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2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3753-3764, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468669

RESUMEN

This work, extracted from the doctoral research of the author, aims to discuss, from the reports of socio-educational system professionals, the access to State politics and programs performed by youth in conflict with the law attending to socio-educational system. In this research, 14 professionals who work in periphery regions, at the South Zone of São Paulo were interviewed, using the methodological proposal of "narrative policies". From the reports, we can see ambiguities of proposals and state interventions, configuring the "double discipline" of State, evidencing the insufficiency and the disinvestment in social security and social assistance policies, meanwhile occurs the production of an apparatus of repressive measures. We discuss the theme related to the field of public health and the importance of the bonds between professionals and youth attending to socio-educational system.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Brasil , Humanos , Política , Política Pública
3.
Lima; Perú. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; 1 ed; 20210900. 89 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1290608

RESUMEN

El documento contiene una compilación ordenado y ­ a veces corregido ­ las notas que, habiendo sido presentadas a los responsables de dicho Blog, han sido publicadas en este año del bicentenario y de la pandemia. Notas en las que se presentan, para su debate crítico en aquel intercambio de ideas, algunas reflexiones y comentarios personales ­ no siempre ortodoxos ­ sobre tres temas: salud pública; política y justicia social en salud pública; y, memoria institucional.


Asunto(s)
Política , Justicia Social , Salud Pública , Coronavirus , Impactos en la Salud , Sistemas Nacionales de Salud , Pandemias , Política de Salud , Historia de la Medicina , Memoria
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 624, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477980

RESUMEN

Monitoring and Assessment (M&A) of environmental resources aims to support the formulation of policies and follow up on outcomes of their implementation. In this study, the state of M&A is explored for Ethiopia with a focus on forests and water resources. The study is intended to serve as recommendations for future M&A applications in Ethiopia, as well as fulfillment of SDGs and other national and international commitments. Expert meetings, key informant interviews, and selected document analysis served as sources of information. The findings were summarized using qualitative grading and institutional mapping. Basic results of the study are that monitoring data on climate and streamflow are standardized in forms that can be communicated to policymakers. Scantier and less standardized are environmental data on soils, sediment transport, forests, biodiversity, and air quality. Water quality, soil moisture, groundwater level, forest biomass, and soil carbon are rarely monitored and can only be found in reports or studies for the fulfillment of academic degree requirements. Resources like nutrient fluxes have rarely been documented, not at all in some cases. There is considerable scope for tapping both technological advances and experiences of citizen science and local participation in environmental governance to rapidly expand and improve monitoring from local to regional and national scales. The study showed that there is a need for establishing a coordinated national system for monitoring and assessing the status of the environment, including the use of natural resources. Communicating such data to the scientific and wider public will support evidence-based planning and policy-making towards national development.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Etiopía , Bosques
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444242

RESUMEN

Little is known about the environmental health-related policies and practices of early care and education (ECE) programs that contribute to childhood asthma, particularly in Oklahoma where child asthma rates (9.8%) and rates of uncontrolled asthma among children with asthma (60.0%) surpass national rates (8.1% and 50.3%, respectively). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with directors of Oklahoma-licensed ECE programs to assess policies and practices related to asthma control and to evaluate potential differences between Centers and Family Childcare Homes (FCCHs). Surveyed ECEs (n = 476) included Centers (56.7%), FCCHs (40.6%), and other program types (2.7%). Almost half (47.2%) of directors reported never receiving any asthma training. More Center directors were asthma-trained than FCCH directors (61.0% versus 42.0%, p < 0.0001). Most ECEs used asthma triggers, including bleach (88.5%) and air fresheners (73.6%). Centers were more likely to use bleach daily than were FCCHs (75.6% versus 66.8%, p = 0.04). FCCHs used air fresheners more than did Centers (79.0% versus 61.0%, p < 0.0001). The majority of ECEs (74.8%) used pesticides indoors. Centers applied indoor pesticides more frequently (i.e., monthly or more often) than did FCCHs (86.0% versus 58.0%, p < 0.0001). Policy, educational, and technical assistance interventions are needed to reduce asthma triggers and improve asthma control in Oklahoma ECEs.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Guarderías Infantiles , Asma/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Salud Ambiental , Política de Salud , Humanos , Oklahoma/epidemiología
6.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54758

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. This paper highlights the important leadership role of the public health sector, working with other governmental sectors and nongovernmental entities, to advance environmental public health in Latin America and the Carib-bean toward the achievement of 2030 Sustainable Development Goal 3: Health and Well-Being. The most pressing current and future environmental public health threats are discussed, followed by a brief review of major historical and current international and regional efforts to address these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of three major components of a regional environmental public health agenda that responsible parties can undertake to make significant progress toward ensuring the health and well-being of all people throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.


[RESUMEN]. En este artículo se destaca el importante papel de liderazgo que tiene el sector de la salud pública, en colaboración con otros sectores gubernamentales y entidades no gubernamentales, en el fomento de la salud pública medioambiental en América Latina y el Caribe con el fin de alcanzar para el 2030 el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible número 3: salud y bienestar. Se abordan las amenazas de salud pública medioambi-ental actuales y futuras más urgentes, y se presenta una breve revisión de las principales medidas históricas y actuales adoptadas a nivel regional e internacional para abordar estas cuestiones. El artículo finaliza con un análisis de los tres principales componentes de un programa regional de salud pública ambiental que las partes responsables pueden ejecutar para realizar progresos significativos en la garantía de la salud y el bienestar de todos en América Latina y el Caribe.


[RESUMO]. Este artigo destaca o importante papel de liderança do setor de saúde pública, trabalhando com outros seto-res governamentais e entidades não governamentais, para promover a saúde pública ambiental na América Latina e no Caribe a fim de atingir o Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3 para 2030: Saúde e Bem- Estar. São discutidas as ameaças ambientais mais urgentes para a saúde pública, atuais e futuras, seguidas por uma breve revisão dos principais esforços históricos e atuais, internacionais e regionais, para abordar essas preocupações. O artigo conclui com uma discussão de três componentes essenciais de uma agenda regional de saúde pública ambiental que as partes responsáveis podem adotar para avançar significativa-mente no sentido de garantir a saúde e o bem-estar de todas as pessoas na América Latina e no Caribe.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Salud Ambiental , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Equidad en Salud , Política de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Américas , Cambio Climático , Salud Ambiental , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Equidad en Salud , Política de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Américas , Cambio Climático , Salud Ambiental , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Equidad en Salud , Política de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Américas
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(7): 910-12, 2021 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343114

RESUMEN

Confirmed new cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have accelerated in Sub-Saharan Africa against a backdrop of fragile health systems, a high burden of comorbidities and socioeconomic instability. The context makes the region particularly vulnerable to the virus and its impact. As cases escalate, the need to tailor-make COVID-19-related response strategies to the African context is imperative. This paper aims to discuss key considerations on the public health response to the pandemic and its intersection with ethics and human rights. With this perspective, we bring attention to the conflict between healthcare workers' obligations and patient rights under the unclear policy and regulatory frameworks and the application of restrictive measures in the context of poverty. The indirect effects of the pandemic on already existing health problems are also highlighted. We appeal to the African States to establish appropriate systems which integrate human rights-based approaches to COVID-19 response. These systems should be ethically sound systems and ensure no-one is left behind in terms of testing, access to therapeutics and vaccination, and social protection; based on lessons learned over the past 12 months of the pandemic's presence in SSA, and patterns emerging across the globe.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Derechos Humanos/ética , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Pública , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Pobreza
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360064

RESUMEN

China and other emerging market countries have suffered from the problem of environmental pollution while developing rapidly in the past few decades. In recent years, many countries have introduced strict environmental regulations in order to achieve sustainable development. This paper discusses the relationship between environmental regulations and corporate green innovation from the perspective of regional leaders' promotion pressure. The empirical results show that direct policy regulation within the region stimulates green innovation on the part of enterprises, and the promotion pressure of city leaders has a further positive moderating effect on the positive correlation between environmental regulations and enterprises' green innovation. The conclusion of the study proves that a strict environmental policy can promote the effectiveness of an environmental performance appraisal system in the sustainable development plans of cities and enterprises. This paper not only reveals the influence path of official promotion pressure on the sustainable development of enterprises in the administrative area from the micro perspective but also sheds some light that may improve government governance and promote the transformation of enterprises.


Asunto(s)
Organizaciones , Desarrollo Sostenible , China , Ciudades , Política Ambiental , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Humanos
10.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372562

RESUMEN

Many of the world's most pressing issues, such as the emergence of zoonotic diseases, can only be addressed through interdisciplinary research. However, the findings of interdisciplinary research are susceptible to miscommunication among both professional and non-professional audiences due to differences in training, language, experience, and understanding. Such miscommunication contributes to the misunderstanding of key concepts or processes and hinders the development of effective research agendas and public policy. These misunderstandings can also provoke unnecessary fear in the public and have devastating effects for wildlife conservation. For example, inaccurate communication and subsequent misunderstanding of the potential associations between certain bats and zoonoses has led to persecution of diverse bats worldwide and even government calls to cull them. Here, we identify four types of miscommunication driven by the use of terminology regarding bats and the emergence of zoonotic diseases that we have categorized based on their root causes: (1) incorrect or overly broad use of terms; (2) terms that have unstable usage within a discipline, or different usages among disciplines; (3) terms that are used correctly but spark incorrect inferences about biological processes or significance in the audience; (4) incorrect inference drawn from the evidence presented. We illustrate each type of miscommunication with commonly misused or misinterpreted terms, providing a definition, caveats and common misconceptions, and suggest alternatives as appropriate. While we focus on terms specific to bats and disease ecology, we present a more general framework for addressing miscommunication that can be applied to other topics and disciplines to facilitate more effective research, problem-solving, and public policy.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Malentendido Terapéutico/psicología , Animales , Quirópteros , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Humanos , Lenguaje , Salud Pública , Política Pública/tendencias , Zoonosis/transmisión
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360311

RESUMEN

The rapid economic development has severely damaged the ecological environment and affected public health. Firms are the main source of pollution; thus, corporate environmental responsibility (CER) has attracted great attention from the government, shareholders and the public. This study used both the fixed effects model and the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) model to examine the relationship between environmental pollution, environmental regulations and CER for 30 provinces in China, over the period 2005 to 2015. This study drew the following results: first, mandatory CER disclosure policy can significantly decrease environmental pollution. Second, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between environmental regulations and environmental pollution. Third, environmental pollution has a positive impact on CER. Fourth, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between environmental regulations and CER. Therefore, it is necessary to find a balance between environmental regulations affecting environmental pollution and CER so that they can effectively reduce environmental pollution and increase the enthusiasm of firms to carry out environmental responsibility activities.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación Ambiental , Responsabilidad Social , China , Desarrollo Económico , Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Políticas
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360509

RESUMEN

It is the scientific way to promote the transformation and optimization of an industrial structure to promote the improvement of its green total factor productivity (GTFP) by formulating environmental regulation policies. Based on the GTFP panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2004 to 2017, this paper takes the "Air Pollution Control and Prevention Action Plan" (APCP Action Plan) as the proxy dummy variable of environmental regulation, and uses the difference-in-differences (DID) model to explore the impact of the implementation of the APCP Action Plan on GTFP. In addition, by constructing the industrial structure optimization index, this paper analyzes how the APCP Action Plan policy affects GTFP through the transformation and optimization of industrial structure. The following basic conclusions are obtained: First, environmental regulation policies like the APCP Action Plan can improve GTFP. Second, the APCP Action Plan has regional heterogeneity in promoting GTFP in different regions. The policy only significantly affects the GTFP in the Pearl River Delta region in southern China. Third, the "quantity" and "quality" of the optimization of industrial structure will weaken the promoting effect of the APCP Action Plan on GTFP. In contrast, the rationalization of industrial structure will aggravate this promoting effect.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Política Ambiental , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Eficiencia , Contaminación Ambiental
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321236

RESUMEN

Migration health is affected by decision making at levels ranging from global to local, both within and beyond the health sector. These decisions impact seeking, entitlements, service delivery, policy making and knowledge production on migration health. It is key that ethical challenges faced by decision makers are recognised and addressed in research and data, clinical practice and policy making on migration health. An ethical approach can provide methods to identify ethical issues, frameworks for systematising information and suggesting ethically acceptable solutions, and guidance on procedural concerns and legitimate decision making processes. By unpacking dilemmas, conflicts of interests and values at stake, an ethical approach is relevant for all who make decisions about migration health policy and practice. Adopting an ethical approach to migration health benefits governments, organisations, policy makers, health workers, data managers, researchers and migrants themselves. First, it highlights the inherent normative questions and trade-offs at stake in migration health. Second, it assists decision makers in deciding what is the ethically justifiable thing to do through an 'all things considered' approach. Third, ethical frameworks and technical guidance set normative and practical standards for decision makers facing ethical questions - from 'bedside rationing' to collection of big data or in policy making - that can ensure that migrants' interests are considered. Fourth, there is a need for greater transparency and accountability in decision making, as well as meaningful participation of migrant groups. An ethical approach connects to public health, economic and human rights arguments and highlights the urgent need to mainstream concerns for migrants in global and national health responses.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Formulación de Políticas , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Salud Pública , Política Pública
16.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1ra ed; 20210700. 53 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1282190

RESUMEN

El documento contiene: Antecedentes, evolución y perspectivas de la políticas de salud en el Perú, el Acuerdo Nacional y la salud, breve recuento en materia de rectoría y gasto público, un quinquenio de cambios mundiales: la Agenda 2030 y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, la pandemia de COVID-19 en las Américas, aportes para la transformación de la salud en un contexto de crisis, El camino de la cobertura universal.


Asunto(s)
Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Impactos en la Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Gestión en Salud , Pandemias , Desarrollo Sostenible , Gastos Públicos , Política de Salud
17.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1ra ed; 20210700. 98 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1282191

RESUMEN

El documento contiene: La Política Nacional Multisectorial de Salud al 2030: Perú, País Saludable, El Modelo de Cuidado Integral de Salud por Curso de Vida, Evolución de la rectoría del sector salud: 2016-2021, Redes Integradas de Salud ­ RIS, Financiamiento en salud, Cobertura Universal de Salud - Seguro Integral de Salud, Gestión de riesgos, Derechos en salud: SUSALUD, Trabajando por más salud, Recursos humanos en salud, Agenda Digital del Sector Salud 2020-2025, Medicamentos, Actualización del Plan Esencial de Aseguramiento en Salud PEAS 2021 - DS 023-2021-SA.


Asunto(s)
Gestión de Riesgos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Atención Integral de Salud , Impactos en la Salud , Desarrollo Institucional , Agenda de Prioridades en Salud , Recursos Humanos , Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Política de Salud , Seguro , Gestión en Salud
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254511, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255781

RESUMEN

Spain was, together with Italy, the first European country severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After one month of strict lockdown and eight weeks of partial restrictions, Spanish residents are expected to have revised some of their beliefs. We conducted a survey one year before the pandemic, at its outbreak and during de-escalation (N = 1706). Despite the lockdown, most respondents tolerated being controlled by authorities, and acknowledged the importance of group necessities over individual rights. However, de-escalation resulted in a belief change towards the intrusiveness of authorities and the preeminence of individual rights. Besides, transcendental beliefs-God answering prayers and the existence of an afterlife-declined after the outbreak, but were strengthened in the de-escalation. Results were strongly influenced by political ideology: the proportion of left-sided voters who saw authorities as intrusive greatly decreased, and transcendental beliefs prevailed among right-sided voters. Our results point to a polarization of beliefs based on political ideology as a consequence of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , COVID-19/psicología , Cultura , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Femenino , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política , Cuarentena/psicología , España
20.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(1): 145-150, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194208

RESUMEN

A critical debate in the race to develop, market, and distribute COVID-19 vaccines could define the future of this pandemic: How much evidence demonstrating a vaccine's safety and efficacy should be required before it is considered "essential"? If a COVID-19 vaccine were to be designated an essential medicine by the World Health Organization, this would invoke special "core" human rights duties for governments to provide the vaccine as a matter of priority irrespective of resource constraints. States would also have duties to make the vaccine available in adequate amounts, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and adequate information, and at an affordable price. This question is especially critical and unique given that COVID-19 vaccines have in many cases been authorized for use via national emergency use authorization processes-mechanisms that enable the public to gain access to promising medical products before they have received full regulatory approval and licensure. In this paper, we examine whether unlicensed COVID-19 vaccines authorized for emergency use should ever be considered essential medicines, thereby placing prioritized obligations on countries regarding their accessibility and affordability.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , COVID-19 , Medicamentos Esenciales , Derechos Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Humanos
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