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3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20140, 2021 10 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635728

RESUMEN

The global economic activities were completely stopped during COVID-19 lockdown and continuous lockdown partially brought some positive effects for the health of the total environment. The multiple industries, cities, towns and rural people are completely depending on large tropical river Damodar (India) but in the last few decades the quality of the river water is being significantly deteriorated. The present study attempts to investigate the river water quality (RWQ) particularly for pre- lockdown, lockdown and unlock period. We considered 20 variables per sample of RWQ data and it was analyzed using novel Modified Water Quality Index (MWQI), Trophic State Index (TSI), Heavy Metal Index (HMI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI). Principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson's correlation (r) analysis are applied to determine the influencing variables and relationship among the river pollutants. The results show that during lockdown 54.54% samples were brought significantly positive changes applying MWQI. During lockdown, HMI ranged from 33.96 to 117.33 with 27.27% good water quality which shows the low ecological risk of aquatic ecosystem due to low mixing of toxic metals in the river water. Lockdown effects brought river water to oligotrophic/meso-eutrophic condition from eutrophic/hyper-eutrophic stage. Rejuvenation of river health during lockdown offers ample scope to policymakers, administrators and environmentalists for restoration of river health from huge anthropogenic stress.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Ríos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , Monitoreo del Ambiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis
4.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 10 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596983

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of the paper was to conduct a legal-realist assessment of the South African prison system response to COVID-19. Severely congested and ill-resourced prison systems in Africa face unprecedented challenges amplified by COVID-19. South Africa has recorded the highest COVID-19 positivity rate in Africa and, on March 15th 2020, declared a national state of disaster. The first prison system case was notified on April 6th 2020. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A legal-realist assessment of the South African prison system response to COVID-19 in the 12 months following initial case notification focused on the minimum State obligations to comply with human rights norms, and the extent to which human, health and occupational health rights of prisoners and staff were upheld during disaster measures. FINDINGS: A legal-realist account was developed, which revealed the indeterminate nature of application of South African COVID-19 government directives, ill-resourced COVID-19 mitigation measures, alarming occupational health and prison conditions and inadequate standards of health care in prisons when evaluated against the rule of law during State declaration of disaster. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This legal-realist assessment is original by virtue of its unique evaluation of the South African prison system approach to tackling COVID-19. It acknowledged State efforts, policymaking processes and outcomes and how these operated within the prison system itself. By moving beyond the deleterious impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the already precarious South African prison system, the authors argue for rights assurance for those who live and work in its prisons, improved infrastructure and greater substantive equality of all deprived of their liberty in South Africa.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Prisiones/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prisiones/normas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Prisiones/organización & administración , SARS-CoV-2 , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598977

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hundreds of thousands of people have been killed during the Syrian civil war and millions more displaced along with an unconscionable amount of destroyed civilian infrastructure. METHODS: We aggregate attack data from Airwars, Physicians for Human Rights and the Safeguarding Health in Conflict Coalition/Insecurity Insight to provide a summary of attacks against civilian infrastructure during the years 2012-2018. Specifically, we explore relationships between date of attack, governorate, perpetrator and weapon for 2689 attacks against five civilian infrastructure classes: healthcare, private, public, school and unknown. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) via squared cosine distance, k-means clustering of the MCA row coordinates, binomial lasso classification and Cramer's V coefficients are used to produce and investigate these correlations. RESULTS: Frequencies and proportions of attacks against the civilian infrastructure classes by year, governorate, perpetrator and weapon are presented. MCA results identify variation along the first two dimensions for the variables year, governorate, perpetrator and healthcare infrastructure in four topics of interest: (1) Syrian government attacks against healthcare infrastructure, (2) US-led Coalition offensives in Raqqa in 2017, (3) Russian violence in Aleppo in 2016 and (4) airstrikes on non-healthcare infrastructure. These topics of interest are supported by results of the k-means clustering, binomial lasso classification and Cramer's V coefficients. DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that violence against healthcare infrastructure correlates strongly with specific perpetrators. We hope that the results of this study provide researchers with valuable data and insights that can be used in future analyses to better understand the Syrian conflict.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Violencia , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Siria
6.
N Z Med J ; 134(1542): 119-133, 2021 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531590

RESUMEN

Air pollution from diesel-powered vehicles is likely to be contributing substantial harm to health in Aotea-roa New Zealand, as well as making it harder for this country to meet its international climate change commitments. There are a lack of controls and outdated standards applied to diesel vehicles in New Zea-land, and there is scope to extend the monitoring of emissions. A comprehensive list of interventions that would assist with the phase-out of light diesel vehicles and reducing their emissions during the transition has been compiled. This list includes regulatory interventions such as bringing forward the year in which the Climate Change Commission proposes to ban imports of internal combustion light vehicles (ie, from 2035 to 2025). Also detailed are fiscal measures (incentives and disincentives) and improvements to in-formation for consumers at point-of-sale.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Automóviles/normas , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Emisiones de Vehículos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire , Conducción de Automóvil/normas , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Emisiones de Vehículos/prevención & control
8.
Wiad Lek ; 74(8): 1894-1899, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537739

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyse human right issues in health care during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic from the perspective of patients' and medical practitioner's rights. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Multidisciplinary research will be conducted as part of national as well as international health care policy documents, international human right instruments, including case law decisions, and also major scientific articles on human rights from the healthcare perspective will be analysed. The comparative, Research synthesis method and systemic analyses will be made during the research. RESULTS: Results: The study confirmed that human right issues in the context of health care in case of Patient triage become relevant and transformed. The situation of COVID-19 has created new precedents for human rights, with a particular impact on the rights of doctors and patients. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Human rights from the healthcare perspective become the topical issue during the COVID 19 pandemic. The legal practice in human rights had several transformations and it provides new challenges from patients as well as medical practitioners' rights. Important problem, from the ethical -legal perspective is the Patient's triage. The situation on patients triage or ranking shows importance and possibility of each member state to act fast, taking into consideration fast changing situation in medical health system. Sorting patients whose lives are at risk according to certain criteria for assessing their lives is not acceptable. In order to reduce events of violations of human rights during COVID 19 in healthcare, the emphasis should be placed for explanation of decisions made in state level.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Atención a la Salud , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Triaje
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574730

RESUMEN

Wildfire smoke exposure is associated with a range of acute health outcomes, which can be more severe in individuals with underlying health conditions. Currently, there is limited information on the susceptibility of healthcare facilities to smoke infiltration. As part of a larger study to address this gap, a rehabilitation facility in Vancouver, Canada was outfitted with one outdoor and seven indoor low-cost fine particulate matter (PM2.5) sensors in Air Quality Eggs (EGG) during the summer of 2020. Raw measurements were calibrated using temperature, relative humidity, and dew point derived from the EGG data. The infiltration coefficient was quantified using a distributed lag model. Indoor concentrations during the smoke episode were elevated throughout the building, though non-uniformly. After censoring indoor-only peaks, the average infiltration coefficient (range) during typical days was 0.32 (0.22-0.39), compared with 0.37 (0.31-0.47) during the smoke episode, a 19% increase on average. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations quickly reflected outdoor conditions during and after the smoke episode. It is unclear whether these results will be generalizable to other years due to COVID-related changes to building operations, but some of the safety protocols may offer valuable lessons for future wildfire seasons. For example, points of building entry and exit were reduced from eight to two during the pandemic, which likely helped to protect the building from wildfire smoke infiltration. Overall, these results demonstrate the utility of indoor low-cost sensors in understanding the impacts of extreme smoke events on facilities where highly susceptible individuals are present. Furthermore, they highlight the need to employ interventions that enhance indoor air quality in such facilities during smoke events.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , COVID-19 , Incendios Forestales , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , Humo/análisis
10.
S Afr Med J ; 111(6): 538-543, 2021 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382562

RESUMEN

In response to the Life Esidimeni tragedy, the Gauteng Department of Health established a task team to advise on the implementation of the Health Ombud's recommendations and to develop a mental health recovery plan. Consistent with international human rights and South African legislation and policy, the plan focused on making mental healthcare more accessible, incorporating a strategy to strengthen district mental health services to deliver community-based care for people with any type and severity of mental illness. The strategy included an organogram with three new human resource teams integrated into the district health system: a district specialist mental health team to develop a public mental health approach, a clinical community psychiatry team for service delivery, and a team to support non-governmental organisation governance. This article discusses the strategy in terms of guiding policies and legislation, the roles and responsibilities of the various teams in the proposed organogram, and its sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Práctica de Salud Pública , Comités Consultivos , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Organizaciones , Sudáfrica
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0248944, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351947

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 aims to coordinate international efforts toward "clean water and sanitation." However, water contaminated with pathogenic bacteria or thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) will not achieve the SDG target of clean water in the lives of people around the world. The aim of this study is to assess the water quality parameters of basic water services in Amhara and Afar regions of Ethiopia as well as the role and importance of local managerial committees in ensuring basic water functionality. METHODS: This mixed methods research, conducted in January-June 2019, sampled 22 districts from food-insecure areas in the Amhara and Afar regions of Ethiopia. From the 22 districts, which represent nearly one third of all districts in each region, 111 water services classified as "basic" were randomly selected. For each selected water service, research included: water quality sample testing, visual observation of water services, interviews and focus group discussions with the associated water managerial committee members. Descriptive statistics frequency, percent, mean, median, standard deviations, normal tables, cross-tables and graphs are used to present the data. RESULTS: Although the international water standard for thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels is 0 CFU/100ml, in our sample of 111 water services, the maximum TTC counts were 71 CFU/100 ml and the mean was 4 CFU/100 ml. Thermotolerant coliform counts were above the permissible standard values for nearly 40% (n = 111) of the basic water services. TTC was detected in 44 (39.64%) (n = 111) basic water services. Of these, 38 (34.23%) were operationally functional while 6 (5.41%) were not functional. Approximately one third of the basic water services sampled, deemed "functional" by international standards, do not provide potable water due to thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings from the Amhara and Afar regions of Ethiopia demonstrate that water quality parameters are not currently considered in classifying basic water services. This suggests that international efforts to address SDG 6 should incorporate water quality as a key parameter to better track international progress toward "clean water and sanitation" efforts. We discuss two potential pathways for stronger inclusion of water quality parameters in international definitions: (1) to mandate water quality within "functional" and "non-functional" definitions or (2) to add a ladder rung titled "safe basic water services" to the international drinking water ladder. Our findings from Ethiopia suggest that additional research should be undertaken in development contexts to assess whether or not "functional" basic water services provide safe drinking water to users.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/normas , Calidad del Agua/normas , Etiopía , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Saneamiento , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256086, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388184

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quality water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities act as barricades to the transmission of COVID-19 in health care facilities. These facilities ought to also be available, accessible, and functional in temporary treatment centers. Despite numerous studies on health care facilities, however, there is limited information on the status of WASH facilities in such centers. METHODS: The assessment of health care facilities for the COVID-19 response checklist and key informant interviews, were used for data collection. 35 treatment centers in Southern Ethiopia were surveyed. Eightkey informants were interviewed to gain an understanding of the WASH conditions in the treatment centers. The Quantitative data was entered using EPI-INFO 7 and exported to SPSS 20 for analysis. Results are presented using descriptive statistics. Open Code 4.02 was used for the thematic analysis of the qualitative data. RESULTS: Daily water supply interruptions occurred at 27 (77.1%) of the surveyed sites. Only 30 (85.72%) had bathrooms that were segregated for personnel and patients, and only 3 (3.57%) had toilets that were handicapped accessible. 20(57.2%) of the treatment centers did not have a hand hygiene protocol that satisfied WHO guidelines. In terms of infection prevention and control, 16 (45.71%) of the facilities lacked adequate personal protective equipment stocks. Between urban and rural areas, there was also a significant difference in latrine maintenance, hand hygiene protocol design and implementation, and incineration capacity. CONCLUSION: The results reveal crucial deficiencies in the provision of WASH in the temporary COVID-19 treatment centers. Efforts to improve WASH should offer priority to hygiene service interventions to minimize the risk of healthcare-acquired infections. The sustainable provision of hygiene services, such as hand washing soap, should also be given priority.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Higiene , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad del Agua , COVID-19/prevención & control , Etiopía , Instituciones de Salud/normas , Humanos , Garantía de la Calidad de Atención de Salud , Cuarentena/normas , Saneamiento/normas
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(7): 910-12, 2021 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343114

RESUMEN

Confirmed new cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have accelerated in Sub-Saharan Africa against a backdrop of fragile health systems, a high burden of comorbidities and socioeconomic instability. The context makes the region particularly vulnerable to the virus and its impact. As cases escalate, the need to tailor-make COVID-19-related response strategies to the African context is imperative. This paper aims to discuss key considerations on the public health response to the pandemic and its intersection with ethics and human rights. With this perspective, we bring attention to the conflict between healthcare workers' obligations and patient rights under the unclear policy and regulatory frameworks and the application of restrictive measures in the context of poverty. The indirect effects of the pandemic on already existing health problems are also highlighted. We appeal to the African States to establish appropriate systems which integrate human rights-based approaches to COVID-19 response. These systems should be ethically sound systems and ensure no-one is left behind in terms of testing, access to therapeutics and vaccination, and social protection; based on lessons learned over the past 12 months of the pandemic's presence in SSA, and patterns emerging across the globe.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Derechos Humanos/ética , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Pública , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Pobreza
14.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-07-19.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54519

RESUMEN

WASH PRESS se centra en la provisión de soluciones técnicas dirigidas a cubrir las necesidades de agua, saneamiento e higiene de los establecimientos de salud durante las actividades de preparación para situaciones de emergencias de salud y desastres o en contextos con recursos limitados. El documento es el resultado de una revisión sistemática de numerosas guías, prácticas y herramientas técnicas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y de otras instituciones y universidades de relevancia en el sector. En una sola herramienta, combina las normas mínimas y los indicadores que se deben cumplir con soluciones técnicas para lograrlos, haciendo hincapié en el qué se debe hacer (algoritmos), en el cómo hacerlo (fichas técnicas) y en el cuánto se necesita (herramientas de cálculo). Mediante la publicación de este documento, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud aspira a facilitar la toma de decisiones de los responsables de los establecimientos de salud y de la planificación y ejecución de medidas de agua, saneamiento e higiene; así como la acción inmediata y oportuna del personal de salud y auxiliar y, en general, de los profesionales del sector. Esta publicación complementa las orientaciones proporcionadas en el Instrumento de mejora del agua, el saneamiento y la higiene en los establecimientos de salud “WASH FIT”, elaborado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia en el 2018.


Asunto(s)
Agua , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua , Higiene , Saneamiento , Hospitales
15.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(1): 55-70, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194201

RESUMEN

Violence against health care systems is an assault on health and human rights. Despite the evolution of global standards to protect health workers and ensure the delivery of health care in times of conflict, attacks against health systems have continued throughout the world-violating humanitarian law, undermining human rights, and threatening public health. The persistence of such violence against health care, especially in humanitarian crises related to armed conflict, has prompted global institutions to develop systematic monitoring mechanisms in an effort to alleviate these harms, seeking to protect health workers from being harmed for their healing efforts. This article examines the development and implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Surveillance System of Attacks on Healthcare (SSA) as a systematic mechanism to collect and disseminate data concerning attacks on health care systems. Although the SSA provides a foundation for monitoring attacks in conflict zones, this research considers whether the SSA has collected the necessary data, categorized these data appropriately, and disseminated sufficient information to facilitate human rights accountability, analyzing the political, methodological, and institutional challenges faced by WHO. The article concludes that refinements to this monitoring mechanism are needed to strengthen the political prioritization, research methodology, and institutional implementation necessary to ensure accountability for violations of health and human rights.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Salud , Derechos Humanos , Atención a la Salud , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Responsabilidad Social
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281036

RESUMEN

A large university in Queensland, Australia with a diverse staff and student community introduced a campus wide smoke-free policy in 2016. The purpose of this enquiry was to understand attitudes about a new smoke-free policy, its potential impact and the shift in social norms and organizational culture to inform the next phase of implementation. An electronic survey was distributed to all staff and students approximately 12 weeks after the smoke-free policy was implemented. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions about demographics, smoking behaviour, attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control, awareness of the smoke-free policy, and attitudes towards the effect of a completely smoke-free campus on quality of life, learning and enrolment. The survey was completed by 641 university staff and students. Respondents reported seeking out (80.4%) and socialising in smoke-free environments (86.6%) and supported smoke-free buildings (96.1%), indoor areas (91.6%), and outdoor areas (79%). The results revealed overwhelming support for a completely smoke-free campus (83%) and minority support for designated smoking areas (31%). Overall, respondents reflected positively towards a campus wide smoke-free policy. These findings suggest Queensland's early adoption of tobacco control laws influenced the social environment, de-normalised smoking, changed behaviour, preference for smoke-free environments and shifted social norms. These findings provide convincing evidence for organisational change and suggest health promotion policy makers should progress the implementation of smoke-free policies nationally across the higher education sector.


Asunto(s)
Política para Fumadores , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Australia , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Calidad de Vida , Queensland , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Normas Sociales , Estudiantes , Universidades
17.
Georgian Med News ; (313): 176-180, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103453

RESUMEN

The article reviews the medical and social vaccination-related initiatives in different countries of the world aimed at maintaining the balance between the public interest and respect for rights. A separate emphasis is put on exceptions to general rules of compulsory vaccination of children based on religious, philosophic and other personal beliefs of their parents. The connection between the medical and social initiatives applied in different countries, exemption from vaccination for non-medical reasons and reduction of herd immunity is determine. The methods of the research include the comparative method, i.e. the comparison of Ukrainian and international medical and social initiatives related to vaccination of children; the statistical method which is used for generalization of vaccination-related information of the World Health Organization and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; the systematic analysis aimed at identification of existing shortcomings and positive experience of state policies of children vaccination in different countries of the world; the linguo-cognitive analysis, i.e the analysis of reasons for judgements with relation to the role of vaccination in modern countries and those social and medical initiatives that are allowed to be used in certain states to ensure exercise of human rights. Even a slight reduction in numbers of vaccinated children caused by parents' hesitancy due to certain non-medical reasons, religious and philosophic beliefs will have negative consequences for the public health and country's economy. Looking for a balance of human rights and public interest when it comes to vaccination resulted in establishing by the supranational judicial institutions of the prevalence of social necessity over individual rights. These findings should play a key role in the selection by different states of vaccination-related medical and social initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Vacunación , Niño , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública
19.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 29(10): 1000-1008, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167896

RESUMEN

The global demographic shift toward an aging population is predicted to result in a significant burden of mental health conditions and psychosocial disability. There has been a greater awareness of ageism and its toxic effects creating a paradigm shift to include a human right, ethical, and social justice-based approach to augment the biomedical model of mental healthcare. The concept of dignity lies at the heart of human rights and must be a central concept integrated into public health and mental healthcare. Dignity denotes the self-respect and worthiness of an individual as well as social consideration of his/her identity. Dignity in older persons is multi-dimensional and includes several factors such as privacy, independence, inclusion, autonomy, etc. There are several determinants such as frailty, dependence, sensory, cognitive impairment and socioeconomic vulnerabilities, which tend to compromise dignity in the elderly and hence their fundamental rights. One such construct is that of ageism which comprises stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination based on age. Ageism and related forms of stigma impair dignified healthcare in older persons and deprive them of their rights. Mental health professionals are uniquely positioned to incorporate the strategies to promote dignity in their clinical care and research as well as advocate for related social/health policies based on a human rights approach. These intersections are discussed in this paper in light of the United Nations Convention on Rights of the Older Persons.


Asunto(s)
Ageísmo , Servicios de Salud Mental , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Respeto
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