESUMEN

The research problem in this paper is a discussion of the political factors affecting the allocation of federal resources in the SUS (Unified Health System) and its effects on regional inequalities in Brazil. The main objective was to explore the influence of political factors as criteria for the distribution of federal funds, considering the regional inequalities of the country. A mixed method was used by collecting quantitative data to study the allocation of resources for each unit of the Federation, from 2003 to 2017, in search of outliers, which require more in-depth explanation based on qualitative research methods. The fuzzy-set QCA software was applied in the qualitative research phase for identification of technical and political conditions, where required and/or sufficient, for an atypical distribution of resources from one year to another. The quantitative analysis demonstrated the decrease of regional inequalities in allocation of resources to States in the North and Northeast. However, when studying the constraints of the distribution of the funds for the States of these regions, qualitative analysis demonstrated the influence of political factors on the allocation of resources, rather than purely technical factors.


Asunto(s)
Administración Financiera , Política , Brasil , Humanos
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3753-3764, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468669

RESUMEN

This work, extracted from the doctoral research of the author, aims to discuss, from the reports of socio-educational system professionals, the access to State politics and programs performed by youth in conflict with the law attending to socio-educational system. In this research, 14 professionals who work in periphery regions, at the South Zone of São Paulo were interviewed, using the methodological proposal of "narrative policies". From the reports, we can see ambiguities of proposals and state interventions, configuring the "double discipline" of State, evidencing the insufficiency and the disinvestment in social security and social assistance policies, meanwhile occurs the production of an apparatus of repressive measures. We discuss the theme related to the field of public health and the importance of the bonds between professionals and youth attending to socio-educational system.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Brasil , Humanos , Política , Política Pública
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502764

RESUMEN

Online voting is a trend that is gaining momentum in modern society. It has great potential to decrease organizational costs and increase voter turnout. It eliminates the need to print ballot papers or open polling stations-voters can vote from wherever there is an Internet connection. Despite these benefits, online voting solutions are viewed with a great deal of caution because they introduce new threats. A single vulnerability can lead to large-scale manipulations of votes. Electronic voting systems must be legitimate, accurate, safe, and convenient when used for elections. Nonetheless, adoption may be limited by potential problems associated with electronic voting systems. Blockchain technology came into the ground to overcome these issues and offers decentralized nodes for electronic voting and is used to produce electronic voting systems mainly because of their end-to-end verification advantages. This technology is a beautiful replacement for traditional electronic voting solutions with distributed, non-repudiation, and security protection characteristics. The following article gives an overview of electronic voting systems based on blockchain technology. The main goal of this analysis was to examine the current status of blockchain-based voting research and online voting systems and any related difficulties to predict future developments. This study provides a conceptual description of the intended blockchain-based electronic voting application and an introduction to the fundamental structure and characteristics of the blockchain in connection to electronic voting. As a consequence of this study, it was discovered that blockchain systems may help solve some of the issues that now plague election systems. On the other hand, the most often mentioned issues in blockchain applications are privacy protection and transaction speed. For a sustainable blockchain-based electronic voting system, the security of remote participation must be viable, and for scalability, transaction speed must be addressed. Due to these concerns, it was determined that the existing frameworks need to be improved to be utilized in voting systems.


Asunto(s)
Cadena de Bloques , Electrónica , Política , Privacidad , Tecnología
13.
Global Health ; 17(1): 113, 2021 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548073

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pandemic generated by Covid-19 has changed the way of life of citizens around the world in a short time, affecting all areas of society directly or indirectly, which is facing a global health crisis with different national responses implemented by governments. Several months into the pandemic, the first after-effects of Covid-19 are beginning to be felt by citizens, who are questioning the management carried out so far. In order to improve the performance of governmental decisions to reduce the impact of the pandemic during the coming months, we calculated the levels of efficiency in the management of health resources. In addition, we identify some country characteristics that may condition efficient management. RESULTS: We obtained significant differences according to the geographical location of the country, with European and American countries being less efficient than Asian and African countries. Likewise, we can affirm that greater freedom of expression, a higher median age and an unstable economy and labor market reduce efficiency. However, female leadership of the government and greater compliance with the rule of law offer more efficient management, as do countries that derive more revenues from tourism. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide an opportunity for political leaders to reflect on their management during these months of the pandemic in order to identify mistakes and improve the implementation of effective measures. It has been shown that using more resources does not mean managing better; therefore, policymakers need to pay special attention to the use of resources, taking into account the budgetary constraints of the public sector.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Gobierno , Pandemias/prevención & control , África/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Geografía , Humanos , Política , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 46, 2021 09 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507603

RESUMEN

On January 2020, the WHO Director General declared that the outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The world has faced a worldwide spread crisis and is still dealing with it. The present paper represents a white paper concerning the tough lessons we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, an international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making. With the present paper, international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Global , Pandemias , Investigación Biomédica , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Vacunación Masiva/organización & administración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Política , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Telemedicina/organización & administración
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257988, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570798

RESUMEN

To increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake in resistant populations, such as Republicans, focus groups suggest that it is best to de-politicize the issue by sharing five facts from a public health expert. Yet polls suggest that Trump voters trust former President Donald Trump for medical advice more than they trust experts. We conducted an online, randomized, national experiment among 387 non-vaccinated Trump voters, using two brief audiovisual artifacts from Spring 2021, either facts delivered by an expert versus political claims delivered by President Trump. Relative to the control group, Trump voters who viewed the video of Trump endorsing the vaccine were 85% more likely to answer "yes" as opposed to "no" in their intention to get fully vaccinated (RRR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.40; P = .048). There were no significant differences between those hearing the public health expert excerpt and the control group (for "yes" relative to "no" RRR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.12; P = .68). These findings suggest that a political speaker's endorsement of the COVID-19 vaccine may increase uptake among those who identify with that speaker. Contrary to highly-publicized focus group findings, our randomized experiment found that an expert's factually accurate message may not be effectual to increase vaccination intentions.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Medios de Comunicación , Política , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Intención , Salud Pública , Distribución Aleatoria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Confianza
18.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1420-1429, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495735

RESUMEN

Political orientation can be a powerful motivator of certain health care decisions. This study examines how political orientation was associated with decisions to use the Affordable Care Act Marketplaces to enroll in nongroup health insurance plans and whether it was also associated with adverse financial consequences. We used administrative records and surveys of nongroup Marketplace enrollees from a large insurer in New England. Enrollees were categorized as Republican, Democrat, or independent through self-identification or were assigned to one of the political parties after responding to a political preference question. Republican enrollees were less likely than Democratic enrollees of comparable subsidy eligibility to enroll through the Marketplaces and receive subsidies. Among income-eligible enrollees, Republican subscribers received $66 per month less in premium subsidies than Democratic subscribers, equivalent to roughly $800 per year. However, this result varied by subgroups in the parties, and our results suggest that party effects on decision making may inversely relate to the magnitude of the financial consequence. Navigating the ongoing political polarization in the United States requires optimizing public policies, as well as the associated education and outreach, to ensure maximal efficacy regardless of political orientation.


Asunto(s)
Intercambios de Seguro Médico , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Humanos , Aseguradoras , Cobertura del Seguro , Seguro de Salud , New England , Política , Estados Unidos
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