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1.
Igaku Butsuri ; 41(3): 122-126, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744122

RESUMEN

A charged particle therapy was proposed by Robert R. Wilson in 1946 and a clinical study of proton radiotherapy had been started at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1954. Clinical studies have been promoted mainly in the United States and Europe. However, in Japan as well, the University of Tsukuba (KEK Campus) and the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) started proton radiotherapy around 1980, and NIRS started carbon-ion radiotherapy in 1994. Following pioneering clinical studies, now in Japan, many proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy facilities are in operation, and some vendors are supplying equipment. Among them, charged particle therapy technologies originating in Japan have been developed, such as a respiratory-gated irradiation technology, a spot scanning irradiation technology, and a clinical dose design for ion radiotherapy. I look back on them and discuss the future direction of research and development of the charged particle therapy.


Asunto(s)
Radioterapia de Iones Pesados , Terapia de Protones , Japón , Protones , Tecnología
2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(34): 18432-18448, 2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612384

RESUMEN

The thermal decomposition of styrene was investigated in a combined experimental, theory and modeling study with particular emphasis placed on the initial dissociation reactions. Two sets of shock tube/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) experiments were performed to identify reaction products and their order of appearance. One set of experiments was conducted with a miniature high repetition rate shock tube at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The other set of experiments was performed in a diaphragmless shock tube (DFST) using electron impact ionization. The datasets span 1660-2260 K and 0.5-12 atm. The results show a marked transition from aromatic products at low temperatures to polyacetylenes, up to C8H2, at high temperatures. The TOF-MS experiments were complemented by DFST/LS (laser schlieren densitometry) experiments covering 1800-2250 K and 60-240 Torr. These were particularly sensitive to the initial dissociation reactions. These reactions were investigated theoretically and revealed the dissociation of styrene to be a complex multichannel process with strong pressure and temperature dependencies that were evaluated with multi-well master equation simulations. Simulations of the LS data with a mechanism developed in this work are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. From these simulations, rate coefficients for the dissociation of styrene were obtained that are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The simulation results also provide fair predictions of the temperature and pressure dependencies of the products observed in the TOF-MS studies. Prior experimental studies of styrene pyrolysis concluded that the main products were benzene and acetylene. In contrast, this study finds that the majority of styrene dissociates to create five styryl radical isomers. Of these, α-styryl accounts for about 50% with the other isomers consuming approximately 20%. It was also found that C-C bond scission to phenyl and vinyl radicals consumes up to 25% of styrene. Finally the dissociation of styrene to benzene and vinylidene accounts for roughly 5% of styrene consumption. Comments are made on the apparent differences between the results of this work and prior literature.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19187, 2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584162

RESUMEN

Machine learning (ML) tools are able to learn relationships between the inputs and outputs of large complex systems directly from data. However, for time-varying systems, the predictive capabilities of ML tools degrade if the systems are no longer accurately represented by the data with which the ML models were trained. For complex systems, re-training is only possible if the changes are slow relative to the rate at which large numbers of new input-output training data can be non-invasively recorded. In this work, we present an approach to deep learning for time-varying systems that does not require re-training, but uses instead an adaptive feedback in the architecture of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). The feedback is based only on available system output measurements and is applied in the encoded low-dimensional dense layers of the encoder-decoder CNNs. First, we develop an inverse model of a complex accelerator system to map output beam measurements to input beam distributions, while both the accelerator components and the unknown input beam distribution vary rapidly with time. We then demonstrate our method on experimental measurements of the input and output beam distributions of the HiRES ultra-fast electron diffraction (UED) beam line at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and showcase its ability for automatic tracking of the time varying photocathode quantum efficiency map. Our method can be successfully used to aid both physics and ML-based surrogate online models to provide non-invasive beam diagnostics.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(31): 6818-6828, 2021 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242037

RESUMEN

Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron facility to investigate the electron-transfer reduction reaction of dipositive Lr (Z = 103) with O2 gas. Ions of 255Lr were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction 209Bi(48Ca,2n) 255Lr and were studied with a novel gas-phase ion chemistry technique. The produced 255Lr2+ ions were trapped and O2 gas was introduced, such that the charge-exchange reaction to reduce 255Lr2+ to 255Lr1+ was observed and the reaction rate constant was determined to be k = 1.5(7) × 10-10 cm3/mol/s. The observation that this reaction proceeds establishes the lower limit on the second ionization potential of Lr to be 13.3(3) eV. This gives further support that the actinide series terminates with Lr. Additionally, this result can be used to better interpret the situation concerning the placement of Lu and Lr on the periodic table within the current framework of the actinide hypothesis. The success of this experimental approach now identifies unique opportunities for future gas-phase reaction studies on actinide and super heavy elements.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(35): 19424-19434, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296711

RESUMEN

In this work we report a joint experimental and computational study on the 2,5-dimethylfuran oxidation reaction in the gas phase initiated by atomic oxygen O(3P). The experiments have been performed by using vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), at a temperature of 550 K and a pressure of 8 Torr. The experimental data were supported by quantum-chemical calculations along with a kinetic model, also taking into account the possible involvement of different magnetic states, performed in the framework of the RRKM theory. Propyne, acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal, dimethylglyoxal, 3-penten-2-one, 2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, and 1,2-diacetyl ethylene have been identified as the main primary products arising under the conditions of the experiment. Our computational model suggests that these species can be formed at the concentration and branching ratio experimentally observed only in the presence of a non-negligible fraction of non-thermalized intermediates.

6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(44): 63227-63236, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227004

RESUMEN

The increasing issue of global warming has received tremendous attention from researchers around the world as researchers are actively publishing their findings related to environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, carbon footprint, and air quality. In this bibliometric review, Scopus database was accessed to retrieve publications from 1971 to 2021, related to carbon footprint of buildings which is significantly associated with global warming and air quality. The results suggested that 41% of publications were published in close access journals requiring nominal subscription fee and/or institutional permissions for access to articles. Only 1% of publications were in press for publication, while 99% of them were online available. The trend of publications on carbon footprint has increased after 2002 and is also increasing in recent years as the topic is widely studied in many fields such as environmental sciences, engineering, materials sciences, earth and planetary sciences, chemical engineering, and energy. Approximately 97% publications were peer-reviewed journal articles. The authors, i.e., Aresta, M., Lin, T.P., and Persily, A.K., published highest number of publications among all on topic of carbon footprint. However, other authors, i.e., Cai, W., Chen, Z., Ma, M. Paik, I., and Pomponi, F., have published two publications each on carbon footprint of buildings. The funding for research on carbon footprint of buildings is mainly received from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Tianjin University. However, the National Taiwan University, George Mason University, and Universita degi Studi di Bari hold 3% share in total number of publications on carbon footprint of buildings. As China and the USA are countries with highest share in global carbon footprint, both countries also have highest contribution in research on carbon footprint, followed by South Korea, the UK, Japan, Italy, Germany, Taiwan, etc. The study also concluded that, due to its wider readability and understanding, most of the publications were in the English language.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría , Huella de Carbono , China , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Tecnología
7.
Chemistry ; 27(25): 7188, 2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880827

RESUMEN

Invited for the cover of this issue are Prof. Jochen Autschbach and Dr. Dumitru-Claudiu Sergentu of State University of New York at Buffalo, and Dr. Corwin H. Booth of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The image depicts high-energy X-ray beams as lightnings probing Ce at the L3 edge in the iconic covalent-bonded Ce(C8 H8 )2 and in CeO2 . The mountain peaks in the background represent the double-peaked L3 edges. The peaks turn out to be intuitively interpreted in terms of localized orbitals and hence metal oxidation states. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.202100145.

8.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 29: 38-45, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888286

RESUMEN

Heavy charged particles have been discussed for clinical use due to their superior dose-depth distribution compared to conventional radiation such as X-rays. In addition, high-charge and energy (HZE) ions in galactic cosmic rays (GCR) present important health risks for crewed space missions to the Earth's moon or Mars. Experiments at heavy ion accelerators are used in radiobiology studies; however, numerical simulations of track segment or Bragg peak irradiations are complicated by the details of the beam-line and dosimetry systems. The goal of the present work is in support of biophysics modeling of historical radiobiology data at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and more recent results from the Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) facility (NASA Space Radiation Lab (NSRL)). In this work, the Spread-Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) of 4He, 12C, and 20Ne particles, and a Bragg curve of 56Fe ion have been simulated numerically in the geometries of LBNL and BNL using the Monte-Carlo based PHITS and GEANT4 simulation toolkits. The dose contributions of primary particles and secondary particles, including neutrons and photons, in the target material are computed and discussed as well. Comparisons suggest more contributions of secondaries in GEANT4 simulations compared to PHITS simulations, and less statistical fluctuation and better prediction of neutrons in PHITS simulations. Neutrons and gamma-rays are estimated to make minor contributions to absorbed doses for these beams.


Asunto(s)
Radiación Cósmica , Iones Pesados , Laboratorios , Radiobiología , Radiometría
9.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 171: 109647, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636442

RESUMEN

The  160Gd(p,n)160Tb excitation function was measured between 4-18 MeV using stacked-target activation at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Nine copper and eight titanium foils served as proton fluence monitor foils, using the  natCu(p,x)65Zn,  natTi(p,x)48V, and  natTi(p,x)46Sc monitor standards, respectively. Variance minimization using an MCNP v.6.2 model reduced the systematic uncertainties in proton energy and fluence. A priori predictions of the  160Gd(p,n) reaction using ALICE, CoH, EMPIRE, and TALYS, as well as the TENDL database, are compared to the experimentally measured values.

10.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 1): 71-77, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399554

RESUMEN

A model for calculating the X-ray reflectivity (XRR) of surfaces to extract both roughness and waviness features is presented. Expressions of reflectivity intensity are derived as a function of root-mean-square (RMS) roughness σ, RMS waviness σL, and the cut-off frequency between the features ω0. Experiments were conducted at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, beamline 8.3.2, on BK7 glass manufactured with a multi-step polishing process to validate the model, and were compared with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fizeau interferometry and surface profilometry measurements. The parameter results and their deviations for XRR measurements were σ = 2.9 ± 0.2 nm and σL = 14.6 ± 0.5 nm with a wavelength cut-off of 1/(18 ±â€…2) µm-1, while the results from the AFM, Fizeau and profilometry measurements were σAFM = 3.4 ± 0.4 nm, σL,Fizeau = 21.6 nm, σprof = 4.0 ± 0.1 nm, and σL,prof = 21.4 ± 0.1 nm with cut-offs for the profilometry and Fizeau measurements limited to frequencies of (1/16) µm-1 to (1/4) mm-1.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21776, 2020 12 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311537

RESUMEN

Biofuels are a promising ecologically viable and renewable alternative to petroleum fuels, with the potential to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. However, biomass sourced fuels are often produced as blends of hydrocarbons and their oxygenates. Such blending complicates the implementation of these fuels in combustion applications. Variations in a biofuel's composition will dictate combustion properties such as auto ignition temperature, reaction delay time, and reaction pathways. A handful of novel drop-in replacement biofuels for conventional transportation fuels have recently been down selected from a list of over 10,000 potential candidates as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima) initiative. Diisobutylene (DIB) is one such high-performing hydrocarbon which can readily be produced from the dehydration and dimerization of isobutanol, produced from the fermentation of biomass-derived sugars. The two most common isomers realized, from this process, are 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene (α-DIB) and 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene (ß-DIB). Due to a difference in olefinic bond location, the α- and ß- isomer exhibit dramatically different ignition temperatures at constant pressure and equivalence ratio. This may be attributed to different fragmentation pathways enabled by allylic versus vinylic carbons. For optimal implementation of these biofuel candidates, explicit identification of the intermediates formed during the combustion of each of the isomers is needed. To investigate the combustion pathways of these molecules, tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light (in the range 8.1-11.0 eV) available at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been used in conjunction with a jet stirred reactor (JSR) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to probe intermediates formed. Relative intensity curves for intermediate mass fragments produced during this process were obtained. Several important unique intermediates were identified at the lowest observable combustion temperature with static pressure of 93,325 Pa and for 1.5 s residence time. As this relatively short residence time is just after ignition, this study is targeted at the fuels' ignition events. Ignition characteristics for both isomers were found to be strongly dependent on the kinetics of C4 and C7 fragment production and decomposition, with the tert-butyl radical as a key intermediate species. However, the ignition of α-DIB exhibited larger concentrations of C4 compounds over C7, while the reverse was true for ß-DIB. These identified species will allow for enhanced engineering modeling of fuel blending and engine design.

12.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 27(Pt 5): 1131-1140, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876587

RESUMEN

This paper presents a novel cantilevered liquid-nitrogen-cooled silicon mirror design for the first optic in a new soft X-ray beamline that is being developed as part of the Advanced Light Source Upgrade (ALS-U) (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA). The beamline is optimized for photon energies between 400 and 1400 eV with full polarization control. Calculations indicate that, without correction, this design will achieve a Strehl ratio greater than 0.85 for the entire energy and polarization ranges of the beamline. With a correction achieved by moving the focus 7.5 mm upstream, the minimum Strehl ratio is 0.99. This design is currently the baseline plan for all new ALS-U insertion device beamlines.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(25): 252502, 2020 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639781

RESUMEN

In an experiment performed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-inch cyclotron, the isotope ^{244}Md was produced in the ^{209}Bi(^{40}Ar,5n) reaction. Decay properties of ^{244}Md were measured at the focal plane of the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, and the mass number assignment of A=244 was confirmed with the apparatus for the identification of nuclide A. The isotope ^{244}Md is reported to have one, possibly two, α-decaying states with α energies of 8.66(2) and 8.31(2) MeV and half-lives of 0.4_{-0.1}^{+0.4} and ∼6 s, respectively. Additionally, first evidence of the α decay of ^{236}Bk was observed and is reported.

14.
Chemphyschem ; 21(9): 927-937, 2020 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078232

RESUMEN

Scientific evidence has shown oxygenates help to reduce dangerous pollutants arising from burning fossil fuel in the automotive sector. For this reason, their use as additives has spread widely. The aim of this work consists in providing a comprehensive identification of the main primary oxidation products of diisopropyl ether (DIPE), one of the most promising among etheric oxygenates. The Cl-initiated oxidation of DIPE is examinated by using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Products are identified on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio, shape of photoionization spectra, adiabatic ionization energies, and chemical kinetic profiles, at three different temperatures (298, 550, and 650 K). Acetone, propanal, propene, and isopropyl acetate have been identified as major reaction products. Acetone is the main primary product. Theoretical calculations using the composite CBS-QB3 method provided useful tools to validate the postulated reaction mechanisms leading to experimentally observed species. The formation of other species is also discussed.

15.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190428, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556333

RESUMEN

Proton and ion beam therapy has been introduced in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the mid-1950s, when protons and helium ions have been used for the first time to treat patients. Starting in 1972, the scientists at Berkeley also were the first to use heavier ions (carbon, oxygen, neon, silicon and argon ions). The first clinical ion beam facility opened in 1994 in Japan and since then, the interest in radiotherapy with light ion beams has been increasing slowly but steadily, with 13 centers in clinical operation in 2019. All these centers are using carbon ions for clinical application.The article outlines the differences in physical properties of various light ions as compared to protons in view of the application in radiotherapy. These include the energy loss and depth dose properties, multiple scattering, range straggling and nuclear fragmentation. In addition, the paper discusses differences arising from energy loss and linear energy transfer with respect to their biological effects.Moreover, the paper reviews briefly the existing clinical data comparing protons and ions and outlines the future perspectives for the clinical use of ions like oxygen and helium.


Asunto(s)
Radioterapia de Iones Pesados , Transferencia Lineal de Energía , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia de Protones , Absorción de Radiación , Algoritmos , Carbono/uso terapéutico , Helio/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Oxígeno/uso terapéutico , Proyectos Piloto , Radiobiología , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Dispersión de Radiación
16.
Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv ; 75(Pt 6): 876-888, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692463

RESUMEN

A novel data-driven approach is proposed for analyzing synchrotron Laue X-ray microdiffraction scans based on machine learning algorithms. The basic architecture and major components of the method are formulated mathematically. It is demonstrated through typical examples including polycrystalline BaTiO3, multiphase transforming alloys and finely twinned martensite. The computational pipeline is implemented for beamline 12.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The conventional analytical pathway for X-ray diffraction scans is based on a slow pattern-by-pattern crystal indexing process. This work provides a new way for analyzing X-ray diffraction 2D patterns, independent of the indexing process, and motivates further studies of X-ray diffraction patterns from the machine learning perspective for the development of suitable feature extraction, clustering and labeling algorithms.

17.
Astrobiology ; 19(11): 1315-1338, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657948

RESUMEN

This work aims at addressing whether a catastrophic failure of an entry, descent, and landing event of a Multimission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator-based lander could embed the heat sources into the martian subsurface and create a local environment that (1) would temporarily satisfy the conditions for a martian Special Region and (2) could establish a transport mechanism through which introduced terrestrial organisms could be mobilized to naturally occurring Special Regions elsewhere on Mars. Two models were run, a primary model by researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a secondary model by researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, both of which were based on selected starting conditions for various surface composition cases that establish the worst-case scenario, including geological data collected by the Mars Science Laboratory at Gale Crater. The summary outputs of both modeling efforts showed similar results: that the introduction of the modeled heat source could temporarily create the conditions established for a Special Region, but that there would be no transport mechanism by which an introduced terrestrial microbe, even if it was active during the temporarily induced Special Region conditions, could be transported to a naturally occurring Special Region of Mars.


Asunto(s)
Medio Ambiente Extraterrestre , Marte , Modelos Teóricos , Generadores de Radionúclidos , Nave Espacial/instrumentación , Microbiología Ambiental , Contaminación de Equipos , Exobiología/métodos , Calor/efectos adversos , Vapor/efectos adversos , Volatilización
18.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(5): 053301, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153260

RESUMEN

We report on the calibration of GafChromic HD-v2 radiochromic film in the extremely high dose regime up to 100 kGy together with very high dose rates up to 7 × 1011 Gy/s. The absolute calibration was done with nanosecond ion bunches at the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II particle accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and covers a broad dose dynamic range over three orders of magnitude. We then applied the resulting calibration curve to calibrate a laser driven ion experiment performed on the BELLA petawatt laser facility at LBNL. Here, we reconstructed the spatial and energy resolved distributions of the laser-accelerated proton beams. The resulting proton distribution is in fair agreement with the spectrum that was measured with a Thomson spectrometer in combination with a microchannel plate detector.

19.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(3): 033304, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927765

RESUMEN

The very-high-frequency gun (VHF-Gun) is a new concept photo-injector developed and built at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for generating high-brightness electron beams capable of driving X-ray free electron lasers (FELs) at MHz-class repetition rates. The gun that purposely uses established and mature radiofrequency and mechanical technologies has demonstrated over the last many years the capability of reliably operating in continuous wave mode at the design accelerating fields and required vacuum and mechanical performance. The results of VHF-Gun technology demonstration were reported elsewhere [Sannibale et al., Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.-Accel. Beams 15, 103501 (2012)]; here in this paper, we provide and analyze examples of the experimental results of the first high-brightness beam tests performed at the Advanced Photo-injector EXperiment test facility at LBNL that demonstrated the gun capability of delivering the beam quality required for driving high repetition rate X-ray FELs.

20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(20): 10228-10237, 2019 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924471

RESUMEN

Interest in alternative fuels to petroleum and classical fuels has been growing very rapidly in recent years. Furan and its alkyl derivatives, such as methylfuran (2MF), have been identified as valid alternative biofuels. This study focuses on the self-reaction of the peroxy radical generated in the first oxidation step of 2MF, initiated by Cl atoms at 323 K and 4 Torr. The experiments have been carried out by a multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometer (mSPIMS) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (USA). The presence of a peak at m/z = 96 reveals that furfural is the dominant product of 2MF oxidation. Various reaction mechanisms for furfural formation are proposed here. The potential energy surfaces for singlet and triplet spin states have been mapped using quantum mechanical methods, such as CCSD(T), DFT-B3LYP, and composites models (CBS-QB3), to optimize the products, transition states, and intermediates. Experimental and theoretical results provide evidence that furfural does not form by primary reaction chemistry. Self-reaction of the peroxy radical generated in the first oxidation step of 2MF has been proposed as the pathway leading to the formation of furfural. Among various reaction channels, we indentified some entirely exothermic pathways involving oxygen-oxygen coupling and the formation of ROOOOR Russell intermediates.

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