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1.
Autophagy ; : 1-6, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643473

RESUMEN

Nucleophagy, the selective subtype of autophagy that predominantly targets only a selected and (nonessential) portion of the nucleus, and rarely the nucleus in its entirety, for degradation, reinforces the paradigm that nucleophagy recycling is a meticulous and highly delicate process guarded by fail-safe mechanisms. Our goal in this commentary is to encourage autophagy researchers and other scientists to explore nucleophagy blind spots and gain advanced insights into the diverse roles of this process and its selective modality as they pertain to intranuclear quality control and cellular homeostasis. Identifying and deciphering nucleophagic signaling, regulation, molecular mechanism(s) and its mediators, cargo composition and nuclear membrane dynamics under numerous physiological and/or pathological settings will provide important advances in our understanding of this critical type of organelle-selective autophagy.Abbreviations: INM, inner nuclear membrane; LN, late nucleophagy; mRNA, messenger RNA; NE, nuclear envelope; NL, nuclear lamina; NPC(s), nuclear pore complex(es); NVJ(s), nucleus-vacuole junction(s); ONM, outer nuclear membrane; PMN, piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus; PND, programmed nuclear death; PNuD, programmed nuclear destruction; rDNA/rRNA, ribosomal DNA/RNA.

2.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 152, 2021 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284797

RESUMEN

Over the past 25 years, tremendous progress has been made in increasing the evidence on child marriage and putting it to good use to reduce the prevalence of child marriage and provide support to married girls. However, there is still much to be done to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal target 5.3 of ending child marriage by 2030, and to meet the needs of the 12 million girls who are still married before age 18 each year. To guide and stimulate future efforts, the UNDP-UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, the World Health Organization, the UNICEF-UNFPA Global Programme to End Child Marriage, and Girls Not Brides: The Global Partnership to End Child Marriage convened an expert group meeting in 2019 to: (1) review the progress made in building the evidence base on child marriage since the publication of research priorities in this area in 2015, (2) identify an updated set of research priorities for the next ten years, and (3) discuss how best to support research coordination, translation, and uptake. This article provides a summary of the progress made in this area since 2015 and lists an updated set of research gaps and their rationale in four key areas: (1) prevalence, trends, determinants, and correlates of child marriage; (2) consequences of child marriage; (3) intervention effectiveness studies to prevent child marriage and support married girls; and (4) implementation research studies to prevent child marriage and support married girls. It also highlights a number of calls-to-action around research coordination and knowledge translation to support the emerging and evolving needs of the field.


Asunto(s)
Familia , Matrimonio , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
3.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 016787

RESUMEN

United Nations Development Programme. (http://www.undp.org)


Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. (http://www.undp.org/content/undp/es/home.html)


Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento. (http://www.undp.org/content/undp/es/home.html)

4.
Acta biol. colomb ; 24(2): 232-242, May-ago. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010853

RESUMEN

RESUMEN En 2013 el pescado proporcionó a más de 3100 millones de personas casi el 20 % de la ingesta promedio de proteínas de origen animal per cápita (FAO, 2016). De acuerdo con el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), en Colombia y, particularmente en las poblaciones ribereñas y costeras, el 90 % del consumo de proteína de origen animal proviene del pescado, como resultado de un acceso muy bajo a otro tipo de proteínas. Colombia enfrenta uno de los mayores problemas por contaminación ambiental a nivel mundial, generado en gran parte por el abuso de sustancias químicas para el aprovechamiento de minerales, mala disposición de aguas servidas y prácticas industriales y agrícolas inadecuadas, en cuerpos de aguas fundamentales para la dinámica poblacional de animales, vegetales y humanos. Como estrategia mundial para reducir los riesgos a la salud humana por consumo de pescado contaminado con metales pesados, se han considerado límites máximos permisibles, propuestos por diferentes entidades; sin embargo, el 31,5 % de los resultados de estudios publicados para Colombia, son superiores al límite permisible recomendado por la OMS (0,5 μg/g). Los resultados presentados en esta revisión evidencian la urgente necesidad de realizar estudios que evalúen el riesgo a la salud que enfrentan pobladores de zonas mineras y no mineras de Colombia, aportará también fundamentos científicos y bases para el establecimiento de ejes estratégicos que permitan la puesta en marcha de nuevos proyectos productivos que ofrezcan el acceso de la población a diversas fuentes de alimentación.


ABSTRACT In 2013, fish provided to more of 3100 million people about 20 % of the average intake of animal protein per capita (FAO, 2016). According to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), in Colombia and, particularly in the coastal populations, 90 % of the protein consumption of animal origin comes from fish, mainly as a result of very low access comparing it with another type of proteins. Colombia faces one of the biggest problems due to global environmental pollution, generated in largely part by the abuse of chemical substances for the exploitation of minerals, poor disposal of wastewater and inadequate industrial and agricultural practices, in bodies of natural water essential for population dynamics of animals, plants and humans. As a global strategy to reduce the risks to human health from the consumption of fish contaminated with heavy metals, maximum permissible limits have been considered, proposed by different entities. However, 31.5 % of the results of studies published for Colombia, register higher than the permissible limit recommended by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). The results presented in this review, evidence the urgent need to conduct studies that assess the health risk faced by residents of mining and non-mining areas of Colombia, will also provide scientific foundations and bases for the establishment of strategic axes that permit the start-up of new productive projects, which offer the population access to various sources of food.

5.
Interdisciplinaria ; 35(2): 395-408, dic. 2018.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019914

RESUMEN

El presente artículo hace una reflexión sobre la implementación del enfoque de desarrollo humano en las organizaciones laborales. Se explicarán los elementos socio-históricos que originaron su creación, el papel del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) y los principales pilares del paradigma a partir de una discusión teórica del concepto de capacidades. Propone que el enfoque de desarrollo humano, y en particular el de capacidades humanas, tiene diversas aplicaciones en el contexto organizacional, no limitado al desarrollo de competencias laborales. Se reconoce que las capacidades para la vida en común y para la ciudadanía también pueden fortalecerse en el entorno laboral, siendo las organizaciones espacios de interacción social. Una implementación vigorosa de dichos enfoques requiere superar la mirada economicista de las relaciones laborales, dando lugar a que las organizaciones ofrezcan oportunidades reales, incluyendo la libertad de agencia y la decisión subjetiva, como responsabilidad compartida con el desarrollo de las personas.


This article reflects on the implementation of the human development approach in labor organizations. We will explain the socio-historical elements that led to its creation, the role of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the main pillars of the paradigm, base on a theoretical discussion of the concept of capabilities. We propose that the human development approach, and in particular that of human capacities, has diverse applications in the organizational context, not limited to the development of labor competencies. We recognize that the capacities for life in common can be strengthened in the work environment, since the organizations are also spaces of social interaction. Accepting these premises, employees can be educated for citizenship, while acquiring skills for productive life. A vigorous implementation of these approaches requires overcoming the economicist view of labor relations, giving organizations the chance to offer real opportunities, including agency freedom and subjective decision, as a shared responsibility for the development of people. The paradigm of human development has been widely applied in community work because of its impact on the design of public policies and social programs. In the 1980s, the ideas of the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq were materialized in the first Human Development Report. Since 1990, to date, UNDP has continued to publish annual reports. Indian philosopher and economist Amartya Sen contributed to the creation of the Human Development Index; along with the American philosopher Martha Nussbaum have developed proposals to develop capabilities. The authors' work proves a high commitment to freedom, human rights and democracy, bringing the welfare economy to political science, economics and ethics. Although the focus has gained attention in government policies and social institutions, its application in labor organizations has not achieved the same diffusion. Recently, the UNDP Human Development Report 2015 has addressed this issue in studying work and its impact on people. Perhaps its lack of application in the labor organizations is that in these the subject is usually conceived as a means of production, not as an end in itself. Hence, development opportunities are usually measured in criteria of productivity and economic growth of the organization, instead of growth and development of people. This approach initially emerges as a critique of the economic model focused on the production of consumer goods, which sought to bring the benefits of increased output to the lower income groups. Far from enumerating the errors and neglects of the models that have sustained injustice, the approach proposes alternatives to pay for this "social debt" that has left great inequality gaps in the vulnerable population. Since its first report, UNDP has emphasized the importance of offering people and Communities options to economic alternatives for empowerment and the expansion of human freedoms. In this sense, the Human Development approach does not deny the important role that the economic conditions of individual, group or collective subjects fulfill, but its message is broader. While it is true that economic factors help meet the essential needs of men, economic growth has no automatic link with human progress (UNDP, 1990). It does not mean neglecting the GDP indicator, but how to translate that growth into the strengthening of human capabilities. We consider it is the development of the subjects that drives the organization, not viceversa. Therefore, the interest that people have in this proposal is special. The central issues for its implementation require defining this paradigm and its main foundations. For this it is necessary to contrast the concept of human capabilities and their possible equivalent in organizations: labor competencies. Finally, we present the implications of free agency and co-responsibility of organizations, since human development obeys a subjective decision.

6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1436-1448, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003336

RESUMEN

Resumen Los humedales, también llamados altoandinos, han sido poco estudiados y caracterizados en Costa Rica. En este estudio se analizan las características geomorfológicas, climatológicas e hidrológicas de los humedales altoandinos del Parque Nacional Chirripó (PNCh), ubicado al centro-sur de Costa Rica, América Central. Para ello se parte de un levantamiento geomorfológico a escala 1:25 000 de formas de relieve particularmente de origen glaciar, el Inventario Nacional de Humedales llevado a cabo por el Proyecto Humedales (PNUD-SINAC-GEF), y la determinación de distintos escenarios de cambio climático para los periodos 2039-2059 y 2079-2099. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar el estado actual de estos ecosistemas, explicar cómo y porqué se forman, así como valorar las posibles implicaciones en el ciclo hidrológico y la provisión de agua de estos reservorios debido a las variaciones del clima a futuro. Los resultados denotan la gran importancia de estos humedales para mantener la dinámica ecológica en el PNCh, así como los servicios de provisión de agua y regulación del ciclo hidrológico en las cuencas que derivan de esta área protegida.(AU)


Abstract The geomorphological, climatological and hydrological characteristics of the high Andean wetlands of the Chirripó National Park (PNCh) are analyzed. The PNCh is located in south-central Costa Rica, Central America. This analysis includes a geomorphological survey on a 1: 25 000 scale of the relief forms and processes, particularly those of glacial origin. The National Wetland Inventory carried out by the Wetlands Project (UNDP-SINAC-GEF) was also used, along with different climate change projections corresponding to the scenarios for the 2039-2059 and 2079-2099 horizons. The main objective is to characterize the current state of these ecosystems, to explain how and why they are formed, as well as to assess the possible implications in the hydrological cycle and the water supply of these wetlands due to future climate variations. The results showed the relevance of these natural reservoirs in maintaining the ecological dynamics of the PNCh. We also studied the services of water provision and regulation of the hydrological cycle in the basins that compose this protected area.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Geomorfología , Humedales , América Central
7.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34431

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Evaluar la relación entre la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y el índice de desarrollo humano (IDH) por región del mundo en el período 2010–2015. Método. Se utilizaron los datos de la Federación Internacional de Diabetes para la prevalencia de DM2 (2010–2015) y el IDH del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. Se analizaron correlaciones lineales de Spearman entre el IDH y la prevalencia de DM2 y se hicieron regresiones lineales para estimar la relación entre ambos. Resultados. Se observó que a menor IDH menores son las prevalencias de DM2, y a mayor IDH, mayores son las prevalencias de DM2. A nivel mundial, el IDH explica 8,6% de la varianza de la prevalencia de DM2 (P < 0,0001) y que este comportamiento fue diferente en cada región del mundo. Conclusiones. El IDH puede influir en la prevalencia de DM2, aunque la relación depende de cada país, región y año analizado.


Objective. To evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the Human Development Index (HDI), by region of the world in the period 2010-2015. Method. International Diabetes Federation data were used for DM2 prevalence (2010-2015), together with HDI data (United Nations Development Program). Spearman linear correlations between HDI data and DM2 prevalence were analyzed, and linear regressions were done to estimate the relationship between the two. Results. It was observed that lower HDI scores corresponded to lower DM2 prevalence rates, and higher HDI scores to higher DM2 prevalence. At the global level, the HDI explains the 8.6% variance of DM2 prevalence (P < 0.0001) and shows that the situation was different in each region of the world. Conclusions. While HDI score may be associated with DM2 prevalence, the relationship between them differs from region to region and from country to country, and depends on the particular year analyzed.


Objetivo. Avaliar a relação entre a prevalência de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) e o índice de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) por região do mundo no período de 2010 a 2015. Métodos. Foram utilizados dados da Federação Internacional de Diabetes para a prevalência da DM2 (2010–2015) e o IDH do Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento. Foram analisadas as correlações lineares de Spearman entre o IDH e a prevalência de DM2 e feitas regressões lineares para estimar a relação entre ambos. Resultados. Observou-se que quanto mais baixo o IDH, menores são as prevalências de DM2, e quanto mais alto o IDH, maiores são prevalências de DM2. Ao nível mundial, o IDH explica 8,6% da variança da prevalência de DM2 (P < 0,0001) e este comportamento difere em cada região do mundo. Conclusões. O IDH pode influir na prevalência de DM2, embora a relação dependa de cada país, região e ano analisados.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Desarrollo Humano , Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Desarrollo Humano , Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo , Desarrollo Humano , Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo
8.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-43010

RESUMEN

O Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento executa diversos projetos em diferentes áreas. Neles, o PNUD oferece aos parceiros apoio técnico, operacional e gerencial, por meio de acesso a metodologias, conhecimentos, consultoria especializada e ampla rede de cooperação técnica internacional. Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento humano, o combate à pobreza e o crescimento do país nas áreas prioritárias, o PNUD Brasil tem a constante missão de buscar alinhar seus serviços às necessidades de um país dinâmico, multifacetado e diversificado. Os projetos são realizados em parceria com o Governo Brasileiro, instituições financeiras internacionais, setor privado e sociedade civil.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Humano , Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo , Pobreza/prevención & control , Gobierno Federal
9.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e103, 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-961707

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la relación entre la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y el índice de desarrollo humano (IDH) por región del mundo en el período 2010-2015. Método Se utilizaron los datos de la Federación Internacional de Diabetes para la prevalencia de DM2 (2010-2015) y el IDH del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. Se analizaron correlaciones lineales de Spearman entre el IDH y la prevalencia de DM2 y se hicieron regresiones lineales para estimar la relación entre ambos. Resultados Se observó que a menor IDH menores son las prevalencias de DM2, y a mayor IDH, mayores son las prevalencias de DM2. A nivel mundial, el IDH explica 8,6% de la varianza de la prevalencia de DM2 (P < 0,0001) y que este comportamiento fue diferente en cada región del mundo. Conclusiones El IDH puede influir en la prevalencia de DM2, aunque la relación depende de cada país, región y año analizado.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the Human Development Index (HDI), by region of the world in the period 2010-2015. Method International Diabetes Federation data were used for DM2 prevalence (2010-2015), together with HDI data (United Nations Development Program). Spearman linear correlations between HDI data and DM2 prevalence were analyzed, and linear regressions were done to estimate the relationship between the two. Results It was observed that lower HDI scores corresponded to lower DM2 prevalence rates, and higher HDI scores to higher DM2 prevalence. At the global level, the HDI explains the 8.6% variance of DM2 prevalence (P < 0.0001) and shows that the situation was different in each region of the world. Conclusions While HDI score may be associated with DM2 prevalence, the relationship between them differs from region to region and from country to country, and depends on the particular year analyzed.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a relação entre a prevalência de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) e o índice de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) por região do mundo no período de 2010 a 2015. Métodos Foram utilizados dados da Federação Internacional de Diabetes para a prevalência da DM2 (2010-2015) e o IDH do Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento. Foram analisadas as correlações lineares de Spearman entre o IDH e a prevalência de DM2 e feitas regressões lineares para estimar a relação entre ambos. Resultados Observou-se que quanto mais baixo o IDH, menores são as prevalências de DM2, e quanto mais alto o IDH, maiores são prevalências de DM2. Ao nível mundial, o IDH explica 8,6% da variança da prevalência de DM2 (P < 0,0001) e este comportamento difere em cada região do mundo. Conclusões O IDH pode influir na prevalência de DM2, embora a relação dependa de cada país, região e ano analisados.


Asunto(s)
Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Factores de Riesgo , Desarrollo Humano
10.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 3(1): 63-80, 2017. tab, graf, map
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-848597

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Propor variáveis estatísticas que resumam os fatores socioeconômicos com potencial efeito sobre a saúde dos idosos nos municípios do Rio Grande do Norte e identificar os locais de maior vulnerabilidade. Métodos: As variáveis deste estudo ecológico foram oriundas do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE, Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento - PNUD, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA e Departamento de Informática do SUS - DATASUS, referentes ao ano 2000. Partiu-se de mais de 800 variáveis relacionadas à renda, educação, desenvolvimento humano, demografia e habitação, as quais foram submetidas a uma análise da plausibilidade teórica, da distribuição dos dados, da correlação, Análise Fatorial e à Análise Espacial exploratória. Resultados: A aplicabilidade da técnica foi comprovada pela matriz de correlações, determinante (0,001), matriz anti-imagem, teste de esfericidade de Bartlett (p<0,001) e Índice de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO= 0,7). Formaram-se quatro componentes que explicaram 74,01% da variância do modelo, sendo eles: Melhores condições socioeconômicas, Maior dependência do Estado, Desigualdade e Menos emprego e saúde. A análise visual dos mapas demonstrou que tais componentes apresentam distintos padrões de distribuição espacial, no qual parte das microrregiões Borborema Potiguar, Angicos e Agreste Potiguar tiveram características mais desfavoráveis para todos os componentes. Conclusões: Além de facilitar a identificação dos pontos críticos, os componentes agregaram diversos dados em informações mais simples, facilitando o planejamento de políticas públicas e estudos relacionados aos determinantes da saúde dos idosos do Rio Grande do Norte (AU).


Objective: To propose statistical variables that resume the socioeconomic factors with potential effect on elderly health in the municipalities of Rio Grande do Norte and to identify the most vulnerable places. Methods: The variables of this ecological study were collected from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística ­ IBGE, Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento - PNUD, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA and Departamento de Informática do SUS - DATASUS, about the year 2000. We started with more than 800 variables related to income, education, human development, demography and housing. These variables were submitted to theoretical plausibility analysis, data distribution, correlation, Factorial Anlysis and Exploratory Spatial Analysis. Results: The applicability of the technique was confirmed by the correlation matrix, determinant (0,001), anti-image matrix, Bartlett's sphericity test and Kaiser-MeyerOlkin index (KMO= 0,7). Four components were formed, which explained 74,01% of the model variance, they are: Better socioeconomic conditions, Greater government dependence, Inequity and Less employment and health. The visual analysis of the maps showed that these components have different patterns of spatial distribution, in which part of Borborema Potiguar, Angicos and Agreste Potiguar microregions had more unfavorable characteristics for all the components. Conclusions: Besides facilitating the identification of critical points, the components gathered several data in simpler information, helping in the planning of public policies and studies related to determinants of elderly health in Rio Grande do Norte (AU).


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Brasil , Estudios Ecológicos , Salud del Anciano , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacial
11.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(6): 871-879, nov.-dic. 2016. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-962029

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Objetivos Realizar una aproximación al análisis multidimensional de las capacidades funcionales en salud ambiental del Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, con base en el modelo del PNUD de interacciones entre problemas centrales y capacidades funcionales. Método Se utilizaron como fuentes de información los resultados institucionales obtenidos por medio de encuestas, b) información de fuentes secundarias, proveniente de las CAR y las autoridades ambientales, sobre las políticas, estrategias, planes de acción, planes de gestión ambiental regional - PGAR, normativas, actividades y rendición de cuentas. Resultados La consolidación de los resultados institucionales, con respecto a los problemas centrales y capacidades, muestran una heterogeneidad importante. Conclusión El liderazgo público y el empoderamiento social, constituyen un círculo virtuoso que permite fortalecer las capacidades en proyectos de alto interés social. En el marco de este encadenamiento es posible fortalecer las otras capacidades como el logro de compromisos y las de tipo institucional y técnico (diseño de políticas, implementación, evaluación, etc.). Se presentan tres alternativas que permiten la implementación de capacidades en salud ambiental.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To approach the multidimensional analysis of functional capacities in environmental health in the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, based on the UNDP model of interactions between central problems and functional capabilities. Method Individual institutional results obtained through surveys and information from secondary sources, CAR (Autonomous Regional Corporations) and environmental authorities on policies, strategies, action plans, regional environmental management plans, regulations, activities, and accountabilities related to environmental health during the period 2012-2015 were used as sources of information. Results The consolidation of results per corporation about core issues and functional capabilities, in terms of the level of response, shows a significant heterogeneity. Conclusions Public leadership and social empowerment constitute a virtuous circle that allows strengthening capacities in projects of high social interest. Moreover, other capacities such as achieving commitments and institutional and technical capacities (policy design, implementation, evaluation, etc.) can be strengthened as well. Three alternatives for environmental health capabilities implementation have been proposed.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Política Pública , Planificación Social , Salud Ambiental/organización & administración , Gestión Ambiental , Colombia
12.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(4): 1-1, jul.-ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-794088

RESUMEN

Objetivos Elaborar un diagnóstico rápido de capacidades de las autoridades ambientales y el Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible para asumir su rol en salud ambiental con base en el modelo de capacidades del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo-PNUD. Método Se utilizaron los métodos de revisión documental, entrevista dirigida en aspectos clave y una encuesta comentada. Se seleccionaron 84 entidades a las cuales se les aplicó la encuesta de manera personalizada. Se obtuvo información completa de 76 instituciones. Resultados La valoración de favorabilidad del entorno se encontró entre las categorías aceptable y poco favorable, las capacidades en gestión del conocimiento se observaron precarias y la valoración de capacidades funcionales se reportó entre adecuadas o aceptables. La valoración de capacidades específicas tuvo una valoración de deficientes o apenas aceptables. Conclusión Se apreciaron dos problemas importantes: a. Las autoridades ambientales no conciben ni ponen en práctica estas capacidades desde el modelo del PNUD, sino desde el modelo convencional del Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, y; b. Las autoridades ambientales muestran un nivel bajo de incorporación de las políticas de salud ambiental en su campo de acción específico.(AU)


Objectives To diagnose the capabilities that environmental authorities and the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development have to assume their role in environmental health, based on the capacity model of the United Nations Program for Development UNDP. Method Document review, interviews on key issues and a commented survey were conducted. 84 entities were selected for a tailored survey; complete information was obtained from 76 institutions. Results The valuation of environment favorability was within the acceptable and unfavorable categories; knowledge management capabilities were found to be precarious and assessment of functional capabilities ranged between appropriate and acceptable. The assessment of specific capabilities had a rating of poor or barely acceptable. Conclusions Two major problems were found: a. The environmental authorities do not conceive or implement these capabilities based on the UNDP model but on the conventional model of the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development; b. Environmental authorities show an incipient level of incorporation of environmental health policies in their field of action.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Formulación de Políticas , Política Pública , Naciones Unidas , Salud Ambiental/métodos , Colombia
14.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 18(6): 871-879, 2016.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137170

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES : To approach the multidimensional analysis of functional capacities in environmental health in the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, based on the UNDP model of interactions between central problems and functional capabilities. METHOD : Individual institutional results obtained through surveys and information from secondary sources, CAR (Autonomous Regional Corporations) and environmental authorities on policies, strategies, action plans, regional environmental management plans, regulations, activities, and accountabilities related to environmental health during the period 2012-2015 were used as sources of information. RESULTS: The consolidation of results per corporation about core issues and functional capabilities, in terms of the level of response, shows a significant heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Public leadership and social empowerment constitute a virtuous circle that allows strengthening capacities in projects of high social interest. Moreover, other capacities such as achieving commitments and institutional and technical capacities (policy design, implementation, evaluation, etc.) can be strengthened as well. Three alternatives for environmental health capabilities implementation have been proposed.

15.
Washington, D.C; OPS; 2016.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-18831

RESUMEN

[Introducción]. En la Región de las Américas, las muertes violentas por homicidio son la principal causa de muerte entre los varones adolescentes y adultos jóvenes (Organización Panamericana de la Salud, 2012). Además, cada día, miles de personas, principalmente mujeres y niños, son víctimas de violencia no mortal, por ejemplo agresiones causantes de lesiones físicas que requieren tratamiento en servicios de urgencias, así como maltrato físico, sexual o psicológico cuyas víctimas tal vez no soliciten la atención del personal de salud ni de otras autoridades. Este documento presenta información actualizada sobre la prevención de la violencia interpersonal en la Región de las Américas; se basa en el Informe sobre la situación mundial de la prevención de la violencia 2014, compilado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) y la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas contra la Droga y el Delito (UNODC) (OMS/PNUD/ UNODC, 2014). Hay violencia interpersonal entre familiares, compañeros íntimos, amigos, conocidos y desconocidos. Esta violencia abarca el maltrato de menores, la violencia juvenil, la violencia de pareja, la violencia sexual y el maltrato de adultos mayores. La violencia interpersonal es un factor de riesgo de problemas sociales y problemas de salud durante toda la vida. Es predecible y prevenible, y la responsabilidad de abordarla corresponde claramente a los gobiernos nacionales. El documento señala un punto de partida para el seguimiento de los progresos futuros y ofrece un punto de referencia que los países pueden utilizer para evaluar los propios progresos...


Asunto(s)
Violencia , Política de Salud , Víctimas de Crimen , Américas
16.
Washington; OPS; 2016. 18 p. graf.
Monografía en Español | MMyP | ID: per_old-2968

RESUMEN

Este documento presenta información actualizada sobrela prevención de la violencia interpersonal en laRegión de las Américas; se basa en el Informe sobrela situación mundial de la prevención de la violencia2014, compilado por la Organización Mundial de laSalud (OMS), el Programa de las Naciones Unidas parael Desarrollo (PNUD) y la Oficina de las Naciones Unidascontra la Droga y el Delito (UNODC) (OMS/PNUD/UNODC, 2014). Hay violencia interpersonal entre familiares,compañeros íntimos, amigos, conocidos ydesconocidos. Esta violencia abarca el maltrato demenores, la violencia juvenil, la violencia de pareja, laviolencia sexual y el maltrato de adultos mayores. Laviolencia interpersonal es un factor de riesgo de problemassociales y problemas de salud durante toda lavida. Es predecible y prevenible, y la responsabilidadde abordarla corresponde claramente a los gobiernosnacionales. El documento señala un punto de partidapara el seguimiento de los progresos futuros y ofreceun punto de referencia que los países pueden utilizarpara evaluar los propios progresos.


Asunto(s)
Violencia/prevención & control , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Pública , Víctimas de Crimen , Américas
17.
Estud. av ; 29(84): 139-149, maio-ago. 2015. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-776788

RESUMEN

O desenvolvimento sustentável foi mais divulgado após a Rio-92. Nesse encontro foi criado o Dia Mundial da Água, celebrado anualmente. Em 2001, pela OMS, tivemos “Água para Saúde”, que afirma que ambos são “bens públicos da humanidade”. Em 2015, pelo PNUD, “Água e Desenvolvimento Sustentável” mostra que é uma constante associar água, saúde e desenvolvimento e comparar suas propostas aos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODM). Consideramos que os rumos globais, na atualidade, colocam em debate a propriedade privada no século XXI.


Sustainable development was more widespread after Rio-92. This meeting was created World Water Day, celebrated annually. In 2001, the WHO had “Water for estudos avançados 29(84), 2015147Health” which states that both are “public goods of humanity”. In 2015, UNDP, “Water and Sustainable Development” shows that it is a constant associate water, health and development and compare their proposals to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We believe that the actual global debate puts in question the private property in the XXI century.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Saneamiento Básico , Salud Ambiental , Contaminación Ambiental , Desarrollo Sostenible , Área Urbana , Agua , Inseguridad Hídrica , Equidad en el Acceso al Agua , Calentamiento Global , Derechos Humanos
18.
Clin. biomed. res ; 35(4): 233-242, 2015. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-790879

RESUMEN

Os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) são uma iniciativa das Nações Unidas, subscrita pelo Brasil e outros 192 países, com foco em investimentos em infraestrutura e desenvolvimento humano nas metrópoles. Espera-se que informações georreferenciadas de saúde e de desenvolvimento local favoreçam governanças locais produtoras de mais equidade. Este artigo propõe-se a divulgar o Atlas de Desenvolvimento Humano (ADH) do Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento (PNUD) lançado em 2014 e avaliar a utilidade dos dados referentes ao município de Porto Alegre (RS) para diferentes públicos. Métodos: O atlas do PNUD foi apresentado em três atividades desenvolvidas pelo Programa Saúde Urbana, Ambiente e Desigualdades da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul para diferentes audiências: 1) da comunidade – bairro Restinga, 2) da academia – disciplina integradora Práticas Integradas em Saúde I, e 3) do serviço de saúde – Unidade Básica de Saúde Santa Cecília do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Para cada atividade descreveu-se a metodologia utilizada para produzir informações a partir dos dados disponibilizados pelo atlas. Resultados: Observou-se a necessidade de compatibilizar melhor as áreas geográficas de referência dos serviços e do atlas para a implementação das avaliações do impacto de investimentos intraurbanos em infraestrutura e desenvolvimento social na saúde, e vice-versa. Foram discutidas as potencialidades e limitações identificadas. Conclusão: A utilização de indicadores intraurbanos do ADH do PNUD tem potencial para trazer informações de interesse para os serviços locais de saúde e para a comunidade...


Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a United Nations initiative signed by Brazil and other 192 countries, with a focus on investments in infrastructure and human development in cities. It is expected that geo-referenced information on health and local development would favor local governance towards the promotion of more social equity. This article proposes to publicize the Atlas of Human Development (ADHM) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) launched in 2014 and to evaluate the usefulness of its data relative to the city of Porto Alegre (RS) for different audiences. Methods: The UNDP atlas was presented in three activities developed by the Urban Health, Environment and Inequalities Program of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul to different audiences: 1) community - Restinga neighborhood, 2) the academy - integrative discipline Integrated Health Practices I, and 3) the health service - Basic Health Unit Santa Cecilia / HCPA. For each activity the methodology used to generate information from data provided by atlas was described. Results: It is necessary to match the geographic reference areas of services and those of the atlas for the implementation of impact assessments of intra-urban investments in infrastructure and social development in health. The potential and limitations identified were discussed. Conclusion: The use of intraurban indicators of the UNDP atlas has the potential to bring information of interest to local health services and the community. Keywords: Urban health; health inequalities; health status indicators; social inequalities; social indicators; sustainable development goals...


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Indicadores de Salud , Salud Urbana
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 36(3): 143-149, sep. 2014. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-728925

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Estimar la magnitud de la asociación entre la movilidad poblacional, medida con la tasa neta de migración (TNM) y la prevalencia de VIH en Centroamérica y México. MÉTODOS: Con modelos de series temporales se analizó dicha asociación en personas de 15 a 49 años de edad, ajustada por factores socioeconómicos (educación, educación, desempleo, esperanza de vida e ingreso) y utilizando información pública de ONUSIDA, el PNUD, la CEPAL y el Banco Mundial para el período 1990-2009. RESULTADOS: La TNM fue negativa en todos los países, excepto en Costa Rica y Panamá. Los resultados no ajustados del modelo muestran una asociación positiva y que la TNM puede explicar el 6% de la prevalencia de VIH registrada. Cuando se incluyen cofactores socioeconómicos por país (educación, salud e ingreso), la magnitud asciende a 9% (P<0,05). La TNM, incluso ajustada por factores socioeconómicos, explica modestamente la prevalencia de VIH registrada. Los factores socioeconómicos indican mejoras en todos los indicadores en Centroamérica y México, aunque persisten importantes brechas entre países. CONCLUSIONES: La modesta asociación observada entre movilidad poblacional y prevalencia de VIH está condicionada por la situación socioeconómica de los países estudiados. La información disponible limitó el alcance del análisis para establecer con mayor certeza la existencia de esta asociación. En consecuencia, con la información disponible no es posible atribuir a la migración un papel determinante en la diseminación del VIH.


OBJECTIVE: Estimate the magnitude of the association between population mobility, measured by net migration rate (NMR), and HIV prevalence in Central America and Mexico. METHODS: Using time series models, based on public information from UNAIDS, UNDP, ECLAC, and the World Bank for the period 1990-2009, this association was studied in individuals aged 15-49 years, and adjusted for socioeconomic factors (education, unemployment, life expectancy, and income). RESULTS: NMR was negative in all countries except Costa Rica and Panama. Unadjusted results of the model show a positive association and that NMR can explain 6% of recorded HIV prevalence. When socioeconomic cofactors are included by country (education, health, and income), the magnitude increases to 9% (P<0.05). NMR, even when adjusted for socioeconomic factors, explains some of recorded HIV prevalence. All socioeconomic indicators show improvements in Central America and Mexico, although large gaps persist among countries. CONCLUSIONS: The modest association observed between population mobility and HIV prevalence is conditioned by the socioeconomic status of the countries studied. Information availability limited the study’s ability to establish the existence of this association with greater certainty. Accordingly, based on available information, it is not possible to affirm that migration plays a key role in the spread of HIV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH/patogenicidad
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