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1.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(10): 910-921, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851306

RESUMEN

Kidney transplantation (KT) is the best therapeutic option for patients with end-stage renal disease in terms of survival, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. The fundamental difference of KT with respect to other therapies is that the process depends on the availability of organs for clinical use, availability that is insufficient to cover the increasing transplantation needs of the population. Another relevant feature of transplantation is that it entails a risk of transmission of diseases from donor to recipient, a risk that can be minimized, but not completely eliminated. Due to its characteristics and its unique nature (the human being), KT requires a specific regulation that guarantees the protection of all those who participate in the process: donors and their families, patients in need of a transplant, recipients of organs and healthcareprofessionals involved. In this article, we reviewthe ethical-legal standards that regulate the practice of kidney donation and transplantation at the international level and analyze the ethical-legal framework that is applicable in Spain.

2.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476833

RESUMEN

Species distribution data are an essential biodiversity variable requiring robust monitoring to inform wildlife conservation. Yet, such data remain inherently sparse because of the logistical challenges of monitoring biodiversity across broad geographic extents. Surveys of people knowledgeable about the occurrence of wildlife provide an opportunity to evaluate species distributions and the ecology of wildlife communities across large spatial scales. We analyzed detection histories of 30 vertebrate species across the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India, obtained from a large-scale interview survey of 2318 people who live and work in the forests of this region. We developed a multispecies occupancy model that simultaneously corrected for false-negative (non-detection) and false-positive (misidentification) errors that interview surveys can be prone to. Using this model, we integrated data across species in composite analyses of the responses of functional species groups (based on disturbance tolerance, diet, and body mass traits) to spatial variation in environmental variables, protection, and anthropogenic pressures. We observed a positive association between forest cover and the occurrence of species with low tolerance of human disturbance. Protected areas were associated with higher occurrence for species across different functional groups compared with unprotected lands. We also observed the occurrence of species with low disturbance tolerance, herbivores, and large-bodied species was negatively associated with developmental pressures, such as human settlements, energy production and mining, and demographic pressures, such as biological resource extraction. For the conservation of threatened vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of maintaining forest cover and reducing deforestation within and outside protected areas, respectively. In addition, mitigating a suite of pervasive human pressures is also crucial for wildlife conservation in one of the world's most densely populated biodiversity hotspots.

3.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405455

RESUMEN

The unlimited economic growth that fuels capitalism's metabolism has profoundly transformed a large portion of Earth. The resulting environmental destruction has led to an unprecedented rate of biodiversity loss. Following large-scale losses of habitats and species, it was recognized that biodiversity is crucial to maintaining functional ecosystems. We sought to continue the debate on the contradictions between economic growth and biodiversity in the conservation science literature and thus invite scholars to engage in reversing the biodiversity crisis through acknowledging the impacts of economic growth. In the 1970s, a global agenda was set to develop different milestones related to sustainable development, including green-blue economic growth, which despite not specifically addressing biodiversity reinforced the idea that economic development based on profit is compatible with the planet's ecology. Only after biodiversity loss captured the attention of environmental sciences researchers in the early 2000s was a global biodiversity agenda implemented. The agenda highlights biodiversity conservation as a major international challenge and recognizes that the main drivers of biodiversity loss derive from economic activities. The post-2000 biodiversity agendas, including the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the post-2020 Convention on Biological Diversity Global Strategy Framework, do not consider the negative impacts of growth-oriented strategies on biodiversity. As a result, global biodiversity conservation priorities are governed by the economic value of biodiversity and its assumed contribution to people's welfare. A large body of empirical evidence shows that unlimited economic growth is the main driver of biodiversity loss in the Anthropocene; thus, we strongly argue for sustainable degrowth and a fundamental shift in societal values. An equitable downscaling of the physical economy can improve ecological conditions, thus reducing biodiversity loss and consequently enhancing human well-being.

4.
Conserv Biol ; 35(5): 1367-1379, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355419

RESUMEN

Theidentification of key biodiversity areas (KBA) was initiated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 2004 to overcome taxonomic biases in the selection of important areas for conservation, including freshwater ecosystems. Since then, several KBAs have been identified mainly based on the presence of trigger species (i.e., species that trigger either the vulnerability and or the irreplaceability criterion and thus identify a site as a KBA). However, to our knowledge, many of these KBAs have not been validated. Therefore, classical surveys of the taxa used to identify freshwater KBAs (fishes, molluscs, odonates, and aquatic plants) were conducted in Douro (Iberian Peninsula) and Sebou (Morocco) River basins in the Mediterranean Biodiversity Hotspot. Environmental DNA analyses were undertaken in the Moroccan KBAs. There was a mismatch between the supposed and actual presence of trigger species. None of the trigger species were found in 43% and 50% of all KBAs surveyed in the Douro and Sebou basins, respectively. Shortcomings of freshwater KBA identification relate to flawed or lack of distribution data for trigger species. This situation results from a misleading initial identification of KBAs based on poor (or even inaccurate) ecological information or due to increased human disturbance between initial KBA identification and the present. To improve identification of future freshwater KBAs, we suggest selecting trigger species with a more conservative approach; use of local expert knowledge and digital data (to assess habitat quality, species distribution, and potential threats); consideration of the subcatchment when delineating KBAs boundaries; thoughtful consideration of terrestrial special areas for conservation limits; and periodic field validation.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Animales , Biodiversidad , Peces , Agua Dulce , Humanos
5.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254360

RESUMEN

Irreplaceability is a concept used to describe how close a site is to being essential for achieving conservation targets. Current methods for measuring irreplaceability are based on representative combinations of sites, giving them an extrinsic nature and exponential computational requirements. Surrogate measures based on efficiency (complementarity) are often used as alternatives, but they were never intended for this purpose and do not measure irreplaceability. Current approaches used to estimate irreplaceability have key limitations. Some of these are a result of the tools used, but some are due to the nature of the current definition of irreplaceability. For irreplaceability to be stable and useful for conservation purposes and to resolve limitations, irreplaceability measures should adhere to five axioms; baseline coherence, monotonic responsiveness, proportional responsiveness, intrinsic stability, and bounded outputs. We designed a robust method for measuring a site's proximity to irreplaceability that adheres to these requirements and used it to develop the first systematic global map of irreplaceability based on data for terrestrial vertebrates (n = 29,837 species, >1 million grid cells). At least 3.5% of land surface was highly irreplaceable, and 47.6% of highly irreplaceable cells were contained in 12 countries. More generous thresholds of irreplaceability flag greater portions of land surface that would still be realistic to protect under current global objectives. Irreplaceable sites should form a critical component of any global conservation plan and should be part of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity's post2020 Global Biodiversity Framework strategy, forming part of the 30% protection by 2030 target that is gaining support. The reliable identification of irreplaceable sites will be crucial to halting extinctions.

6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 406-415, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352429

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Sever cognitive and memory impairments, huge increase in the prevalence of the disease, and lacking definite cure have absorbed worldwide efforts to develop therapeutic approaches. Since many drugs have failed in the clinical trials due to multifactorial nature of AD, symptomatic treatments are still in the center attention and now, nootropic medicinal plants have been found as versatile ameliorators to reverse memory disorders. In this work, anti-Alzheimer's activity of aqueous extract of areca nuts (Areca catechu L.) was investigated via in vitro and in vivo studies. It depicted good amyloid ß (Aß) aggregation inhibitory activity, 82% at 100 µg/mL. In addition, it inhibited beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) with IC50 value of 19.03 µg/mL. Evaluation of neuroprotectivity of the aqueous extract of the plant against H2O2-induced cell death in PC12 neurons revealed 84.5% protection at 1 µg/mL. It should be noted that according to our results obtained from Morris Water Maze (MWM) test, the extract reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rats at concentrations of 1.5 and 3 mg/kg.


La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) es un trastorno neurodegenerativo relacionado con la edad. Los severos deterioros cognitivos y de la memoria, el enorme aumento de la prevalencia de la enfermedad y la falta de una cura definitiva han absorbido los esfuerzos mundiales para desarrollar enfoques terapéuticos. Dado que muchos fármacos han fallado en los ensayos clínicos debido a la naturaleza multifactorial de la EA, los tratamientos sintomáticos siguen siendo el centro de atención y ahora, las plantas medicinales nootrópicas se han encontrado como mejoradores versátiles para revertir los trastornos de la memoria. En este trabajo, se investigó la actividad anti-Alzheimer del extracto acuoso de nueces de areca (Areca catechu L.) mediante estudios in vitro e in vivo. Representaba una buena actividad inhibidora de la agregación de amiloide ß (Aß), 82% a 100 µg/mL. Además, inhibió la beta-secretasa 1 (BACE1) con un valor de CI50 de 19,03 µg/mL. La evaluación de la neuroprotección del extracto acuoso de la planta contra la muerte celular inducida por H2O2 en neuronas PC12 reveló una protección del 84,5% a 1 µg/mL. Cabe señalar que, de acuerdo con nuestros resultados obtenidos de la prueba Morris Water Maze (MWM), el extracto revirtió el déficit de memoria inducido por escopolamina en ratas a concentraciones de 1,5 y 3 mg/kg.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Areca/química , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , beta-Amilasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/efectos de los fármacos , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidasas/efectos de los fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotectores , Secretasas de la Proteína Precursora del Amiloide/antagonistas & inhibidores , Secretasas de la Proteína Precursora del Amiloide/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/enzimología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/prevención & control , Prueba del Laberinto Acuático de Morris , Medicina Tradicional
7.
Arch. health invest ; 10(7): 1028-1031, July 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1342729

RESUMEN

A radiação ultravioleta (UV) é um potente carcinógeno, principalmente a UV-B, capaz de provocar danos ao DNA, relacionado a formação de radiação livres. A excessiva exposição solar e sem prevenção contra os raios UV representa um grande risco para o desenvolvimento de patologias com malignidade, dentre elas o câncer de pele. O emprego de extratos vegetais brasileiros com potencial fotoprotetor é sem dúvida um caminho inovador. O araçá ou araçá-do-campo por exemplo, da família Myrtaceae, espécie Psidium guineense Sw., possui grande potencial para exploração econômica e tem boa aceitação in natura, Dessa forma, o presente estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a atividade fotoprotetora do extrato hexânico do Psidium guineense Sw. Foram realizadas varreduras de 290 a 320nm (com intervalos de 5nm) em concentrações de 50, 100, 500 e 1000µg/mL em amostras de 2,0 mL. Os dados foram aplicados à equação de Mansur para aferir o FPS in vitro. Os resultados dessa pesquisa demonstraram que o extrato hexânico de Psidium guineense Sw. apresenta significativa atividade fotoprotetora nas concentrações de 500 e 1000 µg/mL mostrando-se superior ao FPS necessário. Assim, os resultados sugerem que possa ser utilizado como alternativa fitocosmética, tornando-se uma opção mais acessível(AU)


Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a potent carcinogen, mainly UV-B, capable of causing damage to DNA, related to the formation of free radiation. Excessive sun exposure and without prevention against UV rays represents a great risk for the development of pathologies with malignancy, including skin cancer. The use of Brazilian plant extracts with photoprotective potential is undoubtedly an innovative path. The araçá or araçá-do-campo, for example, of the Myrtaceae family, Psidium guineense Sw., Has great potential for economic exploitation and has good acceptance in natura. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the photoprotective activity of the hexane extract of Psidium guineense Sw. Scans of 290 to 320nm (with 5nm intervals) were performed in concentrationsof 50, 100, 500 and 1000µg / mL in samples of 2.0 mL. The data were applied to Mansur equation to measure SPF in vitro. The results of this research demonstrated that the hexanic extract of Psidium guineense Sw. Has significant photoprotective activity at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg / mL, showing itself to be superior to the necessary SPF. Thus, the results suggest that it can be used as a phytocosmetic alternative, making it a more accessible option(AU)


La radiación ultravioleta (UV) es un potente carcinógeno, principalmente UV-B, capaz de causar daño al ADN, relacionado con la formación de radiación libre. La exposición excesiva al sol y sin prevención contra los rayos UV representa un gran riesgo para el desarrollo de patologías con malignidad, incluido el cáncer de piel. El uso de extractos de plantas brasileñas con potencial fotoprotector es, sin duda, un camino innovador. El araçá o araçá-do-campo, por ejemplo, de la familia Myrtaceae, Psidiumguineense Sw., Tiene un gran potencial para la explotación económica y tiene una buena aceptación en la naturaleza. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la actividad fotoprotectora del hexano de Psidium guineense Sw. Se realizaron exploraciones de 290 a 320 nm (con intervalos de 5 nm) en concentraciones de 50, 100, 500 y 1000 µg / ml en muestras de 2,0 ml. Los datos se aplicaron a la ecuación de Mansurpara medir SPF in vitro. Los resultados de esta investigación demostraron que el extracto hexánico de Psidium guineense Sw. Tiene una actividad fotoprotectora significativa a concentraciones de 500 y 1000 µg / ml, demostrando ser superior al SPF necesario. Por lo tanto, los resultados sugieren que puede usarse como una alternativa fitocosmética, por lo que es una opción más accesible(AU)


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Cutáneas , Rayos Ultravioleta , Myrtaceae , Baño de Sol , Extractos Vegetales , Carcinógenos , Radicales Libres , Neoplasias
8.
Rev. ADM ; 78(3): 142-148, mayo-jun. 2021. ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254562

RESUMEN

partir de la pandemia, los odontólogos han presentado una serie de complicaciones en su práctica diaria, la naturaleza misma de la profesión representa un alto riesgo de contagio y la posibilidad de generar una infección cruzada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, por lo que han tenido que limitar su labor a la atención de urgencias, adquiriendo insumos relacionados a incrementar los cuidados de su grupo de trabajo y del paciente. Objetivo: Conocer el impacto de esta plaga en la práctica de los profesionistas de la salud oral en México. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a través de redes sociales a odontólogos, los resultados se expresaron con tablas de frecuencias y porcentajes. Resultados: Se recibieron respuestas de 200 cirujanos dentistas con clínica privada, 71% comentó haber cerrado su consultorio al inicio de esta calamidad, en contraste, el 53.5% de profesionales afirmaron tener actualmente una consulta no restringida, refiriendo que se ha visto reducida entre 50 y 75%, la mayoría reconoce que han tenido que reforzar el uso de EPP y algunos protocolos de protección, 16.5% ha padecido COVID-19. Conclusiones: La pandemia ha generado un impacto económico importante en la práctica de los odontólogos, al combinarse la disminución del número de pacientes con el aumento de gastos. Se debe considerar a la odontología como una profesión de alto riesgo, por lo que este gremio debe ser tomado en cuenta para el plan de vacunación como parte importante del sector salud (AU)


Given the nature of their profession, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought complications in their daily practice to odontologists, who are at a high risk of contracting the disease, and the possibility of creating a cross infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. That is why odontologists have had to restrain their practice to attend to emergencies only and acquire consumables and equipment related to improve their patients' care and the safety of their work team. Objective: To know the COVID-19 pandemic impact in the oral health professionals' practice in Mexico. Material and methods: A transversal, descriptive study was conducted by using a survey through social networks to gather information from odontologists practicing in Mexico. Results were presented in frequency and percentage tables. Result: Responses of 200 dental surgeons in private practice were received. 71% said that they closed their office at the beginning of the pandemic. On the other hand, 53.5% of them currently have a non-restricted practice but it is reduced between 50 and 75%. Most of them recognized that they had to improve the use of PPE and add some protection protocols, 16.5% have suffered from COVID-19. Conclusions: This pandemic has generated an important economic impact in the odontological practice, combining the decrease in the number of patients with the increase in their office expenses. Odontology must be considered a high-risk profession and an important part of the health sector, consequently, these professionals must be included in the vaccination plan on a priority basis (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Protocolos Clínicos , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Estadístico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Atención Odontológica/normas , Vacunación , Red Social , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , México/epidemiología
9.
Conserv Biol ; 35(5): 1417-1425, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938596

RESUMEN

Many conservation interventions are hypothesized to be beneficial for both the environment and people's well-being, but this has rarely been tested rigorously. We examined the effects of adoption or nonadoption of a conservation intervention on 3 dimensions of people's well-being (material, relational, and subjective) over time. We focused on a fisheries bycatch management initiative intended to reduce environmental externalities associated with resource extraction. We collected panel data from fishers (n = 250) in villages with (adopters and nonadopters) and without (control) the conservation intervention 3 times over 2 years. We found no evidence that adoption reduced any of the 3 dimensions of well-being in the local populations affected by the intervention. There were modest improvements in material (t = -1.58) and subjective livelihood well-being (p = 0.04) for adopters relative to nonadopters over time. The variations in well-being experiences (in terms of magnitude of change) among adopters, nonadopters, and controls across the different domains over time affirmed the dynamic and social nature of well-being.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Humanos
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 04 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875599

RESUMEN

Archaeological and paleoecological evidence shows that by 10,000 BCE, all human societies employed varying degrees of ecologically transformative land use practices, including burning, hunting, species propagation, domestication, cultivation, and others that have left long-term legacies across the terrestrial biosphere. Yet, a lingering paradigm among natural scientists, conservationists, and policymakers is that human transformation of terrestrial nature is mostly recent and inherently destructive. Here, we use the most up-to-date, spatially explicit global reconstruction of historical human populations and land use to show that this paradigm is likely wrong. Even 12,000 y ago, nearly three quarters of Earth's land was inhabited and therefore shaped by human societies, including more than 95% of temperate and 90% of tropical woodlands. Lands now characterized as "natural," "intact," and "wild" generally exhibit long histories of use, as do protected areas and Indigenous lands, and current global patterns of vertebrate species richness and key biodiversity areas are more strongly associated with past patterns of land use than with present ones in regional landscapes now characterized as natural. The current biodiversity crisis can seldom be explained by the loss of uninhabited wildlands, resulting instead from the appropriation, colonization, and intensifying use of the biodiverse cultural landscapes long shaped and sustained by prior societies. Recognizing this deep cultural connection with biodiversity will therefore be essential to resolve the crisis.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/historia , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/historia , Pueblos Indígenas/historia , Naturaleza , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Migración Humana , Humanos
11.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 21, 2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781298

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cuatrociénegas, part of the Chihuahuan Desert, is a region of unique biological, geological, geographical, and evolutionary importance. Its current population is mestizo; nevertheless, it has high national historical, cultural, and touristic relevance in Mexico. It has been cataloged as nationally significant for its flora and fauna by Mexican law, as well as being designated a High Protection site by the World Wildlife Fund and UNESCO. Because of its diverse and complex biological and sociocultural characteristics, we considered it important to determine, identify, and analyze various aspects of the traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and practices in this region. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2019, seven field trips were made to document the knowledge and use of flora. Cuatrociénegas is a protected area, collecting botanical material is regulated, so specimens were photographed and collected in neighboring communities, and in public and private gardens. Later permission was obtained to complete the collection of specimens (2019-2020). The plants were identified and entered into the flora database of the state of Coahuila, and deposited in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Forest Sciences, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico. One hundred ten local residents (50 men and 60 women), aged between 27 and 91 years, were interviewed (semi-structured interviews). The cultural importance of ethnobotanical resources (cultural significance index) and its significance with respect to ethnobotanical richness in other Biosphere Reserves in Mexico (Mann-Whitney test), and similarities in the diversity of exotic species (Sørensen index) were studied. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The ethnobotanical information registers 158 species and 132 genera in 57 vascular and non-vascular families, documenting a greater knowledge and use of cultivated species (84) with respect to wild species (74). The diversity of plants reported is compared to other ethnobotanical studies carried out in Mexican Biosphere Reserves. These results are highly relevant, in spite of unique exotic species. The people local pay special attention to medicinal and ornamental plants. The species that presented the highest use values are Larrea tridentata, Jatropha dioica, and Machaeranthera pinnatifida, three species characteristic of the desert region. CONCLUSIONS: The particular diversity of wild flora in Cuatrociénegas Valley, combined with the varied introduced flora, is an important multifunctional resource. Special attention to introduced species is associated with harvesting use restrictions in the protected area as well as the high value of ornamental species that are difficult to maintain in desert areas. The extensive use of ethnobotanical knowledge is an example that biocultural diversity (at the conceptual level) is also strongly associated with socio-ecological systems incorporating mestizo groups and semi-urban rural landscapes, thus ceasing to be an exclusive focus of indigenous communities and regions.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Etnobotánica , Población Rural , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad
12.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 472-482, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749018

RESUMEN

Although threats to global biodiversity are well known, slowing current rates of biodiversity loss remains a challenge. The Aichi targets set out 20 goals on which the international community should act to alleviate biodiversity decline, 1 of which (Target 1) aims to raise public awareness of the importance of biodiversity. Although conventional indicators for Target 1 are of low spatial and temporal coverage, conservation culturomics metrics show how biodiversity awareness can be quantified at the global scale. Following methods used for the Living Planet Index, we devised a species awareness index (SAI) to measure change in species awareness based on Wikipedia views. We calculated this index at the page level for 41,197 species listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) across 10 Wikipedia languages and >2 billion views from 1 July 2015 to 30 March 2020. Bootstrapped indices for the page-level SAI showed that overall awareness of biodiversity increased marginally over time, although there were differences among taxonomic classes and languages. Among taxonomic classes, overall awareness increased fastest for reptiles and slowest for amphibians. Among languages, overall species awareness increased fastest for Japanese and slowest for Chinese and German users. Although awareness of species as a whole increased and was significantly higher for traded species, from January 2016 through January 2020, change in awareness appeared not to be strongly related to whether the species is traded or is a pollinator. As a data source for public biodiversity awareness, the SAI could be integrated into the Conservation International Biodiversity Engagement Indicator.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
13.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 398-411, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749027

RESUMEN

Ongoing loss of biological diversity is primarily the result of unsustainable human behavior. Thus, the long-term success of biodiversity conservation depends on a thorough understanding of human-nature interactions. Such interactions are ubiquitous but vary greatly in time and space and are difficult to monitor efficiently at large spatial scales. However, the Information Age also provides new opportunities to better understand human-nature interactions because many aspects of daily life are recorded in a variety of digital formats. The emerging field of conservation culturomics aims to take advantage of digital data sources and methods to study human-nature interactions and thus to provide new tools for studying conservation at relevant temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, technical challenges associated with the identification, access, and analysis of relevant data hamper the wider adoption of culturomics methods. To help overcome these barriers, we propose a conservation culturomics research framework that addresses data acquisition, analysis, and inherent biases. The main sources of culturomic data include web pages, social media, and other digital platforms from which metrics of content and engagement can be obtained. Obtaining raw data from these platforms is usually desirable but requires careful consideration of how to access, store, and prepare the data for analysis. Methods for data analysis include network approaches to explore connections between topics, time-series analysis for temporal data, and spatial modeling to highlight spatial patterns. Outstanding challenges associated with culturomics research include issues of interdisciplinarity, ethics, data biases, and validation. The practical guidance we offer will help conservation researchers and practitioners identify and obtain the necessary data and carry out appropriate analyses for their specific questions, thus facilitating the wider adoption of culturomics approaches for conservation applications.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información
14.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 460-471, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749040

RESUMEN

Culturomic tools enable the exploration of trends in human-nature interactions, although they entail inherent biases and necessitate careful validation. Furthermore, people may engage with nature across different culturomic data sets differently. We evaluated people's digital interest and engagement with plant species based on Wikipedia and Google data and explored the conservation implications of these temporal interest patterns. As a case study, we explored the digital footprints of the most popular plant species in Israel. We analyzed 4 years of daily page views from Hebrew Wikipedia and 10 years of daily Google search volume in Israel. We modeled popularity of plant species in these 2 data sets based on a suite of plant attributes. We further explored the seasonal trends of people's interest in each species. We found differences in how people interacted digitally with plants in Wikipedia and Google. Overall, in Google, searches for species that have utility to humans were more common, whereas in Wikipedia, plants that serve as cultural emblems received more attention. Furthermore, in Google, popular species attracted more attention over time, opposite to the trend in Wikipedia. In Google, interest in species with short bloom duration exhibited more pronounced seasonal patterns, whereas in Wikipedia, seasonality of interest increased as bloom duration increased. Together, our results suggest that people's digital interactions with nature may be inherently different depending on the sources explored, which may affect use of this information for conservation. Although culturomics holds much promise, better understanding of its underpinnings is important when translating insights into conservation actions.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Plantas , Humanos , Internet , Estaciones del Año
15.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 437-446, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749044

RESUMEN

Social media data are being increasingly used in conservation science to study human-nature interactions. User-generated content, such as images, video, text, and audio, and the associated metadata can be used to assess such interactions. A number of social media platforms provide free access to user-generated social media content. However, similar to any research involving people, scientific investigations based on social media data require compliance with highest standards of data privacy and data protection, even when data are publicly available. Should social media data be misused, the risks to individual users' privacy and well-being can be substantial. We investigated the legal basis for using social media data while ensuring data subjects' rights through a case study based on the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation. The risks associated with using social media data in research include accidental and purposeful misidentification that has the potential to cause psychological or physical harm to an identified person. To collect, store, protect, share, and manage social media data in a way that prevents potential risks to users involved, one should minimize data, anonymize data, and follow strict data management procedure. Risk-based approaches, such as a data privacy impact assessment, can be used to identify and minimize privacy risks to social media users, to demonstrate accountability and to comply with data protection legislation. We recommend that conservation scientists carefully consider our recommendations in devising their research objectives so as to facilitate responsible use of social media data in conservation science research, for example, in conservation culturomics and investigations of illegal wildlife trade online.


Asunto(s)
Privacidad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos
16.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 412-423, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749051

RESUMEN

The recent growth of online big data offers opportunities for rapid and inexpensive measurement of public interest. Conservation culturomics is an emerging research area that uses online data to study human-nature relationships for conservation. Methods for conservation culturomics, though promising, are still being developed and refined. We considered the potential of Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, as a resource for conservation culturomics and outlined methods for using Wikipedia data in conservation. Wikipedia's large size, widespread use, underlying data structure, and open access to both its content and usage analytics make it well suited to conservation culturomics research. Limitations of Wikipedia data include the lack of location information associated with some metadata and limited information on the motivations of many users. Seven methodological steps to consider when using Wikipedia data in conservation include metadata selection, temporality, taxonomy, language representation, Wikipedia geography, physical and biological geography, and comparative metrics. Each of these methodological decisions can affect measures of online interest. As a case study, we explored these themes by analyzing 757 million Wikipedia page views associated with the Wikipedia pages for 10,099 species of birds across 251 Wikipedia language editions. We found that Wikipedia data have the potential to generate insight for conservation and are particularly useful for quantifying patterns of public interest at large scales.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Geografía , Humanos , Internet , Motivación
17.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 424-436, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749054

RESUMEN

Understanding the activities and preferences of visitors is crucial for managing protected areas and planning conservation strategies. Conservation culturomics promotes the use of user-generated online content in conservation science. Geotagged social media content is a unique source of in situ information on human presence and activities in nature. Photographs posted on social media platforms are a promising source of information, but analyzing large volumes of photographs manually remains laborious. We examined the application of state-of-the-art computer-vision methods to studying human-nature interactions. We used semantic clustering, scene classification, and object detection to automatically analyze photographs taken in Finnish national parks by domestic and international visitors. Our results showed that human-nature interactions can be extracted from user-generated photographs with computer vision. The different methods complemented each other by revealing broad visual themes related to level of the data set, landscape photogeneity, and human activities. Geotagged photographs revealed distinct regional profiles for national parks (e.g., preferences in landscapes and activities), which are potentially useful in park management. Photographic content differed between domestic and international visitors, which indicates differences in activities and preferences. Information extracted automatically from photographs can help identify preferences among diverse visitor groups, which can be used to create profiles of national parks for conservation marketing and to support conservation strategies that rely on public acceptance. The application of computer-vision methods to automatic content analysis of photographs should be explored further in conservation culturomics, particularly in combination with rich metadata available on social media platforms.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Computadores , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Recreación
18.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(1): 14-20, 10 de marzo de 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177391

RESUMEN

Un ambiente saludable implica el equilibrio ecológico, debiendo garantizar la sostenibilidad y el buen vivir; un entorno seguro para el ciudadano, que brinde seguridad para el crecimiento y desarrollo a plenitud. En la Constitución de la República del Ecuador, en su Artículo 14 se declaró de interés público la conservación de los ecosistemas, la preservación del ambiente, de la biodiversidad, con el objeto de estudiar la evolución del constitucionalismo ambiental y su relación con la salud, desde la vigencia de la carta de Montecristi en 2008, se desarrolló esta investigación. En tal sentido, en el Estado ecuatoriano se presentan particularidades que merecen un estudio pormenorizado de las normas constitucionales que regulan en materia ambiental y su relación con la salud, partiendo de la concepción de la naturaleza como sujeto de derecho, que aparece a nivel internacional en 1972 en la Declaración de Estocolmo sobre Medio Ambiente Humano, profundizándose en la Carta de la Tierra del 1982, la Declaración de Río sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo del 1992 y la Declaración de Johannesburgo del 2002, En conclusión, el ambiente sano y la salud se fundamentan en el respeto de los derechos humanos y su desarrollo en condiciones de suprema felicidad, tendientes a la protección de la humanidad.


Healthy environment implies ecological balance, ensuring sustainability and good living; a secure environment for the citizen, providing security for full growth and development. Article 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador declared the conservation of ecosystems, the preservation of the environment and biodiversity to be of public interest. In order to study the evolution of environmental constitutionalism and its relationship with health, since the validity of the Montecristi charter in 2008, this research was developed. In this regard, the Ecuadorian State presents particularities that deserve a detailed study of the constitutional norms regulating environmental matters and their relationship with health, based on the conception of nature as a subject of law, which appeared at the international level in 1972 in the Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment, elaborating on the 1982 Earth Charter, the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and the 2002 Johannesburg Declaration. In conclusion, the healthy environment and health are based on respect for human rights and their development in conditions of supreme happiness, for the protection of humanity.

19.
Conserv Biol ; 35(5): 1598-1614, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554359

RESUMEN

The International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of Threatened Species (RLS) is the key global tool for objective, repeatable assessment of species' extinction risk status, and plays an essential role in tracking biodiversity loss and guiding conservation action. Satellite remote sensing (SRS) data sets on global ecosystem distributions and functioning show exciting potential for informing range-based RLS assessment, but their incorporation has been restricted by low temporal resolution and coverage of data sets, lack of incorporation of degradation-driven habitat loss, and noninclusion of assumptions related to identification of changing habitat distributions for taxa with varying habitat dependency and ecologies. For poorly known mangrove-associated Cuban hutias (Mesocapromys spp.), we tested the impact of possible assumptions regarding these issues on range-based RLS assessment outcomes. Specifically, we used annual (1985-2018) Landsat data and land-cover classification and habitat degradation analyses across different internal time series slices to simulate range-based RLS assessments for our case study taxa to explore potential assessment uncertainty arising from temporal SRS data set coverage, incorporating proxies of (change in) habitat quality, and assumptions on spatial scaling of habitat extent for RLS parameter generation. We found extensive variation in simulated species-specific range-based RLS assessments, and this variation was mostly associated with the time series over which parameters were estimated. However, results of some species-specific assessments differed by up to 3 categories (near threatened to critically endangered) within the same time series, due to the effects of incorporating habitat quality and the spatial scaling used in RLS parameter estimation. Our results showed that a one-size-fits-all approach to incorporating SRS information in RLS assessment is inappropriate, and we urge caution in conducting range-based assessments with SRS for species for which habitat dependence on specific ecosystem types is incompletely understood. We propose novel revisions to parameter spatial scaling guidelines to improve integration of existing time series data on ecosystem change into the RLS assessment process.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Animales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Extinción Biológica , Mamíferos
20.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598995

RESUMEN

Many taxonomic groups successfully exploit groundwater environments and have adapted to a subterranean (stygobiotic) existence. Among these groups are freshwater gastropods (stygosnails), which represent a widespread and taxonomically diverse component of groundwater ecosystems in North America. However, owing to sampling difficulty and lack of targeted study, stygosnails remain among the most understudied of all subterranean groups. We conducted a literature review to assess the biodiversity and geographic associations of stygosnails, along with the threats, management activities, and policy considerations related to the groundwater systems they inhabit. We identified 39 stygosnail species known to occur in a range of groundwater habitats from karst regions in the United States and Mexico. Most stygosnails exhibit extreme narrow-range endemism, resulting in a high risk of extinction from a single catastrophic event. We found that anthropogenically driven changes to surface environments have led to changes in local hydrology and degradation of groundwater systems inhabited by stygosnails such as increased sedimentation, introduction of invasive species, groundwater extraction, or physical collapse of water-bearing passages. Consequently, 32 of the 39 described stygosnail species in the United States and Mexico have been assessed as imperiled under NatureServe criteria, and 10 species have been assessed as threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria. Compared with surface species of freshwater snails, stygosnail conservation is uniquely hindered by difficulties associated with accessing subterranean habitats for monitoring and management. Furthermore, only three species were found to have federal protection in either the United States or Mexico, and current laws regulating wildlife and water pollution at the state and federal level may be inadequate for protecting stygosnail habitats. As groundwater systems continue to be manipulated and relied on by humans, groundwater-restricted fauna such as stygosnails should be studied so unique biodiversity can be protected.

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