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1.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
3.
Conserv Biol ; 35(5): 1463-1472, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615559

RESUMEN

Illegal, unregulated, and unreported (IUU) fishing poses a major threat to effective management of marine resources, affecting biodiversity and communities dependent on these coastal resources. Spatiotemporal patterns of industrial fisheries in developing countries are often poorly understood, and global efforts to describe spatial patterns of fishing vessel activity are currently based on automatic identification system (AIS) data. However, AIS is often not a legal requirement on fishing vessels, likely resulting in underestimates of the scale and distribution of legal and illegal fishing activity, which could have significant ramifications for targeted enforcement efforts and the management of fisheries resources. To help address this knowledge gap, we analyzed 3 years of vessel monitoring system (VMS) data in partnership with the national fisheries department in the Republic of the Congo to describe the behavior of national and distant-water industrial fleets operating in these waters. We found that the spatial footprint of the industrial fisheries fleet encompassed over one-quarter of the Exclusive Economic Zone. On average, 73% of fishing activity took place on the continental shelf (waters shallower than 200 m). Our findings highlight that VMS is not acting as a deterrent or being effectively used as a proactive management tool. As much as 33% (13% on average) of fishing effort occurred in prohibited areas set aside to protect biodiversity, including artisanal fisheries resources, and the distant-water fleet responsible for as much as 84% of this illegal activity. Given the growth in industrial and distant-water fleets across the region, as well as low levels of management and enforcement, these findings highlight that there is an urgent need for the global community to help strengthen regional and national capacity to analyze national scale data sets if efforts to combat IUU fishing are to be effective.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Seguridad Alimentaria , Biodiversidad , Congo , Explotaciones Pesqueras
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242363, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370255

RESUMEN

Cooperation is thought to be a necessary condition to solve collective action dilemmas such as climate change or the sustainable use of common pool resources. Yet, it is poorly understood how situations pervaded by thresholds shape the behaviour of people facing collective dilemmas. Here we provide empirical evidence that resource users facing thresholds maintain on average cooperative behaviours in the sense of maximising their individual earnings while ensuring future group opportunities. A framed field experiment in the form of a dynamic game with 256 Colombian fishers helped us investigate individual behavioural responses to the existence of thresholds, risk and uncertainty. Thresholds made fishers extract less fish compared to situation without thresholds, but risk had a stronger effect on reducing individual fishing effort. Contrary to previous expectations, cooperation did not break down. If cooperation can be maintained in the face of thresholds, then communicating uncertainty is more policy-relevant than estimating precisely where tipping points lay in social-ecological systems.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Cooperativa , Agricultores/psicología , Explotaciones Pesqueras/estadística & datos numéricos , Incertidumbre , Colombia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Toma de Decisiones , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Juegos Experimentales , Humanos , Asunción de Riesgos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20180527, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146257

RESUMEN

Small-scale fisheries is an important factor in the generation of income, jobs and food security. Understanding the characteristics of small-scale fisheries, and the volume of resources and food that they generate can help society recognize their value, lead to the establishment of public policies to improve working conditions and adapt the management of exploited resources for long-term conservation. The objective of this study was to estimate income, production capacity and importance of small-scale fisheries for fisher families of the municipality of Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. Fishers were interviewed from May 2012 to June 2013 and categorized according to vessel size and the number of people on the boat and helpers. Monthly income ranged from US$ 566.78 to US$ 1,466.87. The importance of fishing to family income ranged from 50.60% (employee) to 78.25% (entrepreneur). Fishers usually dedicate themselves to this activity for 8.47 to 13.22 hours daily, with daily fish production volume ranging from 42.72 to 122.14 kg/day. Small-scale fisheries involve, either directly or indirectly, about 1,170 people in the municipality and provide a network of social protection due to their local and regional importance.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Política Pública , Animales , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Peces , Humanos
7.
Nature ; 588(7836): 48-56, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177707

RESUMEN

The threat of criminal activity in the fisheries sector has concerned the international community for a number of years. In more recent times, the presence of organized crime in fisheries has come to the fore. In 2008, the United Nations General Assembly asked all states to contribute to increasing our understanding the connection between illegal fishing and transnational organized crime at sea. Policy-makers, researchers and members of civil society are increasing their knowledge of the dynamics and destructiveness of the blue shadow economy and the role of organized crime within this economy. Anecdotal, scientific and example-based evidence of the various manifestations of organized crime in fisheries, its widespread adverse impacts on economies, societies and the environment globally and its potential security consequences is now publicly available. Here we present the current state of knowledge on organized crime in the fisheries sector. We show how the many facets of organized crime in this sector, including fraud, drug trafficking and forced labour, hinder progress towards the development of a sustainable ocean economy. With reference to worldwide promising practices, we highlight practical opportunities for action to address the problem. We emphasize the need for a shared understanding of the challenge and for the implementation of intelligence-led, skills-based cooperative law enforcement action at a global level and a community-based approach for targeting organized crime in the supply chain of organized criminal networks at a local level, facilitated by legislative frameworks and increased transparency.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/economía , Política Ambiental/economía , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Explotaciones Pesqueras/economía , Océanos y Mares , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía , Desarrollo Sostenible/legislación & jurisprudencia , Animales , Tráfico de Drogas/economía , Fraude/economía , Trata de Personas/economía , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Impuestos/economía
8.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 7(3): 161-169, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748195

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review brings together recent key research related to the role of fisheries as a source of nutrients to improve human health and discusses the implications of fisheries policy on food- and nutrient-security. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies highlight the critical role of fisheries to support human nutrition, describing the nutrient composition of hundreds of species of fish, the global distribution of these fish, and the strategic role of fisheries in addressing micronutrient deficiencies. In many developing regions and emerging economies, fisheries can address malnutrition with local supplies of critical nutrients such as fatty acids, zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamins, making these accessible to low-income populations. However, this local potential is jeopardized by overfishing, climate change, and international trade, which reduce the local availability of nutritious and affordable fish in low-income countries, where they are most needed. This calls for policy reforms that shift management focus of fisheries as a commodity provider to a domestic public health asset to ensure food- and nutrient-security.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras/legislación & jurisprudencia , Seguridad Alimentaria/legislación & jurisprudencia , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Política Nutricional , Políticas , Animales , Cambio Climático , Comercio , Peces , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Micronutrientes/deficiencia
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111438, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692668

RESUMEN

The Indian Ocean hosts a wide range of living resources including fish stocks. Marine resources contribute significantly to economies and livelihoods, and seafood is a major source of protein in Indian Ocean nations. Fisheries resources in the Indian Ocean have started showing symptoms of depletion. Several regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs) have been established for sustainable management of the fisheries resources in the Indian Ocean region. These RFMOs were created at different times with various particular mandates, and in some cases prior to the emergence of contemporary scientific concepts and legal approaches to marine environmental governance. In this article, eight such RFMOs are studied to determine the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) and the precautionary approach (PA), which are now widely accepted norms of fisheries management and international law. This article argues that there is a mismatch between the legal and governance frameworks, and the fisheries science and management.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , Peces , Océano Índico
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110711, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910515

RESUMEN

The question of how to efficiently and effectively manage ocean resources in a sustainable way has reached the forefront of discussion at an international level, but women's contributions to this process have been underestimated or unrecognized. Inclusive management plays a major role in the effective creation, use and adoption of environmental governance, necessitating efforts to measure, monitor and advance inclusivity. In many Pacific island states, there is a lack of disaggregated data collection and management to assist reliable and liable gender-responsive decision-making by national and regional authorities. This lack of information leads to unquantified female contributions and unexplored potential for women to actively contribute to sustainable ocean management as traditional leaders, researchers or science-based managers and in accordance with traditional customs, cultures and processes. This paper examines the contribution of gender-disaggregated data in both (1) effective management of natural resources and (2) measurement and monitoring of the active involvement of women in ocean management. We seek to shift the question from simply "(How) are oceans used by women?" to "How can we build a clear path towards inclusive oceans management using science?", drawing data mainly from gender and ocean management practices in Pacific Small Island Developing States. This work also seeks to ground in reality the increasing national and international evocations about social equity and avoidance of gender discrimination. Given the existing relationships of Pacific peoples with the ocean and the emerging status of ocean science-based governance, wider integration of science and women in marine management can make an interesting and positive impact in this region.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , Ciencia Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Femenino , Humanos , Océanos y Mares , Islas del Pacífico , Océano Pacífico
12.
Conserv Biol ; 34(1): 103-112, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257646

RESUMEN

More than half of the world's 18 penguin species are declining. We, the Steering Committee of the International Union for Conservation of Nature Species Survival Commission Penguin Specialist Group, determined that the penguin species in most critical need of conservation action are African penguin (Spheniscus demersus), Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), and Yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes). Due to small or rapidly declining populations, these species require immediate scientific collaboration and policy intervention. We also used a pairwise-ranking approach to prioritize research and conservation needs for all penguins. Among the 12 cross-taxa research areas we identified, we ranked quantifying population trends, estimating demographic rates, forecasting environmental patterns of change, and improving the knowledge of fisheries interactions as the highest priorities. The highest ranked conservation needs were to enhance marine spatial planning, improve stakeholder engagement, and develop disaster-management and species-specific action plans. We concurred that, to improve the translation of science into effective conservation for penguins, the scientific community and funding bodies must recognize the importance of and support long-term research; research on and conservation of penguins must expand its focus to include the nonbreeding season and juvenile stage; marine reserves must be designed at ecologically appropriate spatial and temporal scales; and communication between scientists and decision makers must be improved with the help of individual scientists and interdisciplinary working groups.


Asunto(s)
Spheniscidae , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Especificidad de la Especie
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1286-1297, 2019 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726558

RESUMEN

Enclosure fisheries have accommodated the widespread expansion of aquaculture in many lakes throughout the Yangtze Plain (YP), China, for over four decades. Such practices have increased food provision but have also triggered various detrimental environmental consequences. To restore ecosystem functions, the Chinese government recently implemented specific regulations to remove enclosure fences from lakes throughout the YP. However, little information is available on the spatial and temporal distributions of the enclosure fences, particularly in relation to the enforcement of recent policy changes. Using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images taken between 2002 and 2018, we conducted the first comprehensive assessment of the interannual changes in enclosure fences in 17 large lakes throughout the YP. Consistent decreases in fence density were found in most lakes after 2015; 15 lakes had >50% of their fences removed, while 9 lakes had >90% removed. The timing and implementation of the development and destruction of enclosure fisheries were related to government policy; before 2015, regional dynamics in enclosure fisheries were attributed to provincial policies, whereas the nearly ubiquitous fence demolition after 2015 was likely a response to national policy. This study represents remotely sensed evidence that demonstrates the importance of both local and national environmental policies and their effectiveness in mitigating ongoing human impacts on vulnerable and valuable natural resources. These findings provide valuable baseline information for future lake environmental monitoring and restoration in the YP region, and the methods used here could be applied to other lacustrine and coastal regions experiencing similar aquaculture activities.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Ecosistema , Lagos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Imágenes Satelitales
15.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0207973, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908477

RESUMEN

Natural resource rules exist to control resources and the people that interact with them. These rules often fail because people do not comply with them. Decisions to comply with natural resource rules often are based on attitudes about legitimacy of rules and the perceived risks of breaking rules. Trust in agencies promulgating rules in part may determine perceptions of legitimacy of the rule, and in turn depends on individuals' trust in different agency actors. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between fishing rule noncompliance and trust in scientists, a key group within management agencies. We interviewed 41 individuals in one rural fishing community in the Brazilian Pantanal from April to August, 2016, to assess (1) noncompliance rates, (2) noncompliance-related attitudes, and (3) the relationship between trust in scientists and noncompliance decisions in the region. We found that among study participants, noncompliance was common and overt. Trust in scientists performing research in the region was the best predictor of noncompliance rate with a fishing rule (nonparametric rank correlation ρ = -0.717; Probit model pseudo-R2 = 0.241). Baseline data from this research may help inform future interventions to minimize IUU fishing and protect the Pantanal fishery. Although our results are specific to one community in the Pantanal, trust in scientists is potentially an important factor for compliance decisions in similar situations around the world. These results build not only on compliance theory but also speak to the important role that many scientists play in rural areas where they conduct their research.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Explotaciones Pesqueras/legislación & jurisprudencia , Brasil , Conducta Cooperativa , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Población Rural , Confianza
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(7): 7284-7299, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721433

RESUMEN

To ensure public safety against veterinary drug residues in food products from animal sources, maximum residue limits (MRLs) should be established by scientific evidence and a transparent estimation process. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) developed an Excel workbook-based tool for MRLs evaluation in 2003. In this study, we developed a web-based tool for MRL evaluation, called Korean MRL evaluation tools (KMET). While KMET used algorithms of JECFA workbook, it added some databases (e.g., Korean food consumption database) and provided additional functions (e.g., selection of target marker residue). Web-based KMET enabled regulatory policy makers to update the database. All input data and output results related to MRL evaluation based on residue depletion and food consumption datasets were archived and provided overall processes from the initial depletion data entry to MRL establishment with user-friendly interface. Our results demonstrated the stepwise processes whereby MRL for trichlorfon in the muscle of Paralichthys olivaceus was established with functional descriptions of KMET. MRL for trichlorfon derived from KMET was proposed and notified by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2018.


Asunto(s)
Residuos de Medicamentos/análisis , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Triclorfón/análisis , Drogas Veterinarias/análisis , Agricultura , Animales , Residuos de Medicamentos/normas , Explotaciones Pesqueras/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos , Aditivos Alimentarios , Contaminación de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Contaminación de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Internet , Residuos de Plaguicidas , República de Corea , Triclorfón/normas , Drogas Veterinarias/normas , Organización Mundial de la Salud
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 652: 320-329, 2019 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366333

RESUMEN

The AQUACROSS project was an unprecedented effort to unify policy concepts, knowledge, and management of freshwater, coastal, and marine ecosystems to support the cost-effective achievement of the targets set by the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. AQUACROSS aimed to support EU efforts to enhance the resilience and stop the loss of biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems as well as to ensure the ongoing and future provision of aquatic ecosystem services. The project focused on advancing the knowledge base and application of Ecosystem-Based Management. Through elaboration of eight diverse case studies in freshwater and marine and estuarine aquatic ecosystem across Europe covering a range of environmental management problems including, eutrophication, sustainable fisheries as well as invasive alien species AQUACROSS demonstrated the application of a common framework to establish cost-effective measures and integrated Ecosystem-Based Management practices. AQUACROSS analysed the EU policy framework (i.e. goals, concepts, time frames) for aquatic ecosystems and built on knowledge stemming from different sources (i.e. WISE, BISE, Member State reporting within different policy processes, modelling) to develop innovative management tools, concepts, and business models (i.e. indicators, maps, ecosystem assessments, participatory approaches, mechanisms for promoting the delivery of ecosystem services) for aquatic ecosystems at various scales of space and time and relevant to different ecosystem types.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Eutrofización , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Agua Dulce
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(12): 5285-5292, 2019 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242136

RESUMEN

Environmental and natural resource (ENR) policies that focus on group outcomes are common but have received relatively less attention from economists than policies based on individual behavior. Existing research tends to focus on particular contexts, such as water or air quality, fisheries, or land use. This paper discusses unifying themes of group performance policies, along with their advantages and disadvantages. We discuss a range of specific policy instruments, including group-based taxes, subsidies, and fixed penalties. We show how, in principle, group-based policies can be designed to achieve efficient provision of group-level environmental performance; however, in some cases, group policies can lead to suboptimal outcomes. We discuss the incentives for collaboration that can arise when regulators impose group performance policies, and the role that it can play in promoting efficient outcomes. We argue that the success of group-based policies will depend both on how the policy is designed (i.e., the external rewards and penalties) and on how the group operates. This implies potential complementarities between "top-down" regulatory interventions based on group performance and "bottom-up" within-group incentives for self-governance. Our discussion suggests that group performance policies should play a more prominent role in the suite of policy instruments considered by scholars and policymakers concerned with ENR management.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Contaminación del Aire/legislación & jurisprudencia , Explotaciones Pesqueras/legislación & jurisprudencia , Procesos de Grupo , Recursos en Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Calidad del Agua/normas
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