Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 322
Filtrar
1.
Zootaxa ; 5125(1): 37-62, 2022 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391095

RESUMEN

We here document the immature stages of three euptychiine butterflies, Nhambikuara mima (Butler, 1867), Splendeuptychia furina (Hewitson, 1862), and Paryphthimoides brixius (Godart, [1824]), all found feeding on a species of herbaceous bamboo, Taquara micrantha (Kunth) I.L.C.Oliveira R.P.Oliveira (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Olyreae) in Madre de Dios, Peru. This study is the first to report the life history of these three taxa with their natural host plant. We provide illustrations of immatures, head capsules, and the host plant for each of these three species. The immature morphology of these taxa supports recent generic arrangements of these three species in comparison with their close relatives, namely Splendeuptychia furina to Nhambikuara mima and Paryphthimoides brixius to Paryphthimoides terrestris (Butler, 1867), a species documented in our successive study. Thus, the present study includes taxonomic implications based on immature stages by discovering putative synapomorphic characters of larvae and pupae. These pairs of closely related species occur in micro-sympatry at the study site in southeastern Peru, and our observations possibly suggest niche partitioning between sibling species. Additionally, we report two herbaceous bamboo species, Olyra latifolia L. and Taquara micrantha (Kunth) I.L.C.Oliveira R.P.Oliveira as the first known natural host plants for Magneuptychia harpyia (C. Felder R. Felder, 1867).


Asunto(s)
Mariposas Diurnas , Animales , Mariposas Diurnas/anatomía & histología , Larva , Perú , Plantas , Poaceae
2.
Ecology ; 103(5): e3666, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35171503

RESUMEN

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the primary global source of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions and a large source of landscape change. ASGM occurs throughout the world, including in the Peruvian Amazon. This data set contains measurements of surface water, precipitation, throughfall, leaves, sediment, soil, and air samples from across the Madre de Dios region of Peru, in locations near and remote from ASGM. These data were collected to determine the fate and transport of Hg across the landscape. Samples were collected in 2018 and 2019. Data predominantly included total Hg and methyl Hg concentrations in surface water, precipitation, throughfall, leaves, sediment, soil, and air. Additional water and soil parameters were also measured to better characterize their chemistry. There are no copyright restrictions; please cite this data paper when the data are used in publication.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Suelo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oro , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Perú , Hojas de la Planta/química , Agua
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(1)2022 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052453

RESUMEN

Capirona (Calycophyllum spruceanum Benth.) belongs to subfamily Ixoroideae, one of the major lineages in the Rubiaceae family, and is an important timber tree. It originated in the Amazon Basin and has widespread distribution in Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. In this study, we obtained the first complete chloroplast (cp) genome of capirona from the department of Madre de Dios located in the Peruvian Amazon. High-quality genomic DNA was used to construct libraries. Pair-end clean reads were obtained by PE 150 library and the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The complete cp genome of C. spruceanum has a 154,480 bp in length with typical quadripartite structure, containing a large single copy (LSC) region (84,813 bp) and a small single-copy (SSC) region (18,101 bp), separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions (25,783 bp). The annotation of C. spruceanum cp genome predicted 87 protein-coding genes (CDS), 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one pseudogene. A total of 41 simple sequence repeats (SSR) of this cp genome were divided into mononucleotides (29), dinucleotides (5), trinucleotides (3), and tetranucleotides (4). Most of these repeats were distributed in the noncoding regions. Whole chloroplast genome comparison with the other six Ixoroideae species revealed that the small single copy and large single copy regions showed more divergence than inverted regions. Finally, phylogenetic analyses resolved that C. spruceanum is a sister species to Emmenopterys henryi and confirms its position within the subfamily Ixoroideae. This study reports for the first time the genome organization, gene content, and structural features of the chloroplast genome of C. spruceanum, providing valuable information for genetic and evolutionary studies in the genus Calycophyllum and beyond.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , ADN de Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma del Cloroplasto , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Rubiaceae/genética , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , ADN de Cloroplastos/análisis , Genómica , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Filogenia , Rubiaceae/clasificación , Rubiaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo
4.
Toxicon ; 207: 31-42, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968566

RESUMEN

The Peruvian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus is a venomous species that is restricted to the Peruvian Departments of Puno and Madre de Dios. Although clinically meaningful in this region, Crotalus durissus venom composition remains largely elusive. In this sense, this work aimed to provide a primary description of Peruvian C. durissus venom (PCdV). The enzymatic activities (SVMP, SVSP, LAAO, Hyaluronidase and PLA2) of PCdV were analyzed and compared to Brazilian Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (BCdtV). PCdV showed higher PLA2 activity when compared to the Brazilian venom. PCdV also showed cytotoxicity in VERO cells. For proteomic analysis, PCdV proteins were separated by HPLC, followed by SDS-PAGE. Gel bands were excised and tryptic digested for MALDI-TOF/TOF identification. Approximately 21 proteins were identified, belonging to 7 families. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2, 66.63%) were the most abundant proteins of the venom, followed by snake venom serine proteinases (SVSPs, 13.37%), C-type lectins (Snaclec, 8.98%) and snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs, 7.13%), crotamine (2.98%) and phosphodiesterase (PDE, 0.87%). Moreover, antivenom recognition assays indicated that both Brazilian and Peruvian antivenoms recognize PCdV, indicating the presence of antigenically related proteins in crotalic venoms. The results reported here, may impact in the venom selection for the production of effective Pan-American crotalic antivenom.


Asunto(s)
Venenos de Crotálidos , Crotalus , Animales , Antivenenos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Venenos de Crotálidos/toxicidad , Humanos , Perú , Proteómica , Células Vero
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948962

RESUMEN

Total mercury content (THg) in hair is an accepted biomarker for chronic dietary methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. In artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) communities, the validity of this biomarker is questioned because of the potential for contamination from inorganic mercury. As mining communities may have both inorganic and organic mercury exposures, the efficacy of the hair-THg biomarker needs to be evaluated, particularly as nations begin population exposure assessments under their commitments to the Minamata Convention. We sought to validate the efficacy of hair THg for public health monitoring of MeHg exposures for populations living in ASGM communities. We quantified both THg and MeHg contents in hair from a representative subset of participants (N = 287) in a large, population-level mercury exposure assessment in the ASGM region in Madre de Dios (MDD), Peru. We compared population MeHg-THg correlations and %MeHg values with demographic variables including community location, sex, occupation, and nativity. We observed that hair MeHg-THg correlations were high (r > 0.7) for all communities, regardless of location or nativity. Specifically, for individuals within ASGM communities, 81% (121 of 150 total) had hair THg predominantly in the form of MeHg (i.e., >66% of THg) and reflective of dietary exposure to mercury. Furthermore, for individuals with hair THg exceeding the U.S. EPA threshold (1.0 µg/g), 88 out of 106 (83%) had MeHg as the predominant form. As a result, had urine THg solely been used for mercury exposure monitoring, approximately 59% of the ASGM population would have been misclassified as having low mercury exposure. Our results support the use of hair THg for monitoring of MeHg exposure of populations in ASGM settings where alternative biomarkers of MeHg exposure are not feasible.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Compuestos de Metilmercurio , Biomarcadores , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oro , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Perú
6.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367676

RESUMEN

Introducción: Los antibióticos betalactámicos son los más utilizados en el tratamiento de las infecciones urinarias en el Perú. La resistencia bacteriana se produce frecuentemente por la presencia de Betalactamasas de Espectro Extendido (BLEE) en enterobacterias. Objetivo: Determinar la multirresistencia en E. coli asociada a betalactamasas de espectro extendido en urocultivos de adultos que residen en la provincia de Tambopata-Madre De Dios. El estudio: Estudio no experimental, descriptivo, la detección y la confirmación de BLEE se realizó con la técnica de doble disco usando ceftazidima, cefotaxima, cefepime, aztreonam y amoxicilina más ácido clavulánico. La resistencia y susceptibilidad microbiana se identificó usando la técnica de disco de difusión. Hallazgos: Se aislaron 162 cepas de E. coli. Se identificaron cepas con resistencia a los antibióticos ampicilina (71%), trimetoprim sulfametoxazol (49%), ácido ciprofloxacino (37%), ácido nalidíxico (37%) y aztreonam (31%). Conclusión: Existe resistencia antimicrobiana mediada por cepas de E. coli productoras BLEE.


Background:Beta-lactamantibioticsarethemostusedinthe treatment of urinary infections in Peru. Bacterial resistance is frequently produced by the presence of Extended Spectrum Betalactamases (ESBL) in Enterobacteriaceae. To determine the multi-resistance inObjective:E. coliassociated to extended spectrum beta-lactamases in urine cultures from adults residing in the province of Tambopata-Madre De Dios. The study:Non-experimental, descriptive study, detection and confirmation of ESBLwas performed with the double disc technique using ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, aztreonam and amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. Microbial resistance and susceptibility was identified using the diffusion disk technique. 162 strains of E. coliwere isolated. Strains Findings:withresistancetotheantibioticsampicillin(71%),trimethoprine sulfamethoxazole (49%), ciprofloxacin acid (37%), nalidixic acid (37%) andaztreonam(31%)wereidentified.Thereis Conclusion:antimicrobial resistance mediated by ESBL-producing strains of E. coli.

7.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 8(2): 32-43, 20211201. tab, fig
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369437

RESUMEN

Introducción: El aborto espontáneo se refiere al fenómeno por el cual un embrión o feto se descarga automática-mente del cuerpo de la madre por alguna razón involuntaria, generalmente a las 20 semanas del embarazo. Entre el 15 % y el 20 % de todos los embarazos tienen riesgo de aborto espontáneo y alrededor de un 10 % terminarán siendo abortos espontáneos. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal con intención analítica. Se tomaron los datos de 207 historias clíni-cas del archivo del hospital público de Pamplona (Norte de Santander, Colombia) de mujeres gestantes universita-rias, correspondientes al periodo 2007-2016. Se consideró aborto espontáneo la variable reportada en la historia clínica. Se estimó la frecuencia de aborto espontáneo y se exploró la asociación con diferentes variables clínicas y sociodemográficas en estudiantes universitarias. Se construyeron modelos de regresión binomial simple y multiva-riable, para estimar la asociación entre las variables. Resultados: Se reportaron 15 abortos espontáneos (7,5 %). Aquellas quienes no se habían aplicado la vacuna anti-tetánica y quienes no se realizaron citología durante los 12 meses previos presentaron los mayores porcentajes de abortos espontáneos (16,7 % y 15,2 %, respectivamente). Las mujeres que acusaron haber estado hospitalizadas (RP: 4,01; IC95 %: 1,69-9,49) y haber tenido abortos previamente (RP: 7,53; IC95 %: 3,02-18,77) mostraron aso-ciación con el aborto espontáneo. Conclusión: Se pudo estimar que la proporción de abortos espontáneos es similar a lo reportado en otros estu-dios; no obstante, son necesarias investigaciones adicionales que evalúen la relación entre el aborto espontáneo y factores individuales y contextuales para generar estrategias que disminuyan estas cifras.


Introduction: Miscarriage refers to the phenomenon among an embryo or fetus is automatically discharged from the mother's body for some involuntary reason, generally at 20 weeks of pregnancy. Between 15 and 20% of all pregnancies are at risk of miscarriage, about 10% will end in miscarriages. Methodology: A cross-sectional analytical study, data were obtained from 207 medical records of university pregnant women from the archive of the Public Hospital of Pamplona, Norte de Santan-der corresponding to the periods 2007-2016. Misscarriage was considered when it was reported in medical history. The frequency of spontaneous abortion was estimated and the association with diffe-rent clinical and sociodemographic variables in university students was explored. Results: 15 spontaneous abortions were reported (7.5%), those who did not apply tetanus and those who did not undergo cytology during the previous 12 months, presented the highest percentages of spontaneous abortions (16.7% and 15.2%), respectively. Women who reported having been hospi-talized (RP: 4.01; 95 % CI: 1.69-9.49) and having previously abortions (RP: 7.53; 95% CI: 3.02-18.77) had an association with miscarriage. A description of miscarriage was made for each of the variables. Simple and multivariate binomial regression models were estimated to explore association between the variables. Conclusion: The proportion of spontaneous abortions is like that reported in other studies, however, it is necessary to generate additional research that evaluates the relationship between this phenome-non and individual and contextual factors for generating strategies that reduce this quantity


ntrodução: O aborto espontâneo refere-se ao fenômeno pelo qual um embrião ou feto é automa-ticamente liberado do corpo da mãe por alguma razão involuntária, geralmente às 20 semanas da gravidez. Entre o 15 % - 20 % de todas as gravidezes estão em risco de aborto espontâneo e cerca de 10 % acabarão como abortos espontâneos. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo transversal com intenção analítica. Os dados foram retirados de 207 fichas médicas do arquivo do hospital público de Pamplona (Norte de Santander, Colômbia) de mul-heres universitárias gravidas, correspondentes ao período 2007-2016. O aborto espontâneo foi con-siderado a variável relatada na história clínica. Foi estimada a frequência de abortos espontâneos e foi explorada a associação com diferentes variáveis clinicas e sóciodemográficas em estudantes uni-versitárias. Modelos simples de regressão binomial e multivariavel, foram construídos para estimar a associação entre as variáveis. Resultado: Foram relatados 15 abortos espontâneos (7,5 %). Aquelas que não receberam a vacinação contra o tétano e aquelas que não fizeram a citologia nos 12 meses anteriores tiveram as maiores porcentagens de abortos espontâneos (16,7 % e 15,2 % respetivamente). As mulheres que relataram ter sido hospitalizadas (RP: 4,01; IC95 %: 1,69-9,49) e ter feito abortos anteriores (RP: 7,53; IC95 %: 3,02-18,77) foram associadas com abortos espontâneos. Conclusão: Foi estimado que a proporção de abortos espontâneos é semelhante à relatada em outros estudos; no entanto, são necessárias mais pesquisas para avaliar a relação entre abortos espontâneos e os fatores individuais e contextuais, a fim de gerar estratégias para reduzir esses números.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Estudios Transversales , Colombia , Adulto Joven
8.
Ecol Evol ; 11(19): 13518-13531, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646487

RESUMEN

The use of machine learning technologies to process large quantities of remotely collected audio data is a powerful emerging research tool in ecology and conservation.We applied these methods to a field study of tinamou (Tinamidae) biology in Madre de Dios, Peru, a region expected to have high levels of interspecies competition and niche partitioning as a result of high tinamou alpha diversity. We used autonomous recording units to gather environmental audio over a period of several months at lowland rainforest sites in the Los Amigos Conservation Concession and developed a Convolutional Neural Network-based data processing pipeline to detect tinamou vocalizations in the dataset.The classified acoustic event data are comparable to similar metrics derived from an ongoing camera trapping survey at the same site, and it should be possible to combine the two datasets for future explorations of the target species' niche space parameters.Here, we provide an overview of the methodology used in the data collection and processing pipeline, offer general suggestions for processing large amounts of environmental audio data, and demonstrate how data collected in this manner can be used to answer questions about bird biology.

9.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 180-187, 2021 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669288

RESUMEN

Introduction. The emergence of multiresistant enterobacteria producing extendedspectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in outpatients with urinary tract infections represents a public health problem in Perú. Objectives. To characterize multiresistant enterobacteria isolated from patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection in two Peruvian jungle departments using molecular techniques. Materials and methods. We conducted a descriptive, observational, and retrospective study of 61 urine culture isolates from two departments in the Peruvian jungle during 2017-2018. Resistance profiles were identified using the MicroScan™ automated system and a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV genes. Results. The most common positive ESBL enterobacteria for each department were Escherichia coli in Madre de Dios (10/40; 25%) and Ucayali (16/21; 76.2%). Gene blaCTX-M was the most prevalent in both departments (25/61; 41%), followed by blaTEM (15/61; 24.6%), and blaSHV (10/61; 16.4%). As for the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, we detected resistance levels of 72.6% for ampicillin, 82.3% for cephalothin, and 88.7% for nitrofurantoin. Conclusions. BLEE-producing multi-resistant enterobacteria strains in both departments were 57.4% and blaCTX-M was the most common gene.


Introducción. La aparición de enterobacterias multirresistentes y productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en pacientes de consulta externa con infecciones urinarias, representa un problema de salud pública en Perú. Objetivos. Caracterizar molecularmente enterobacterias multirresistentes aisladas de pacientes con diagnóstico de infección urinaria y procedentes de dos departamentos de la selva peruana. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo de 61 aislamientos de urocultivo procedentes de la selva peruana durante 2017 y 2018. Los perfiles de resistencia se identificaron utilizando el sistema automatizado MicroScan™ y para la detección de los genes blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV se empleó una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) convencional. Resultados. Las enterobacterias positivas para BLEE más frecuentes por departamento fueron Escherichia coli en Madre de Dios (25 %, 10/40) y Ucayali (76,2 %, 16/21). En ambos departamentos, el gen blaCTX-M fue el más frecuente (25/61; 41 %), seguido por blaTEM (15/61; 24,6 %) y blaSHV (10/61; 16,4 %). En el perfil de sensibilidad antimicrobiana, se detectó 72,6 % de resistencia contra ampicilina, 82,3 % contra cefalotina y 88,7 % contra nitrofurantoína. Conclusiones. El porcentaje de cepas de enterobacterias multirresistentes productoras de BLEE en ambos departamentos fue del 57,4 % y el gen bla CTX-M fue el más frecuente.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Escherichia coli , Infecciones Urinarias , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Perú/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología , beta-Lactamasas/genética
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 180-187, oct. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355769

RESUMEN

Resumen | Introducción. La aparición de enterobacterias multirresistentes y productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en pacientes de consulta externa con infecciones urinarias, representa un problema de salud pública en Perú. Objetivos. Caracterizar molecularmente enterobacterias multirresistentes aisladas de pacientes con diagnóstico de infección urinaria y procedentes de dos departamentos de la selva peruana. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo de 61 aislamientos de urocultivo procedentes de la selva peruana durante 2017 y 2018. Los perfiles de resistencia se identificaron utilizando el sistema automatizado MicroScan™ y para la detección de los genes blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV se empleó una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) convencional. Resultados. Las enterobacterias positivas para BLEE más frecuentes por departamento fueron Escherichia coli en Madre de Dios (25 %, 10/40) y Ucayali (76,2 %, 16/21). En ambos departamentos, el gen blaCTX-Mfue el más frecuente (25/61; 41 %), seguido por blaTEM(15/61; 24,6 %) y blaSHV (10/61; 16,4 %). En el perfil de sensibilidad antimicrobiana, se detectó 72,6 % de resistencia contra ampicilina, 82,3 % contra cefalotina y 88,7 % contra nitrofurantoína. Conclusiones. El porcentaje de cepas de enterobacterias multirresistentes productoras de BLEE en ambos departamentos fue del 57,4 % y el gen bla CTX-M fue el más frecuente.


Abstract | Introduction. The emergence of multiresistant enterobacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in outpatients with urinary tract infections represents a public health problem in Perú. Objectives. To characterize multiresistant enterobacteria isolated from patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection in two Peruvian jungle departments using molecular techniques. Materials and methods. We conducted a descriptive, observational, and retrospective study of 61 urine culture isolates from two departments in the Peruvian jungle during 2017-2018. Resistance profiles were identified using the MicroScan™ automated system and a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEMand blaSHV genes. Results. The most common positive ESBL enterobacteria for each department were Escherichia coli in Madre de Dios (10/40; 25%) and Ucayali (16/21; 76.2%). Gene blaCTX-Mwas the most prevalent in both departments (25/61; 41%), followed by blaTEM (15/61; 24.6%), and blaSHV (10/61; 16.4%). As for the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, we detected resistance levels of 72.6% for ampicillin, 82.3% for cephalothin, and 88.7% for nitrofurantoin. Conclusions. BLEE-producing multi-resistant enterobacteria strains in both departments were 57.4% and blaCTX-M was the most common gene.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Enterobacteriaceae , Resistencia betalactámica , Genes
11.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e552, 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347486

RESUMEN

Introducción: La enterobiosis es una de las principales infecciones intestinales del mundo. Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados a la infección por Enterobius vermicularis en niños de dos comunidades nativas Ese'Eja en Madre de Dios, Perú. Métodos: Estudio transversal analítico. Se trabajó con niños (77) de 1 a 11 años durante los meses de febrero a marzo de 2014. Para diagnosticar la enterobiosis se usó el test de Graham. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron evaluadas por un médico y los factores asociados mediante una encuesta aplicada a los padres de los niños evaluados. Se usó estadística descriptiva y analítica, se utilizaron razones de prevalencia crudas y ajustadas con un IC 95 por ciento se consideró p< 0,05 como significativo. Resultados: La prevalencia de enterobiosis fue de 32,47 por ciento (25). Los factores asociados (RP e IC 95 por ciento) en el análisis bivariado fueron onicofagia 2,1 (1,1-3,9), chuparse los dedos 5,4 (2,1-2,7), uñas largas 7 (2,6-18,6), intercambio de ropa 2,3 (1,1-3,7), cambio de ropa interior 3,3 (1,8-5,9), uso de calzado 7 (2,6-18,4), juego con tierra 6,9 (1,7-27,3), juego con mascotas 6,4 (2,1-19,7), lavado de manos antes de comer 7,9 (3,6-17,1), lavado de manos después de comer 1,9 (1,7-3,66), 6 o más personas en la casa 3,9 (1,9-7,9), disposición de excretas a campo abierto 3,3 (1,7-6,2) y el menor nivel socioeconómico 2,6 (1,3-5,4). No hubo asociaciones en el análisis multivariado. Conclusiones: Existe una alta prevalencia de enterobiosis en la población estudiada y los factores de riesgo son similares a los antecedentes locales. Urge hacer programas de prevención y promoción de salud respecto al tema para reducir este problema(AU)


Introduction: Enterobiasis is one of the main intestinal infections worldwide. Objective: Determine the factors associated to Enterobius vermicularis infection in children from two native Ese'Eja communities in Madre de Dios, Peru. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in February-March 2014 of 77 children aged 1-11 years. Enterobiasis diagnosis was based on Graham's test. Clinical manifestations were evaluated by a physician, whereas associated factors were determined through a survey applied to the parents of the children studied. Use was made of descriptive and analytical statistical analysis, and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95 percent. A p value of 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Enterobiasis prevalence was 32.47 percent (25). The associated factors (PR and CI 95 percent) in the bivariate analysis were onychophagia 2.1 (1.1-3.9), finger sucking 5.4 (2.1-2.7), long nails 7 (2.6-18.6), exchanging clothes 2.3 (1.1-3.7), changing underwear 3.3 (1.8-5.9), wearing shoes 7 (2.6-18.4), playing with earth 6.9 (1.7-27.3), playing with pets 6.4 (2.1-19.7), handwashing before eating 7.9 (3.6-17.1), handwashing after eating 1.9 (1.7-3.66), six or more people in the household 3.9 (1.9-7.9), feces disposal in open areas 3.3 (1.7-6.2) and a lower socioeconomic level 2.6 (1.3-5.4). Multivariate analysis did not find any association. Conclusions: Enterobiasis prevalence is high in the population studied, and the risk factors are similar to the local antecedents. It is urgent to develop health prevention and promotion programs about the topic to reduce this problem(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Factores de Riesgo , Enterobiasis , Ingestión de Alimentos , Succión del Dedo , Hábito de Comerse las Uñas , Estudios Transversales , Heces
12.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 69, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327116

RESUMEN

Background: In-utero exposure to mercury and other trace metals pose a significant threat to child health and development, but exposures and health impacts in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) environments are poorly defined. Objectives: We describe the CONAMAD study design, a prospective birth cohort consisting of multiparous women (18 and over) living in rural and peri-urban Peruvian Amazon communities exposed to ASGM. Methods: Pregnant women are enrolled from health posts across four zones of Madre de Dios, Peru. Data are collected at enrollment, childbirth, and (planned) 36-48 months. At enrollment, hair samples for mercury assessment, demographic and clinical data are obtained. At birth, we obtain venous and cord blood, placenta, hair, toenails, and saliva. Findings: Two hundred seventy mothers were enrolled at an average 20 weeks gestational age with no differences in maternal characteristics across zones. Two hundred fifteen mothers were successfully followed at birth. We obtained 214 maternal and cord blood samples, 211 maternal and 212 infant hair samples, 212 placenta samples, 210 infant saliva samples, and 214 infant dried blood spots. Data collected will allow for testing our primary hypotheses of maternal malnutrition modifying ratios of cord:maternal blood total mercury (tHg), cord blood:maternal hair tHg, and infant:maternal hair tHg, and whether chemical mixtures (Hg, Pb, Cd) have synergistic effects on infant neurodevelopment. Conclusions: CONAMAD is designed to collect and store samples for future processing and hypothesis testing associated with in-utero mercury exposure and child development. We have completed the exposure assessments and will conduct a follow-up of mothers to evaluate early child development outcomes, including developmental delay and growth. These data offer insights into disease mechanisms, exposure prevention, and policy guidance for countries where ASGM is prevalent.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Mercurio/toxicidad , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Minería , Perú/epidemiología , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos
14.
Zookeys ; 1044: 479-510, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183883

RESUMEN

A monographic contribution is presented on the species of the genus Calleida Dejean, 1825 at the BIOLAT Biological Station, Rio Manu, Pakitza, Peru, sampled by Terry Erwin and his co-workers. The following seven new species are described: C. solitaria sp. nov., C. manuensis sp. nov., C. anomala sp. nov., C. demathani sp. nov. (type locality: Peru, Tarapoto, but sampled also at Rio Manu), C. erwini sp. nov., C. marginithorax sp. nov., and C. maxima sp. nov. Relationships of each species are discussed, and a preliminary survey is presented of the genus Calleida in Peru.

15.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(2): 6-11, may. 26, 2021. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1224699

RESUMEN

Se presenta el caso de un lactante masculino de tres meses de edad, quien desarrolló neumonía por SARS-CoV-2, sin nexo epidemiológico identificado. Estuvo ingresado en un inicio en el Hospital Nacional de la Unión y luego, por persistencia de la fiebre, fue trasladado al Hospital Nacional San Juan de Dios de San Miguel, donde se le realizaron los diagnósticos de bronconeumonía, broncoespasmo y laringotraqueobronquitis (Crup). Se le diagnosticó infección por SARS-CoV-2 mediante RT-PCR. La intervención terapéutica consistió en tratamiento con oxacilina, ceftriaxona y nebulizaciones con salbutamol, alternadas con epinefrina; se le agregó claritromicina por la posibilidad de un síndrome coqueluchoide. Ante el resultado positivo de la RT-PCR a COVID-19, previo consentimiento informado y firmado de la madre, se le inició lopinavir-ritonavir, ivermectina y enoxaparina sódica. La evolución clínica fue satisfactoria y se le dio el alta después de cumplir 8 días con oxacilina y 4 días con ceftriaxona, además de cumplir con el protocolo de manejo contra COVID-19. Se continuó el manejo ambulatorio con amoxicilina más ácido clavulánico, acetaminofén, zinc y salbutamol en aerosol


We present the case of a three-month-old male infant who developed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, with no identified epidemiological link. He was initially admitted to the National Hospital of the Union and later, due to persistent fever, he was transferred to the San Juan de Dios National Hospital in San Miguel, where he was diagnosed with bronchopneumonia, bronchospasm and laryngotracheobronchitis (Crup). SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed by RT-PCR. The therapeutic intervention consisted of treatment with oxacillin, ceftriaxone and nebulisations with salbutamol, alternated with epinephrine; Clarithromycin was added due to the possibility of a coqueluchoid syndrome. Given the positive result of the RT-PCR for COVID-19, with the prior informed and signed consent of the mother, lopinavir-ritonavir, ivermectin, and enoxaparin sodium were started. The clinical evolution was satisfactory and he was discharged after serving 8 days with oxacillin and 4 days with ceftriaxone, in addition to complying with the management protocol against COVID-19. Outpatient management was continued with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, acetaminophen, zinc, and aerosol salbutamol


Asunto(s)
Lactante , Neumonía , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Lactante
16.
J Fish Biol ; 99(2): 614-628, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837549

RESUMEN

A new long-snouted Corydoras species is described from two tributaries of the río Manuripe and a tributary of the río Madre de Dios, rio Madeira basin, Peru. Corydoras fulleri can be distinguished from its congeners by having the following features: (a) branch of the temporal sensory canal at sphenotic, which gives rise to the supraorbital canal, with two pores; (b) upper tooth plate of branchial arch with three series of teeth; (c) area at the corner of the mouth, ventral to the maxillary barbel, with a small fleshy flap; (d) two moderate-sized dark-brown or black blotches on caudal-fin base, one on its lateral portion and another one on its dorsal portion, blotches variably diffuse and/or fused with each other; (e) absence of a dark-brown or black stripe transversally crossing the orbit; (f) a longitudinal dark-brown or black stripe on the postdorsal region of flank midline, variably fused with the lateral peduncular blotch, some specimens with slender, longitudinally elongated, dark-brown or black blotch on flank midline, forming a dash-like marking, stripe or dash-like blotch diffuse in some specimens; and (g) region around dorsal-fin origin generally lacking dark brown or black blotch, or displaying diffuse blotch.


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Animales , Brasil , Ambiente , Perú , Ríos
17.
Zootaxa ; 4964(2): zootaxa.4964.2.3, 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903517

RESUMEN

A checklist of the coelidine leafhoppers of Reserva Nacional Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru, is provided, increasing the known diversity from 19 species and 9 genera, to 38 and 18, respectively. In addition, four species have their distributions expanded and recorded for the first time for Peru: Boliviela caverna Nielson, 2011, Carinoscapula sarcula (Nielson, 1992), Dicodia recurvata Nielson, 2011 (Coelidiini), and Plapigella elegans (Spångberg, 1878) (Teruliini). A new species of Coelidiini is also described: Daridna nielsoni sp. nov. from this reserve. A new junior synonym is also recognized: Vernobia johnsoni Nielson, 1979 equals Stalolidia amazonensis Barbosa Takiya, 2017 syn. nov.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Animales , Biodiversidad , Lista de Verificación , Hemípteros/anatomía & histología , Hemípteros/clasificación , Perú , Especificidad de la Especie
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899346

RESUMEN

Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease with multiple serogroups that infects wildlife and humans alike. Several studies have detected the presence of leptospiral antibodies in captive Neotropical primates, suggesting that they are asymptomatic carriers. However, the presence of antibodies in free-ranging primates and their potential role as reservoirs for this pathogen is not known. In this study, we used the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) to screen two species of free-ranging tamarins for the presence of Leptospira antibodies using a panel of 21 serogroups. A total of 56 primates (26 Leontocebus weddelli and 30 Saguinus imperator) were screened at the Estación Biológica Río Los Amigos in Madre de Dios, Peru. MAT results with titres of ≥100 in single samples were considered seropositive. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated for age group, sex and host species identity. Overall, 51.8% (29/56) of animals were reactive for at least one Leptospira serogroup. Serogroups were distributed as follows: Iquitos (41.1%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (14.3%), Sejroe (3.6%), Autumnalis (1.8%) and Bataviae (1.8%). No significant differences (p > .05) were found for seropositivity frequencies among categories within assessed variables. These results suggest that free-ranging L. weddelli and S. imperator might serve as reservoirs for pathogenic Leptospira serogroups. Given increasing human-wildlife contact, future studies that test for active infection are required to determine potential transmission risks to humans.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6661, 2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758359

RESUMEN

Ticks are arthropods that can host and transmit pathogens to wild animals, domestic animals, and even humans. The bacterial microbiome of adult (males and females) and nymph Rhipicephalus microplus ticks collected from a collared peccary, Pecari tajacu, captured in the rural area of Botijón Village in the Amazon region of Madre de Dios, Peru, was evaluated using metagenomics. The Chao1 and Shannon-Weaver analyses indicated greater bacterial richness and diversity in female ticks (GARH; 375-4.15) and nymph ticks (GARN; 332-4.75) compared to that in male ticks (GARM; 215-3.20). Taxonomic analyses identified 185 operational taxonomic units representing 147 bacterial genera. Of the 25 most prevalent genera, Salmonella (17.5%) and Vibrio (15.0%) showed the highest relative abundance followed by several other potentially pathogenic genera, such as Paracoccus (7.8%), Staphylococcus (6.8%), Pseudomonas (6.6%), Corynebacterium (5.0%), Cloacibacterium (3.6%), and Acinetobacter (2.5%). In total, 19.7% of the detected genera are shared by GARH, GARM, and GARN, and they can be considered as the core microbiome of R. microplus. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the microbiome of ticks collected from P. tajacu and to report the presence of Salmonella and Vibrio in R. microplus. The pathogenic potential and the role of these bacteria in the physiology of R. microplus should be further investigated due to the possible implications for public health and animal health in populations neighboring the habitat of P. tajacu.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Microbiota , Rhipicephalus/microbiología , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Biodiversidad , Bovinos , Ecosistema , Granjas , Femenino , Masculino , Perú
20.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112364, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774565

RESUMEN

Gold mining is the largest source of mercury (Hg) pollution worldwide. The discharge of mercury in the environment bears direct human health risks and is likely to increase cascading effects throughout local food chains. In the Peruvian Amazon the mining process consists of slashing and burning trees, followed by extraction of gold-bearing sediment, amalgamation with Hg and gold recovery, leading each year to the degradation of 6,000-10,000 ha and the release of 180 metric tons of Hg per year to the enviroment. The purpose of this study was to determine soil Hg levels in soils of abandoned alluvial gold mine spoils and undisturbed forest in the Madre de Dios region, the epicenter of alluvial gold mining in Peru. We selected gold mine spoils of the two most important technologies locally applied for gold extraction, i.e., Minimally Mechanized Mining (MMM) and Highly Mechanized Mining (HMM), in the native communities of Laberinto and Kotzimba, respectively. We collected 127 and 35 soil samples (0-20cm depth) from potentially contaminated sites and undisturbed forest, respectively. Physicochemical analysis and determination of Hg levels were determined for all soil samples. None of the samples had Hg concentrations above Peruvian, Canadian and British Environmental Quality Standards for Agricultural Soil (6.6mg/kg). Hg levels in MMM and HMM were not significantly different between the two areas. The main variables explaining variation of soil Hg concentrations were the vegetation cover, soil organic matter, soil pH and clay particle content, which explained up to 80% of data set variation. Surprisingly, highest Hg concentrations were found in untouched old-growth forest bordering the mine spoils, but there was also a trend of increasing Hg concentrations with the regenerating vegetation. Our findings suggest that Hg concentrations in old mine spoils are low and shouldn't stand in the way of efforts to restore soil conditions and develop sustainable land uses. However, it is urgent to end the use of Hg in mining operation to decrease human and environmental risks.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Contaminantes del Suelo , Canadá , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oro , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Perú , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...