Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55.483
Filtrar
3.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(4)2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753161

RESUMEN

Are we repeating the mistakes of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in our approach to combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? Is the world's emphasis on developing vaccines overshadowing investment in the health systems that can deliver them? We analyse a report on the politics of investing in health policy and systems research (HPSR) and conclude by outlining three critical actions, using the Stuckler-McKee model of social change in health. These are: exploiting a political window of opportunity; changing the conversation; and mobilising a campaign to drive the agenda. When implemented together, these actions could help accelerate investment in health systems to combat the immediate COVID-19 pandemic and prepare health systems for the next crisis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Política , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(4)2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753166

RESUMEN

Objectives and importance of study: The importance of health policy and systems research (HPSR) has been acknowledged since 2004 and was recognised by the United Nations World Health Assembly in 2005. However, many factors influence its development. This paper aims to analyse the impact of politics and political determinants on HPSR funding in selected countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Using a standardised protocol, we performed an analysis of available data and financing structures for health research and HPSR, based on research in eight countries, including interviews with key stakeholders (n = 42). RESULTS: Dollar depreciation and gross national product growth in the region may play a role in how governments fund research. There have been shifts in the political spectrum in governments, which have affected research coordination and funding in positive and negative ways. HPSR funding in some countries was dependent on budget decisions and although some have improved funding, others have regressed by decreasing funding or have completely cancelled financing mechanisms. Caribbean countries rely mainly on institutional funding. HPSR is recognised as important but remains underfunded; stakeholders believed it should be used more in decision making. CONCLUSION: Although HPSR is recognised as valuable for decision making and policy development, it does not have the financial support required to flourish in Latin America and the Carribean. Data on health research financing were not easy to access. There was little or no evidence of published reports or papers about research financing, health research funding, and HPSR funding in particular in the studied countries. Because of the fragility of health systems highlighted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, HPSR should be of great relevance and value to both policy makers and funders.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Política de Salud , Región del Caribe , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , América Latina , Política , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5361-5370, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787225

RESUMEN

The article aims to raise reflections about the necropolitics directed to HIV/AIDS in Brazil from a set of rationalities that permeate the processes of configuration of the governmental agenda, treatment of the disease, and the policies and technologies involved. For this purpose, a non-systematic theoretical review was carried out from a threefold aspect: the stigma of AIDS, necropolitics, and life politics. We concluded that life politics, as opposed to necropolitics, contributes to the defense of human rights and health, above all, to the demystification of stigma and the politics of enmity historicized in AIDS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Brasil , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Política , Estigma Social
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833551

RESUMEN

The upcoming agricultural revolution, known as Agriculture 4.0, integrates cutting-edge Information and Communication Technologies in existing operations. Various cyber threats related to the aforementioned integration have attracted increasing interest from security researchers. Network traffic analysis and classification based on Machine Learning (ML) methodologies can play a vital role in tackling such threats. Towards this direction, this research work presents and evaluates different ML classifiers for network traffic classification, i.e., K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Classification (SVC), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF) and Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), as well as a hard voting and a soft voting ensemble model of these classifiers. In the context of this research work, three variations of the NSL-KDD dataset were utilized, i.e., initial dataset, undersampled dataset and oversampled dataset. The performance of the individual ML algorithms was evaluated in all three dataset variations and was compared to the performance of the voting ensemble methods. In most cases, both the hard and the soft voting models were found to perform better in terms of accuracy compared to the individual models.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Aprendizaje Automático , Agricultura , Análisis por Conglomerados , Política
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21751, 2021 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741109

RESUMEN

Adoption of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) remains critical to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Using self-reported adherence to NPIs in Canada, assessed through a national cross-sectional survey of 4498 respondents, we aimed to identify and characterize non-adopters of NPIs, evaluating their attitudes and behaviours to understand barriers and facilitators of adoption. A cluster analysis was used to group adopters separately from non-adopters of NPIs. Associations with sociodemographic factors, attitudes towards COVID-19 and the public health response were assessed using logistic regression models comparing non-adopters to adopters. Of the 4498 respondents, 994 (22%) were clustered as non-adopters. Sociodemographic factors significantly associated with the non-adoption cluster were: (1) being male, (2) age 18-34 years, (3) Albertans, (4) lower education level and (5) higher conservative political leaning. Participants who expressed low concern for COVID-19 and distrust towards several institutions had greater odds of being non-adopters. This information characterizes individuals at greatest odds for non-adoption of NPIs to inform targeted marketing interventions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Alberta/epidemiología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , COVID-19/psicología , Canadá/epidemiología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Alfabetización en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distanciamiento Físico , Política , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258871, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731208

RESUMEN

COVID-19 continues to pose a threat to global public health. Multiple safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 are available with one-third of the global population now vaccinated. Achieving a sufficient level of vaccine coverage to suppress COVID-19 requires, in part, sufficient acceptance among the public. However, relatively high rates of hesitance and resistance to COVID-19 vaccination persists, threating public health efforts to achieve vaccine-induced population protection. In this study, we examined longitudinal changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitance, and resistance in two nations (the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) during the first nine months of the pandemic, and identified individual and psychological factors associated with consistent non-acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. Using nationally representative, longitudinal data from the United Kingdom (UK; N = 2025) and Ireland (N = 1041), we found that (1) COVID-19 vaccine acceptance declined in the UK and remained unchanged in Ireland following the emergence of approved vaccines; (2) multiple subgroups existed reflecting people who were consistently willing to be vaccinated ('Accepters': 68% in the UK and 61% in Ireland), consistently unwilling to be vaccinated ('Deniers': 12% in the UK and 16% in Ireland), and who fluctuated over time ('Moveable Middle': 20% in the UK and 23% in Ireland); and (3) the 'deniers' and 'moveable middle' were distinguishable from the 'accepters' on a range of individual (e.g., younger, low income, living alone) and psychological (e.g., distrust of scientists and doctors, conspiracy mindedness) factors. The use of two high-income, Western European nations limits the generalizability of these findings. Nevertheless, understanding how receptibility to COVID-19 vaccination changes as the pandemic unfolds, and the factors that distinguish and characterise those that are hesitant and resistant to vaccination is helpful for public health efforts to achieve vaccine-induced population protection against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
13.
J Hist Ideas ; 82(4): 661-682, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840193

RESUMEN

This article examines the sociologist Daniel Bell's interest in future research. Future research, to Bell, had as its particular purpose to ensure forms of coordination and steering acceptable to a liberal society. By examining Bell's interest in future research and the activities of the Commission on the Year 2000, the essay proposes that future research played a role in Cold War intellectual history as a particular form of planning for the liberal polity. This idea of planning a liberal society changed decisively, however, between 1965 and 1975.


Asunto(s)
Parálisis de Bell , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Política , Estados Unidos
14.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(5): 395-400, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841842

RESUMEN

Politics is facing the need to make important decisions about anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign in uncertain and changing contexts. With reference to the time frame between the administration of the first and second dose, the scientific evidence is still weak and comes from different contexts. New ways to collect and synthesize expert knowledge and opinions are needed with the direct involvement of the citizens in order to explain the uncertainties and maintain trust in institutions and their decisions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Política , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Italia , Confianza
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19655, 2021 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608258

RESUMEN

COVID-19 represents the most severe global crisis to date whose public conversation can be studied in real time. To do so, we use a data set of over 350 million tweets and retweets posted by over 26 million English speaking Twitter users from January 13 to June 7, 2020. We characterize the retweet network to identify spontaneous clustering of users and the evolution of their interaction over time in relation to the pandemic's emergence. We identify several stable clusters (super-communities), and are able to link them to international groups mainly involved in science and health topics, national elites, and political actors. The science- and health-related super-community received disproportionate attention early on during the pandemic, and was leading the discussion at the time. However, as the pandemic unfolded, the attention shifted towards both national elites and political actors, paralleled by the introduction of country-specific containment measures and the growing politicization of the debate. Scientific super-community remained present in the discussion, but experienced less reach and became more isolated within the network. Overall, the emerging network communities are characterized by an increased self-amplification and polarization. This makes it generally harder for information from international health organizations or scientific authorities to directly reach a broad audience through Twitter for prolonged time. These results may have implications for information dissemination along the unfolding of long-term events like epidemic diseases on a world-wide scale.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Análisis de Redes Sociales , Red Social
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258189, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614032

RESUMEN

Is Google Trends (GT) useful to survey populations? Extant work has shown that certain search queries reflect the attitudes of hard-to-survey populations, but we do not know if this extends to the general population. In this article, we leverage abundant data from the Covid-19 pandemic to assess whether people's worries about the pandemic match epidemiological trends as well as political preferences. We use the string 'will I die from coronavirus' on GT as the measure for people's level of distress regarding Covid-19. We also test whether concern for coronavirus is a partisan issue by contrasting GT data and 2016 election results. We find strong evidence that (1) GT search volume close matches epidemiological data and (2) significant differences exist between states that supported Clinton or Trump in 2016.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Miedo , Política , Motor de Búsqueda , Adulto , COVID-19/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1120, 2021 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666755

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Social participation is one of the guidelines of the Brazilian health system. Health councils are collegiate instances of participation established by Law 8.142/90. The most recent legal regulation for council organization and functioning was established through Resolution 453/2021. The institution of health councils has a permanent and deliberative nature to act in the formulation, deliberation and control of health policy implementation, including in economic and financial aspects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the compliance of health councils with the directives for the establishment, restructuring and operation of the councils from Brazil, based on Resolution 453/2012. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive study that used the Health Council Monitoring System as a data source. Qualitative variables were selected to identify the characteristics related to the councils' establishment (legal instruments for establishment), the strategies adopted for restructuring (budget allocation, existence of an executive secretariat, provision of a dedicated office) and the characteristics of the health councils' operation (frequency of regular meetings, existence of a board of directors, the election of the board of directors). RESULTS: The study analyzed three groups of characteristics related to the constitution, strategies adopted for restructuring and the functioning of the councils. Regarding the constitution of the councils, the findings revealed that the vast majority was constituted in accordance with the legislation and, therefore, is in compliance with Resolution 453/2021. In the second group of characteristics that describe the restructuring of councils, the study found that less than half of registered councils are in compliance with the standard. And, finally, in the third group of characteristics, it was found that the boards have adopted different frequencies for regular meetings and approximately 50% of the boards studied have a board of directors. CONCLUSIONS: The councils still do not meet the minimum conditions necessary to fulfil their role in the Unified Health System (SUS), as stipulated in Resolution 453/2021. This situation requires monitoring by public oversight agencies. Despite the increase in popular participation with the creation of the health councils, this study demonstrated that most councils still do not meet the minimum conditions for monitoring public health policy. The improvement of the Health Councils Monitoring System (SIACS) to become an instrument for monitoring the councils, with the definition of goals and results, may contribute to the organization of the councils and, therefore, to the realization of social participation in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Política , Participación Social , Brasil , Participación de la Comunidad , Política de Salud , Humanos , Política Pública
19.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20210065, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643639

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the perception of nurses on the decentralization of care to people living with HIV. METHOD: Exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study conducted with primary health care nurses based on Imogene King's Open Systems Theory (personal, interpersonal, and social). The data were obtained through interviews; a sociodemographic/professional questionnaire and a semi-structured script were employed, processed by the IRAMUTEQ software and analyzed through Descending Hierarchical Classification. RESULTS: Study participants amounted to 32 nurses. Five classes emerged from the analysis: "diagnostic revelation process"; "professional training"; "preventive measures"; "barriers and potentials in the process of decentralization"; and "stigma and prejudice". CONCLUSION: In the process of reorganization of the healthcare model for people living with HIV in primary health care, an important contribution by nurses in strengthening the local healthcare decentralization was identified.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Estigma Social , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Humanos , Política , Prejuicio , Investigación Cualitativa
20.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 273-278, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666963

RESUMEN

This paper distils the key insights from thematic and inter-thematic deliberations of the Global Symposium on Citizenship, Governance and Accountability in Health. It describes the evolution of the symposium theme on linking accountability to citizenship and governance in health while providing an overview of the symposium. The paper further synthesises the key discussions of the core-themes, then lays out analytical reflections that have emerged from the deliberations that touch upon the issues of power and politics surrounding accountability, viz civil society, democracy, power, civic space and the role of private non-state actors that affect health rights of the marginalised.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Política , Responsabilidad Social
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...