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2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(2): 207, 2024 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280056

RESUMEN

The manufacturing of wooden furniture is extensive in Thailand's east. Hazardous chemicals were used in the wooden furniture industry's manufacturing process. Hazardous substances released into the surrounding atmosphere appear to have an impact on the environment and individuals. The ALOHA model is frequently used to assess hazardous chemicals released into the environment; this simulation model is an effective tool for modeling chemical compounds and detecting chemical disasters. It has a tremendous potential for preventing mishaps in potentially hazardous or emergency situations. Acetone and butyl acetate were extracted from the hardwood furniture business to identify accidents such as leaking, spillage, and evaporation. It is described as a highly poisonous, combustible, and explosive material. Toxic accident releases have negative implications for the surrounding areas. The goal of this work was to examine each accident using ALOHA software, and the computation of acetone and butyl acetate accidents was shown in this study. This project provides critical data for the furniture plant's chemical emergency rescue strategy as well as recommendations for emergency evacuation site decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos , Acetona , Sustancias Peligrosas , Humanos , Diseño Interior y Mobiliario , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Programas Informáticos
4.
Chemosphere ; 350: 141086, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163464

RESUMEN

The rising demand from consumer goods and pharmaceutical industry is driving a fast expansion of newly developed chemicals. The conventional toxicity testing of unknown chemicals is expensive, time-consuming, and raises ethical concerns. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) is an efficient computational method because it saves time, resources, and animal experimentation. Advances in machine learning have improved chemical analysis in QSPR studies, but the real-world application of machine learning-based QSPR studies was limited by the unexplainable 'black box' feature of the machine learnings. In this study, multi-encoder structure-to-toxicity (S2T)-transformer based QSPR model was developed to estimate the properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Simplified molecular input line entry systems (SMILES) and molecular descriptors calculated by the Dragon 6 software, were simultaneously considered as input of QSPR model. Furthermore, an attention-based framework is proposed to describe the relationship between the molecular structure and toxicity of hazardous chemicals. The S2T-transformer model achieved the highest R2 scores of 0.918, 0.856, and 0.907 for logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient (Log KOW), octanol-air partition coefficient (Log KOA), and bioconcentration factor (Log BCF) estimation of PCBs, respectively. Moreover, the attention weights were able to properly interpret the lateral (meta, para) chlorination associated with PCBs toxicity and environmental impact.


Asunto(s)
Bifenilos Policlorados , Animales , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Octanoles/química , Agua/química , Programas Informáticos , Relación Estructura-Actividad Cuantitativa , Ambiente
5.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 10(1): 188-211, 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229141

RESUMEN

El desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) ateroscleróticas comienza en edades tempranas y está influenciado por factores genéticos y ambientales. La literatura actual propone el entrenamiento de fuerza (EF) como un medio para reducir el riesgo de ECV y mejorar el perfil lipídico en niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. Con el objetivo de examinar los efectos de un programa de EF en este grupo de población, se realizó una revisión sistemática utilizando el protocolo PRISMA y se buscaron estudios en cinco bases de datos (Pubmed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Embase y Web of Science). Un total de 11 estudios cumplieron los criterios finales de inclusión. Los resultados de esta revisión indicaron que las intervenciones de EF supervisadas y realizadas al menos 3 días a la semana con una duración de 8 semanas, mejoraron significativamente los parámetros lipídicos del colesterol (CT) y las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL). Los programas de EF pueden ser considerados como un tratamiento no farmacológico adecuado para mejorar el perfil lipídico y la salud cardiovascular de niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad (AU)


The development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in life and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Resistance training (RT) is proposed as a means to reduce CVD risk and improve lipid profile in overweight and obese children and adolescents. In order to examine the effects of an RT programme in this population group, a systematic review was conducted using the PRISMA and protocol and using a total of five databases (Pubmed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science). A total of 11 studies met the final inclusion criteria. The results of these studies indicated that supervised PE interventions performed at least 3 days per week with lasting 8 weeks significantly improved lipid parameters of cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Consequently, it was concluded that RT programmes can be considered as a suitable non-pharmacological treatment to improve the lipid profile and cardiovascular health of overweight and obese children and adolescents (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Entrenamiento de Fuerza , Lípidos/sangre , Sobrepeso/sangre , Obesidad/sangre
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 131(12): 127003, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039140

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies across the globe generally reported increased mortality risks associated with particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) exposure with large heterogeneity in the magnitude of reported associations and the shape of concentration-response functions (CRFs). We aimed to evaluate the impact of key study design factors (including confounders, applied exposure model, population age, and outcome definition) on PM2.5 effect estimates by harmonizing analyses on three previously published large studies in Canada [Mortality-Air Pollution Associations in Low Exposure Environments (MAPLE), 1991-2016], the United States (Medicare, 2000-2016), and Europe [Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), 2000-2016] as much as possible. METHODS: We harmonized the study populations to individuals 65+ years of age, applied the same satellite-derived PM2.5 exposure estimates, and selected the same sets of potential confounders and the same outcome. We evaluated whether differences in previously published effect estimates across cohorts were reduced after harmonization among these factors. Additional analyses were conducted to assess the influence of key design features on estimated risks, including adjusted covariates and exposure assessment method. A combined CRF was assessed with meta-analysis based on the extended shape-constrained health impact function (eSCHIF). RESULTS: More than 81 million participants were included, contributing 692 million person-years of follow-up. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality associated with a 5-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 were 1.039 (1.032, 1.046) in MAPLE, 1.025 (1.021, 1.029) in Medicare, and 1.041 (1.014, 1.069) in ELAPSE. Applying a harmonized analytical approach marginally reduced difference in the observed associations across the three studies. Magnitude of the association was affected by the adjusted covariates, exposure assessment methodology, age of the population, and marginally by outcome definition. Shape of the CRFs differed across cohorts but generally showed associations down to the lowest observed PM2.5 levels. A common CRF suggested a monotonically increased risk down to the lowest exposure level. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP12141.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Humanos , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Canadá/epidemiología
7.
Sci Robot ; 8(85): eadd8662, 2023 12 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38055805

RESUMEN

In early 2016, we had the opportunity to test a pair of sprawling posture robots, one designed to mimic a crocodile and another designed to mimic a monitor lizard, along the banks of the Nile River in Uganda, Africa. These robots were developed uniquely for a documentary by the BBC called Spy in the Wild and fell at the intersection of our interests in developing robots to study animals and robots for disaster response and other missions in challenging environments. The documentary required that these robots not only walk and swim in the same harsh, natural environments as the animals that they were modeled on and film up close but also move and even look exactly like the real animals from an aesthetic perspective. This pushed us to take a fundamentally different approach to the design and building of biorobots compared with our typical laboratory-residing robots, in addition to collaborating with sculpting artists to enhance our robots' aesthetics. The robots needed to be designed on the basis of a systematic study of data on the model specimens, be fabricated rapidly, and be reliable and robust enough to handle what the wild would throw at them. Here, we share the research efforts of this collaboration, the design specifications of the robots' hardware and software, the lessons learned from testing these robots in the field first hand, and how the eye-opening experience shaped our subsequent work on disaster response robotics and biorobotics for challenging amphibious scenarios.


Asunto(s)
Robótica , Animales , Programas Informáticos , Computadores , Natación , Ambiente
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131721

RESUMEN

Language development starts during the fetal period when the brain is sensitive to endocrine disruptions from environmental contaminants. This systematic review aims to systematically summarize the existing literature on early-life exposure to PFAS and children's language and communication development, which is an indicator of neurocognitive development. A structured literature search was conducted using three databases, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL, last updated in April 2023. The population was defined as children and young adults. PFAS exposure was assessed pre- or postnatally. The outcome was defined as a language and communication ability assessed with validated instruments, parental self-reports, or clinical language disorder diagnoses. In total, 15 studies were identified for subsequent analyses. Thirteen were performed in background-exposed populations and two in highly exposed populations. There were some indications of potential adverse effects; however, these were not consistent across child sex, age of assessment, or PFAS exposure levels. No systematic effect of early-life PFAS exposure on language and communication development was found. These inconclusive findings may partly be explained by the use of general test instruments with limited validity as to children's language and communication development. Further studies over a wider exposure range using specific language test instruments are needed.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Fluorocarburos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Niño , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Lenguaje Infantil , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Comunicación
9.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1268249, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38026430

RESUMEN

Background: In February 2022, an online Wildfire Smoke Communication Workshop series identified priorities and strategies to improve wildfire smoke communication in Canada. We evaluated the engagement methods, the workshop series and workshop summary report, to determine if participants/organizations initiated changes identified in the workshop to optimize wildfire smoke communication plans. Methods: Three evaluation surveys were developed using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework dimensions and PRISM (Practical, Robust, Implementation, and Sustainability Model) contextual domains to measure the engagement impact. Surveys 1, 2, and 3 were disseminated to workshop participants between February 2022 (post-workshop series), May 2022 (pre-wildfire season), and September 2022 (post-wildfire season). Likert survey responses were analyzed descriptively using means and standard deviations. Open-ended written responses were analyzed using deductive reasoning and response proportions. Results: Of 69 workshop participants, 28, 19, and 13 responded to surveys 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Workshop participation helped survey 1 respondents consider optimizing wildfire smoke communication (M = 3.93, SD = 0.88). Workshop participation and the summary report helped survey 2 respondents consider new actions to optimize wildfire smoke communication (M = 3.84, SD = 0.74). The most intended action in survey 2 (68%, n = 13) and the most common action taken in survey 3 (62%, n = 8) was to simplify message content. The primary limitation to optimization was capacity. Conclusion: The engagement methods, particularly the summary report, were beneficial for organizations to take action to optimize wildfire smoke communication in Canada. Future engagement methods should examine persisting system-level issues and capacity limitations as they undermine the ability to optimize wildfire smoke communication in Canada.


Asunto(s)
Humo , Incendios Forestales , Humanos , Humo/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Canadá , Comunicación
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(12): 1535, 2023 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38008816

RESUMEN

Computer-aided (in silico) prediction has shown good potential to support the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceutical emerging contaminants (PECs), allowing low-cost, animal-free, high-throughput screening of multiple potential risks posed by a wide variety of pharmaceuticals in the environment based on insufficient toxicity data. This review provided recent insights regarding the application of in silico approaches in prediction for environmental risks of PECs. Based on the review of 20 included articles from 8 countries published since 2018, we found that the researchers' interest and concern in this research topic were sharply aroused since 2021. Recently, in silico approaches have been widely used for the prediction of bioaccumulation and biodegradability, lethal endpoints, developmental toxicity, mutagenicity, other eco-toxicological effects such as ototoxicity and hematological toxicity, and human health hazards of exposure to PECs. Particular attention has been given to the simultaneous discernment of multiple environmental risks and health effects of PECs based on mechanistic data of pharmaceuticals using advanced bioinformatic methods such as transcriptomic analysis and network pharmacology prediction. In silico software platforms and databases used in the included studies were diversified, and there is currently no standardized and accepted in silico model for ERA of PECs. Date suggested that in silico prediction of the environmental risks posed by PECs is still in its infancy. Considerable critical challenges need to be addressed, including consideration of environmental exposure concentration for PECs, interactions among mixtures of PECs and other contaminants coexisting in environments, and development of in silico models specific to ERA of PECs.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Programas Informáticos , Medición de Riesgo , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 46: e253, 2023 10 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37779295

RESUMEN

Morin envisions the adaptive landscape of graphic codes as an unfertile valley where writing rises as an isolated peak that humans managed to reach only on four occasions throughout all of history. By exploring the different paths to cultural convergence, we suggest an alternative landscape occupied by a mountain range of visual art systems. We conclude that graphic communication through visual art worked well enough to render writing contingent but not necessary in most cases.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Escritura , Humanos , Ambiente
12.
Conserv Biol ; : e14193, 2023 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768190

RESUMEN

There is a growing trend of nation states invoking national security and emergency declarations to build state-sponsored infrastructure projects for border defense, energy production, and transportation. Established laws, regulations, and agreements for the protection of nature and cultural heritage within and between countries are becoming secondary to national security, compromising the function of protected areas, such as national parks, wilderness areas, and biosphere reserves that safeguard biodiversity, climate, and human health. We considered cases where decades-long multinational cross-border endangered species recovery programs have been jeopardized by waivers of environmental protection laws to facilitate rapid construction of border barriers that impede the movement and migration of animals, such as at the US-Mexico and Poland-Belarus borders. Renewable energy megaprojects, such as the Pinacate solar plant in Mexico, coupled with power transmission lines and road networks likewise cast a large footprint on the land and are being carried out with minimal to no environmental compliance under the guise of national security. National sovereignty likewise has been used as justification for bypassing laws to proceed with similar projects, such as Mexico's Dos Bocas refinery and Poland's Vistula Spit canal. Emphasis on security is also apparent in increasing military expenditure by the world's largest economies, which has created a mismatch with improvement in environmental policy stringency. Decisions to prioritize security can undermine democratic principles and environmental review protocols, trivialize humanity's dependence on functioning ecosystems, and contradict the United Nation's resolution on the human right to a healthy environment. Framing infrastructure projects as matters of national security also foments civil and political unrest by the labeling and casting of dissenters, including conservation scientists and environmental defenders, as antinational. World leaders must refrain from misusing extraordinary powers, adhere to laws and international agreements, and consult experts and local people before taking unilateral action on projects that affect ecological and human communities.


Amenazas para la conservación a partir de los intereses nacionales de seguridad Resumen En los países existe una tendencia creciente por invocar la seguridad nacional y las declaraciones de emergencia para construir infraestructuras financiadas por el estado para la defensa de las fronteras, producción de energía y transporte. Las leyes, regulaciones y acuerdos establecidos para la protección de la naturaleza y el patrimonio cultural dentro y entre los países se están relegando por la seguridad nacional, lo que compromete la función de las áreas protegidas (parques nacionales, áreas silvestres y reservas de la biósfera) que resguardan la biodiversidad, el clima y la salud humana. Consideramos los casos en donde se han puesto en peligro los programas longevos y multinacionales de recuperación de especies en peligro por las exenciones a las leyes de protección ambiental para facilitar la construcción rápida de barreras fronterizas que impiden el movimiento y la migración de animales, como es el caso de las fronteras entre EU y México y Polonia y Bielorrusia. Los megaproyectos de energía renovable, como la planta solar del Pinacate en México, en conjunto con las líneas de transmisión eléctrica y las redes de carreteras también dejan una gran huella sobre la tierra y se realizan con el mínimo o ningún cumplimiento bajo el aspecto de la seguridad nacional. La soberanía nacional también se ha usado para justificar la omisión de las leyes para proceder con proyectos similares, como la refinería de Dos Bocas en México y el canal Vistula Spit en Polonia. El énfasis sobre la seguridad también es evidente con el incremento del gasto militar de las mayores economías mundiales, lo que ha creado una desigualdad con las mejoras en la exigencia de la política ambiental. Las decisiones para priorizar la seguridad pueden debilitar los principios democráticos y los protocolos de revisión ambiental, banalizar la dependencia de la humanidad por los ecosistemas funcionales y contradecir la resolución de las Naciones Unidas sobre el derecho humano a un ambiente saludable. Cuando se denominan los proyectos de infraestructura como asuntos de seguridad nacional, también se fomenta el malestar civil y político al etiquetar como antinacionales a los disidentes, incluidos los defensores ambientales y los científicos de la conservación. Los líderes mundiales deben abstenerse de usar indebidamente los poderes extraordinarios, adherirse a las leyes y acuerdos internacionales y consultar con expertos y personas locales antes de actuar de forma unilateral en cuanto a proyectos que afectan las comunidades humanas y ecológicas.

13.
Epidemiology ; 34(6): 873-878, 2023 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37708493

RESUMEN

The analysis of time series studies linking daily counts of a health indicator with environmental variables (e.g., mortality or hospital admissions with air pollution concentrations or temperature; or motor vehicle crashes with temperature) is usually conducted with Poisson regression models controlling for long-term and seasonal trends using temporal strata. When the study includes multiple zones, analysts usually apply a two-stage approach: first, each zone is analyzed separately, and the resulting zone-specific estimates are then combined using meta-analysis. This approach allows zone-specific control for trends. A one-stage approach uses spatio-temporal strata and could be seen as a particular case of the case-time series framework recently proposed. However, the number of strata can escalate very rapidly in a long time series with many zones. A computationally efficient alternative is to fit a conditional Poisson regression model, avoiding the estimation of the nuisance strata. To allow for zone-specific effects, we propose a conditional Poisson regression model with a random slope, although available frequentist software does not implement this model. Here, we implement our approach in the Bayesian paradigm, which also facilitates the inclusion of spatial patterns in the effect of interest. We also provide a possible extension to deal with overdispersed data. We first introduce the equations of the framework and then illustrate their application to data from a previously published study on the effects of temperature on the risk of motor vehicle crashes. We provide R code and a semi-synthetic dataset to reproduce all analyses presented.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo , Teorema de Bayes , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Temperatura , Programas Informáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis
14.
Anal Chem ; 95(33): 12329-12338, 2023 08 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37548594

RESUMEN

Nontarget analysis by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is now widely used to detect pollutants in the environment. Shifting away from targeted methods has led to detection of previously unseen chemicals, and assessing the risk posed by these newly detected chemicals is an important challenge. Assessing exposure and toxicity of chemicals detected with nontarget HRMS is highly dependent on the knowledge of the structure of the chemical. However, the majority of features detected in nontarget screening remain unidentified and therefore the risk assessment with conventional tools is hampered. Here, we developed MS2Quant, a machine learning model that enables prediction of concentration from fragmentation (MS2) spectra of detected, but unidentified chemicals. MS2Quant is an xgbTree algorithm-based regression model developed using ionization efficiency data for 1191 unique chemicals that spans 8 orders of magnitude. The ionization efficiency values are predicted from structural fingerprints that can be computed from the SMILES notation of the identified chemicals or from MS2 spectra of unidentified chemicals using SIRIUS+CSI:FingerID software. The root mean square errors of the training and test sets were 0.55 (3.5×) and 0.80 (6.3×) log-units, respectively. In comparison, ionization efficiency prediction approaches that depend on assigning an unequivocal structure typically yield errors from 2× to 6×. The MS2Quant quantification model was validated on a set of 39 environmental pollutants and resulted in a mean prediction error of 7.4×, a geometric mean of 4.5×, and a median of 4.0×. For comparison, a model based on PaDEL descriptors that depends on unequivocal structural assignment was developed using the same dataset. The latter approach yielded a comparable mean prediction error of 9.5×, a geometric mean of 5.6×, and a median of 5.2× on the validation set chemicals when the top structural assignment was used as input. This confirms that MS2Quant enables to extract exposure information for unidentified chemicals which, although detected, have thus far been disregarded due to lack of accurate tools for quantification. The MS2Quant model is available as an R-package in GitHub for improving discovery and monitoring of potentially hazardous environmental pollutants with nontarget screening.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Espectrometría de Masas , Cromatografía Liquida , Programas Informáticos , Algoritmos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37510559

RESUMEN

Relatively few studies on the adverse health impacts of outdoor air pollution have been conducted in Latin American cities, whose pollutant mixtures and baseline health risks are distinct from North America, Europe, and Asia. This study evaluates respiratory morbidity risk associated with ambient air pollution in Quito, Ecuador, and specifically evaluates if the local air quality index accurately reflects population-level health risks. Poisson generalized linear models using air pollution, meteorological, and hospital admission data from 2014 to 2015 were run to quantify the associations of air pollutants and index values with respiratory outcomes in single- and multi-pollutant models. Significant associations were observed for increased respiratory hospital admissions and ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), although some of these associations were attenuated in two-pollutant models. Significant associations were also observed for index values, but these values were driven almost entirely by daily O3 concentrations. Modifications to index formulation to more fully incorporate the health risks of multiple pollutants, particularly for NO2, have the potential to greatly improve risk communication in Quito. This work also increases the equity of the existing global epidemiological literature by adding new air pollution health risk values from a highly understudied region of the world.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ozono , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ecuador/epidemiología , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Comunicación
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37510587

RESUMEN

This qualitative study examined the perceptions of potential wellbeing benefits of local green and blue spaces for adults aged over 50 years in a coastal town in North West England. At a population level, living close to green and blue spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, with the strength of the benefits being inversely related to the economic prosperity of an area. However, living in economically disadvantaged coastal communities may be associated with poorer health and wellbeing, particularly for older adults, despite the proximity to blue (and often green) space. Exploring this apparent paradox was the aim of the present study. Through semi-structured interviews with members of a community group, we gained insight into lived experiences of local green and blue spaces. The main themes we developed from analysis of the conversations were accessibility, amenities, social connections, quality of environment, and recuperation and escape. Our findings illustrate that participants valued natural spaces that were local and accessible, particularly when they felt connected to them, and were less likely to visit spaces that were further away and that were perceived as being less welcoming or accessible. This study provides insights into the experiences of adults aged over 50 living in coastal areas and suggests that policies and interventions aimed at promoting wellbeing in this demographic should consider the value of hyper-local green and blue spaces and their potential to promote connectedness to nature.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Ambiente , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Ciudades , Inglaterra , Emociones
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(13)2023 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37447724

RESUMEN

In this paper, an atmospheric structure constant Cn2 model is proposed for evaluating the channel turbulence degree of atmospheric laser communication. First, we derive a mathematical model for the correlation between the atmospheric coherence length r0, the isoplanatic angle θ0 and Cn2 using the Hufnagel-Valley (HV) turbulence model. Then, we calculate the seven parameters of the HV model with the actual measured r0 and θ0 data as input quantities, so as to draw the Cn2 profile and the θ0 profile. The experimental results show that the fitted average Cn2 contours and single-day Cn2 contours have superior fitting performance compared with our historical data, and the daily correlation coefficient between the single-day computed θ0 contours and the measured θ0 contours is up to 87%. This result verifies the feasibility of the proposed method. The results validate the feasibility of the proposed method and provide a new technical tool for the inversion of turbulence Cn2 profiles.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Ambiente , Rayos Láser
19.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 25(11): 1788-1801, 2023 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37431591

RESUMEN

The term "exposome" is defined as a comprehensive study of life-course environmental exposures and the associated biological responses. Humans are exposed to many different chemicals, which can pose a major threat to the well-being of humanity. Targeted or non-targeted mass spectrometry techniques are widely used to identify and characterize various environmental stressors when linking exposures to human health. However, identification remains challenging due to the huge chemical space applicable to exposomics, combined with the lack of sufficient relevant entries in spectral libraries. Addressing these challenges requires cheminformatics tools and database resources to share curated open spectral data on chemicals to improve the identification of chemicals in exposomics studies. This article describes efforts to contribute spectra relevant for exposomics to the open mass spectral library MassBank (https://www.massbank.eu) using various open source software efforts, including the R packages RMassBank and Shinyscreen. The experimental spectra were obtained from ten mixtures containing toxicologically relevant chemicals from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Non-Targeted Analysis Collaborative Trial (ENTACT). Following processing and curation, 5582 spectra from 783 of the 1268 ENTACT compounds were added to MassBank, and through this to other open spectral libraries (e.g., MoNA, GNPS) for community benefit. Additionally, an automated deposition and annotation workflow was developed with PubChem to enable the display of all MassBank mass spectra in PubChem, which is rerun with each MassBank release. The new spectral records have already been used in several studies to increase the confidence in identification in non-target small molecule identification workflows applied to environmental and exposomics research.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Programas Informáticos , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Bases de Datos Factuales
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(11)2023 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37299783

RESUMEN

Microwave plasma can improve the performance of ignition and combustion, as well as reduce pollutant emissions. By designing a novel microwave feeding device, the combustor can be used as a cavity resonator to generate microwave plasma and improve the performance of ignition and combustion. In order to feed the energy of microwave into the combustor as much as possible, and effectively adapt to the change in resonance frequency of combustor during ignition and combustion, the combustor was designed and manufactured by optimizing the size of slot antenna and setting the tuning screws, according to the simulation results of HFSS software (version: 2019 R 3). The relationship between the size, position of metal tip in the combustor and the discharge voltage was studied using HFSS software, as well as the interaction between ignition kernel, flame and microwave. The resonant characteristics of combustor and the discharge of microwave-assisted igniter were subsequently studied via experiments. The results show that the combustor as microwave cavity resonator has a wider resonance curve and can adapt to the change in resonance frequency during ignition and combustion. It is also indicated that microwave can enhance the discharge development of igniter and increase the discharge size. Based on this, the electric and magnetic field effects of microwave are decoupled.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Microondas , Programas Informáticos
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