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2.
Glob Health Action ; 16(1): 2162228, 2023 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705071

RESUMEN

Mentorship is an important contributor to strengthening research capacity among health researchers. Formal mentorship programmes, targeting women mentees can help mitigate some of the gendered power dynamics and can also help early career researchers learn from others' experiences of navigating these challenges. In 2020, the UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction at the World Health Organization launched a mentorship programme geared towards early career women researchers. This paper describes the process of designing and implementing a mentorship programme for early career women sexual and reproductive health and rights researchers from low- and middle-income countries including valuable lessons learned vis-à-vis existing evidence. Some of these findings have been incorporated into iterations of the programme launched in 2022. Critical points include: ensuring considerations for language and geographical distribution; allowing mentees to participate in the matching process; providing training and opportunities to network and learn from other participants; offering the support and structure for developing these relationships. Providing women researchers with the tools - through mentorship - to navigate the unique challenges they face in their career journeys, can have a lasting impact on research capacity. Countries and institutions committed to strengthening research capacity need to focus on the holistic growth and motivation of individuals in a way that ensures gender equality.


Asunto(s)
Mentores , Naciones Unidas , Humanos , Femenino , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Investigadores/educación , Salud Reproductiva
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613183

RESUMEN

There is a rapidly closing window of opportunity to stop biodiversity loss and secure the resilience of all life on Earth. In December 2022, Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will meet in Montreal, Canada, to finalize the language and terms of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (Post-2020 GBF). The Post-2020 GBF aims to address the shortcomings of the previous Strategic Plan on Biodiversity 2011-2020, by introducing a Theory of Change, that states that biodiversity protection will only be successful if unprecedented, transformative changes are implemented effectively by Parties to the CBD. In this policy perspective, we explore the implications of the Theory of Change chosen to underpin the Post-2020 GBF, specifically that broad social transformation is an outcome that requires actors to be specified. We detail how the health sector is uniquely positioned to be an effective actor and ally in support of the implementation of the Post-2020 GBF. Specifically, we highlight how the core competencies and financial and human resources available in the health sector (including unique knowledge, skill sets, experiences, and established trust) provide a compelling, yet mostly untapped opportunity to help create and sustain the enabling conditions necessary to achieve the goals and targets of the framework. While by no means a panacea for the world's biodiversity problems, we posit that explicitly omitting the health sector from the Post-2020 GBF substantially weakens the global, collective effort to catalyze the transformative changes required to safeguard biodiversity.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Naciones Unidas , Políticas , Canadá , Ecosistema
6.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e062684, 2023 01 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717145

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Robust data on nutrition are essential to realise the right to nutrition for every child. Created in 2009, UNICEF's Nutrition Dashboard (NutriDash) collects nutrition programme information from 125 countries. An in-depth review of NutriDash was conducted to understand its strengths and identify key actions to increase its effectiveness and efficiency. METHODS: Adapting the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, a mixed-methods approach was used. A questionnaire was designed to capture information on key attributes of NutriDash and disseminated to UNICEF country offices for quantitative feedback on user experiences. Structured key informant interviews were held with internal and external stakeholders to gain qualitative perceptions on data generated from NutriDash. Analysis involved producing frequency distributions for the questionnaire data and performing thematic analyses on interview data. RESULTS: A total of 53 respondents completed the questionnaire (42% response rate), representing 48 countries and good regional geographic representation. Most respondents (96%) worked in UNICEF country offices. The percentages of participants who agreed or strongly agreed with each attribute of the NutriDash system were as follows: acceptability: 71%, stability: 68%, simplicity; 63%, data quality: 60%, flexibility: 58% and usefulness: 43%. Internal and external stakeholders commented on the value of NutriDash; its use ranging from nutrition global trend monitoring for programme planning to producing reports and dashboards. Key themes derived from this review as areas for improvement included communication, access to data and data quality. CONCLUSIONS: This review has identified key themes that will inform improvements to NutriDash and form a baseline for future periodic reviews to continuously enhance the system to improve availability of timely quality nutrition programme data. UNICEF will continue to engage with countries, key partners and governments to improve the NutriDash data value chain and ensure the right to nutrition for every child.


Asunto(s)
Estado Nutricional , Naciones Unidas , Niño , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vigilancia en Salud Pública
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(1)2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707093

RESUMEN

Unexpected pathogen transmission between animals, humans and their shared environments can impact all aspects of society. The Tripartite organisations-the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH)-have been collaborating for over two decades. The inclusion of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) with the Tripartite, forming the 'Quadripartite' in 2021, creates a new and important avenue to engage environment sectors in the development of additional tools and resources for One Health coordination and improved health security globally. Beginning formally in 2010, the Tripartite set out strategic directions for the coordination of global activities to address health risks at the human-animal-environment interface. This paper highlights the historical background of this collaboration in the specific area of health security, using country examples to demonstrate lessons learnt and the evolution and pairing of Tripartite programmes and processes to jointly develop and deliver capacity strengthening tools to countries and strengthen performance for iterative evaluations. Evaluation frameworks, such as the International Health Regulations (IHR) Monitoring and Evaluation Framework, the WOAH Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Pathway and the FAO multisectoral evaluation tools for epidemiology and surveillance, support a shared global vision for health security, ultimately serving to inform decision making and provide a systematic approach for improved One Health capacity strengthening in countries. Supported by the IHR-PVS National Bridging Workshops and the development of the Tripartite Zoonoses Guide and related operational tools, the Tripartite and now Quadripartite, are working alongside countries to address critical gaps at the human-animal-environment interface.


Asunto(s)
Salud Única , Animales , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Salud Global , Naciones Unidas , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional
9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278020, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607964

RESUMEN

Recent evidence has shown support for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) accelerator concept, which highlights the need to identify interventions or programmatic areas that can affect multiple sustainable development goals (SDGs) at once to boost their achievement. These data have also clearly shown enhanced effects when interventions are used in combination, above and beyond the effect of single interventions. However, detailed knowledge is now required on optimum combinations and relative gain in order to derive policy guidance. Which accelerators work for which outcomes, what combinations are optimum, and how many combinations are needed to maximise effect? The current study utilised pooled data from the Young Carers (n = 1402) and Child Community Care (n = 446) studies. Data were collected at baseline (n = 1848) and at a 1 to 1.5- year follow-up (n = 1740) from children and young adolescents aged 9-13 years, living in South Africa. Measures in common between the two databases were used to generate five accelerators (caregiver praise, caregiver monitoring, food security, living in a safe community, and access to community-based organizations) and to investigate their additive effects on 14 SDG-related outcomes. Predicted probabilities and predicted probability differences were calculated for each SDG outcome under the presence of none to five accelerators to determine optimal combinations. Results show that various accelerator combinations are effective, though different combinations are needed for different outcomes. Some accelerators ramified across multiple outcomes. Overall, the presence of up to three accelerators was associated with marked improvements over multiple outcomes. The benefit of targeting access to additional accelerators, with additional costs, needs to be weighed against the relative gains to be achieved with high quality but focused interventions. In conclusion, the current data show the detailed impact of various protective factors and provides implementation guidance for policy makers in targeting and distributing interventions to maximise effect and expenditure. Future work should investigate multiplicative effects and synergistic interactions between accelerators.


Asunto(s)
Formulación de Políticas , Desarrollo Sostenible , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Factores Protectores , Naciones Unidas , Probabilidad
10.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279632, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580470

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The debilitating effects of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and the accompanying chronic inflammation represent a significant obstacle for the sustainability of our development, with efforts spreading worldwide to counteract the diffusion of NCDs, as per the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 3). In fact, despite efforts of varied intensity in numerous directions (from innovations in biotechnology to lifestyle modifications), the incidence of NCDs remains pandemic. The present work wants to contribute to addressing this major concern, with a specific focus on the fragmentation of medical approaches, via an interdisciplinary analysis of the medical discourse, i.e. the heterogenous reporting that biomedical scientific literature uses to describe the anti-inflammatory therapeutic landscape in NCDs. The aim is to better capture the roots of this compartmentalization and the power relations existing among three segregated pharmacological, experimental and unstandardized biomedical approaches to ultimately empower collaboration beyond medical specialties and possibly tap into a more ample and effective reservoir of integrated therapeutic opportunities. METHOD: Using rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as an exemplar disease, twenty-eight articles were manually translated into a nine-dimensional categorical variable of medical socio-anthropological relevance, relating in particular (but not only) to legitimacy, temporality and spatialization. This digitalized picture (9 x 28 table) of the medical discourse was further analyzed by simple automated learning approaches to identify differences and highlight commonalities among the biomedical categories. RESULTS: Interpretation of these results provides original insights, including suggestions to: empower scientific communication between unstandardized approaches and basic biology; promote the repurposing of non-pharmacological therapies to enhance robustness of experimental approaches; and align the spatial representation of diseases and therapies in pharmacology to effectively embrace the systemic approach promoted by modern personalized and preventive medicines. We hope this original work can expand and foster interdisciplinarity among public health stakeholders, ultimately contributing to the achievement of SDG3.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide , Salud Pública , Humanos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Naciones Unidas , Artritis Reumatoide/terapia
11.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 67(17): 1792-1801, 2022 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546065

RESUMEN

The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provides an important framework for economic, social, and environmental action. A comprehensive indicator system to aid in the systematic implementation and monitoring of progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is unfortunately limited in many countries due to lack of data. The availability of a growing amount of multi-source data and rapid advancements in big data methods and infrastructure provide unique opportunities to mitigate these data shortages and develop innovative methodologies for comparatively monitoring SDGs. Big Earth Data, a special class of big data with spatial attributes, holds tremendous potential to facilitate science, technology, and innovation toward implementing SDGs around the world. Several programs and initiatives in China have invested in Big Earth Data infrastructure and capabilities, and have successfully carried out case studies to demonstrate their utility in sustainability science. This paper presents implementations of Big Earth Data in evaluating SDG indicators, including the development of new algorithms, indicator expansion (for SDG 11.4.1) and indicator extension (for SDG 11.3.1), introduction of a biodiversity risk index as a more effective analysis method for SDG 15.5.1, and several new high-quality data products, such as global net ecosystem productivity, high-resolution global mountain green cover index, and endangered species richness. These innovations are used to present a comprehensive analysis of SDGs 2, 6, 11, 13, 14, and 15 from 2010 to 2020 in China utilizing Big Earth Data, concluding that all six SDGs are on schedule to be achieved by 2030.


Asunto(s)
Macrodatos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Naciones Unidas
12.
Sci Prog ; 105(4): 368504221145648, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573795

RESUMEN

The world has limited resources and resource depletion has been a serious concern for many years. To ensure that ecological balance is maintained, the United Nations has developed 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study attempts to meet the 12th SDG of "responsible production and consumption" and provide a guideline to manufacturing organizations in Pakistan. Many scholars have examined the role of different technologies on sustainable performance. However, research using eco-innovation (EI), digital transformation (DT), and smart technologies (ST) is still scarce. The current study develops the conceptual model based on the resource-based view (RBV) and technology, organization, and environment (TOE) theories, and using a simple random sampling technique, valid data from 375 professionals in the manufacturing industry is collected to test the relationship between sustainable development strategy (SDS), EI, DT, ST, and sustainable supply chain performance (SSCP). The results indicate strong positive relationships between SDS, EI, DT, ST, and SSCP. Results indicate that even if organizations are executing SDS and EI, without DT and ST, organizations cannot achieve SSCP. Therefore, it is recommended to the managers that they must apply DT and ST to guarantee their pursuit of achieving sustainable performance and contribution toward SDGs.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Tecnología , Naciones Unidas , Comercio , Modelos Teóricos
13.
Health Hum Rights ; 24(2): 191-204, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579302

RESUMEN

Facing the unmet need for new, affordable medicines for public health crises, how should states' duty to ensure that everyone shares in the benefits of science be understood in relation to pandemic vaccine supply, and how has the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights monitored the implementation of this right? In this paper, we examine the contours and content of state obligations with regard to pandemic vaccine supply under the right to science (article 15(1)(b) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), focusing on three aspects of state obligations: mobilizing public resources for developing and disseminating the benefits of scientific progress in areas of public health need; preventing unreasonably high medicines prices; and international cooperation, particularly in a globalized health emergency. The committee regularly assesses state parties' implementation of their obligations under the covenant, culminating in the issuing of concluding observations, which often serve as a basis for the next round of periodic reporting by states and can thereby direct future state action. Our analysis of the committee's concluding observations reveals that the committee has inconsistently applied its own guidance on the right to science regarding medicines and intellectual property in these monitoring exercises. These findings inform a rights-based response to medical innovation for health crises and advance the Sustainable Development Goal target on medicines research and development.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Naciones Unidas , Cooperación Internacional
14.
Science ; 378(6625): 1147, 2022 12 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36480600

RESUMEN

This week, Montreal, Canada, is at the epicenter of international negotiations for biodiversity. Thousands of people from around the world are attending the 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) to witness the negotiation of a new Global Biodiversity Framework. Its goals and targets replace the previous framework-the Aichi Biodiversity Targets-that failed to bring about the transformative change needed to reverse the alarming trends in biodiversity loss.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Canadá , Naciones Unidas , Congresos como Asunto
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498385

RESUMEN

Despite numerous initiatives and resources to save and protect the health and sexual rights of girls and women, the persistently high rate of unwanted pregnancy, abortion, and sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remain a topical public health challenge. This study hypothesised that the continuous conspicuous omission of boys/men in the interventions to combat this menace could be a long-life impediment to the realisation of sustainable health for girls and women in the region. The study adopted a systematic review of extant population-based published studies from Scopus, Google Scholars, PubMed, EMBASE, and AJOL. Literature coverage included the post-United Nations' coordinated International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo, 1994, which marked the beginning of a massive campaign for women/girls sexual rights. The obtained qualitative data were appraised and synthesised towards spurring policy recommendations for gender balanced initiatives on the sexual and reproductive health rights in SSA. The study highlighted that unwanted pregnancy occurs only when a boy/man has unprotected sex with a girl/woman without considering her choice or rights. It is considered ironic that the dominant factors are boys and men but many enlightenment initiatives/campaigns are concentrated on girls and women. The study developed a schematic save-a-girl-child framework that illustrated the possible dividends inherent in the training of a boy-child to achieve a safer world for the girls/women. It recommends increase in the exposure of boys and men to sexual education and counselling, which can motivate them to be supporters of family planning, supporters of only wanted pregnancy, wanted fatherhood, marital fidelity, intimate partners' harmonious living rather than violence, and wife or partner empowerment.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Embarazo , Masculino , Femenino , Derechos de la Mujer , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Naciones Unidas
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1049932, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408043

RESUMEN

A Code Red has been declared for the planet and human health. Climate change (e.g., increasing temperatures, adverse weather events, rising sea levels) threatens the planet's already declining ecosystems. Without urgent action, all of Earth's inhabitants face an existential threat. Health professions education should therefore prepare learners to not only practice in a changing world, but authentic educational activities should also develop competencies for global and planetary citizenship. Planetary health has been integrated across the five-year Bond University (Australia) medical curriculum. It begins in the second week of Year 1 and ends with a session on Environmentally Sustainable Healthcare in the General Practice rotation in the final year. The purpose of this article is to describe the outcomes of the first 5 years (2018-2022) of a learner-centered planetary health assignment, underpinned by the 2030 United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in the second year of a five-year medical program. Using systems and/or design thinking with a focus on SDG13 (Climate Action) plus a second SDG of choice, self-selected teams of 4-6 students submit a protocol (with feedback) to develop a deliverable "product" for an intended audience. Data analysis of the first 5 years of implementation found that the most frequently selected SDGs in addition to SDG13 were: SDG12 Sustainable Production and Consumption (41% of teams), mostly relating to healthcare emissions and waste; SDG3 Health and Well-being (22%), generally involving the impact of air pollution; and SDG6 Clean Water and Sanitation (15%). A survey at the concluding conference garnered student feedback across various criteria. The planetary health assignment is authentic in that teams provide solutions to address climate change. Where appropriate, final "products" are sent to local or federal ministers for consideration (e.g., policy proposals) or integrated into the curriculum (e.g., learning modules). We believe that the competencies, attitudes, and values fostered through engagement with planetary health. Throughout the medical program, as evidenced by their evaluations, stands students in good stead to be change agents, not only in clinical practice but in society. An awareness has been created about the need for planetary citizenship in addition to global citizenship.


Asunto(s)
Planetas , Desarrollo Sostenible , Humanos , Ecosistema , Naciones Unidas , Estudiantes
17.
Child Abuse Negl ; 134: 105920, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371849

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The United Nations Refugee Agency [UNHCR] implements a Framework for Child Protection for refugee children, based on a child protection systems-strengthening approach. Measurement of child protection system strength in humanitarian contexts is nascent, and existing methodologies do not capture the multiple components of the Framework. OBJECTIVE: To develop, pilot and refine a measure of child protection system strength in humanitarian contexts. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The Child Protection Index [CPI] was implemented in two humanitarian contexts - Kiziba Camp, Rwanda and Kiryandongo and Adjumani refugee camps, Uganda, at two time points [Time 1 = T1; Time 2 = T2]. Data collection in Kiziba camp was conducted in December 2013 and October/November 2015, and in Kiryandongo and Adjumani in December 2014/February 2015 and June-August 2016. Participants were staff members of international non-governmental organizations (T1: n = 17, T2: n = 29), local non-governmental organizations (T1: n = 3, T2: n = 2), Government bodies (T1: n = 3, T2: n = 3) and United Nations agencies (T1: n = 14, T2: n = 9) who were purposively selected to respond to the items included in the CPI. Selection was made on the basis of identifying individuals with the most knowledge and expertise to address the questions in the CPI. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study, conducting key informant interviews based on an interview guide developed to address the items in the CPI, and tailored to the expertise of each key informant. The CPI included scoring, to translate key informants' responses to numerical scores of child protection system strength. RESULTS: The pilot test conducted in Kiziba Camp indicated moderate child protection system strength, with a score of 61/100. At T2, results indicated a change in CPI score of +18.5 to 79.5. At T1, Kiryandongo refugee settlement received a total of 46/100 on the CPI, and at T2, the score improved by 13.5 points. At T1, Adjumani refugee settlement scored a total of 60/100, and at T2, received a total score change of +4.5. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from implementation, adaptation, and evaluation of the CPI offer valuable insights about practicality, validity and potential breadth of measurement of child protection system strengthening in humanitarian settings.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados , Niño , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Campos de Refugiados , Naciones Unidas
19.
J Cancer Policy ; 34: 100370, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The invasion of Ukraine by Russia in February 2022 has resulted in destruction of healthcare infrastructure and triggered the largest wave of internally displaced populations and refugees since World War Two. Conflicts in transitioned countries such as Ukraine create new non-communicable disease (NCD) challenges, especially for cancer care for refugees and humanitarian assistance in host countries. In the early days, rapid attempts were made to model possible impacts. METHODS: By evaluating open source intelligence used in the first three months of the conflict through snowball search methods, we aimed to address: (i) burden of cancer in Ukrainian population, specifically considering translating to the refugees population, and its cancer care capacity; ii) baseline capacity/strengths of cancer systems in initial host countries. Moreover, using a baseline scenario based on crude cancer incidence in Ukraine, and considering data from UNHCR, we estimated how cancer cases would be distributed across host countries. Finally, a surveillance assessment instrument was created, intersecting health system's capacity and influx of internally displaced populations and refugees. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: The total new cancer patients per month in pre-conflict Ukraine was estimated as 13,106, of which < 1 % are paediatric cases. The estimated cancer cases in the refugee population (combining prevalent and incident), assuming 7.5 million refugees by July 2022 and a female:male ratio of 9:1, was 33,121 individuals (Poland: 19284; Hungary: 3484; Moldova: 2651; Slovakia: 2421; Romania: 5281). According to our assessments, Poland is the only neighbouring country classified as green/yellow for cancer capacity, i.e. sufficient ablility to absorb additional burden into national health system; Slovakia we graded as yellow, Hungary and Romania as yellow/red and Moldova as red.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Refugiados , Sistemas de Socorro , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Naciones Unidas , Atención a la Salud , Neoplasias/epidemiología
20.
F1000Res ; 11: 219, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329795

RESUMEN

The ethics of compulsive treatment (CT) is a medical, social and legal discussion that reemerged after the ratification by 181 countries of the 2007 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN-CRPD). The optional protocol of the UN-CRPD was ratified by 86 countries aiming to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights. It also determined the need to review mental health laws as under this light treatment of persons with disabilities, particularly those with mental disorders, cannot accept the use of CT. This selective review of literature aims to clarify inputs from clinical psychiatry adding evidence to the multi-disciplinary discussion. It focuses on how patients experience CT and its impact on their mental health and treatment programs, the reasons for the use of CT versus voluntary treatment and what efforts have been made to reduce, replace and refine the presence of CT in psychiatry.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Psiquiatría , Humanos , Naciones Unidas , Salud Mental , Conducta Compulsiva
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