Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29.173
Filtrar
1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7348599, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630551

RESUMEN

Based on the theoretical mechanism analysis of FDI, regional innovation, and green economic efficiency, this article uses China's provincial panel data to calculate the provincial green economic efficiency level based on the three-stage DEA method and uses the system GMM model, intermediary effect model, and threshold model to empirically test the specific effects and transmission paths of FDI on the efficiency of the green economy. Research shows that FDI is one of the important factors that promote the improvement of green economic efficiency. Subregional tests have found that FDI has a significant regional heterogeneity in promoting the efficiency of the green economy. The mediation effect test found that the mediation effect of regional innovation is significant, and FDI can significantly promote the growth of green economic efficiency through regional innovation. The threshold effect analysis found that there are significant and effective double thresholds for regional economic levels, and the impact of FDI on green economic efficiency is heterogeneous within different threshold intervals. The research conclusions provide new inspiration for China to allocate FDI more rationally and efficiently under the new development pattern.


Asunto(s)
Internacionalidad , Inversiones en Salud , China
2.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 682-689, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593590

RESUMEN

Lessons learned from one global health program can inform responses to challenges faced by other programs. One way to disseminate these lessons is through courses. However, such courses are often delivered by and taught to people based in high-income countries and thus may not present a truly global perspective. The Synthesis and Translation of Research and Innovations from Polio Eradication (STRIPE) is a consortium of 8 institutions in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and the United States that seeks to carry out such a transfer of the lessons learned in polio eradication. This short report describes the collaborative process of developing content and curriculum for an international course, the learnings that emerged, the barriers we faced, and recommendations for future similar efforts. Various parts of our course were developed by teams of researchers from countries across South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. We held a series of regional in-person team meetings hosted in different countries to improve rapport and provide a chance to work together in person. The course content reflects the diversity of team members' knowledge in a variety of contexts. Challenges to this effort included team coordination (e.g., scheduling across time zones); hierarchies across and between countries; and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We recommend planning for these hierarchies ahead of time and ensuring significant in-person meeting time to make the most of international collaboration.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/métodos , Salud Global/educación , Programas de Inmunización/métodos , Internacionalidad , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Afganistán , Bangladesh , República Democrática del Congo , Etiopía , Humanos , India , Indonesia , Nigeria , Poliomielitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257840, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614016

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has initiated an upheaval in society and has been the cause of considerable stress during this period. Healthcare professionals have been on the front line during this health crisis, particularly paramedical staff. The aim of this study was to assess the high level of stress of healthcare workers during the first wave of the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The COVISTRESS international study is a questionnaire disseminated online collecting demographic and stress-related data over the globe, during the pandemic. Stress levels were evaluated using non-calibrated visual analog scale, from 0 (no stress) to 100 (maximal stress). RESULTS: Among the 13,537 individuals from 44 countries who completed the survey from January to June 2020, we included 10,051 workers (including 1379 healthcare workers, 631 medical doctors and 748 paramedical staff). The stress levels during the first wave of the pandemic were 57.8 ± 33 in the whole cohort, 65.3 ± 29.1 in medical doctors, and 73.6 ± 27.7 in paramedical staff. Healthcare professionals and especially paramedical staff had the highest levels of stress (p < 0.001 vs non-healthcare workers). Across all occupational categories, women had systematically significantly higher levels of work-related stress than men (p < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between age and stress level (r = -0.098, p < 0.001). Healthcare professionals demonstrated an increased risk of very-high stress levels (>80) compared to other workers (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.87-2.41). Paramedical staff risk for very-high levels of stress was higher than doctors' (1.88, 1.50-2.34). The risk of high levels of stress also increased in women (1.83, 1.61-2.09; p < 0.001 vs. men) and in people aged <50 (1.45, 1.26-1.66; p < 0.001 vs. aged >50). CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the pandemic was a major stressful event for healthcare workers, especially paramedical staff. Among individuals, women were the most at risk while age was a protective factor.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Internacionalidad , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1107-1116, 2021 08 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516418

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: National strategies to control COVID-19 pandemic consisted mostly of social distancing measures such as lockdowns, curfews, and stay-home guidelines, personal protection such as hand hygiene and mask wearing, as well as contact tracing, isolation and quarantine. Whilst policy interventions were broadly similar across the globe, there were some differences in individual and community responses. This study explored community responses to COVID-19 containment measures in different countries and synthesized a model. This exaplains the community response to pandemic containment measures in the local context, so as to be suitably prepared for future interventions and research. METHODOLOGY: A mutlinational study was conducted from April-June 2020 involving researchers from 12 countries (Japan, Austria, U.S., Taiwan, India, Sudan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand). Steps in this research consisted of carrying out open-ended questionnaires, qualitative analyses in NVivo, and a multinational meeting to reflect, exchange, and validate results. Lastly, a commuinty response model was synthesized from multinational experiences. RESULTS: Effective communication is key in promoting collective action for preventing virus transmission. Health literacy, habits and social norms in different populations are core components of public health interventions. To enable people to stay home while sustaining livelihoods, economic and social support are essential. Countries could benefit from previous pandemic experience in their community response. Whilst contact tracing and isolation are crucial intervention components, issues of privacy and human rights need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding community responses to containment policies will help in ending current and future pandemics in the world.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Internacionalidad , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Trazado de Contacto , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública/métodos , Cuarentena
5.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 395-411, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542107

RESUMEN

Rising per capita consumption, economic growth, and urbanisation, particularly in developing countries, have been driving an increased global demand for food. These changing socio-economic trends, which have greatly influenced changes in dietary patterns globally and, more specifically, have increased consumption of livestock products in developing countries, are expected to endure and to place new pressures on livestock-sector infrastructure and the delivery of veterinary services. This paper summarises current trade in meat and presents plausible projections for the future. It highlights the impact of animal disease on trade and considers the effect of ongoing disease outbreaks, particularly the outbreaks of African swine fever and COVID-19, on current and future trade dynamics. The authors analysed published statistics on the demand for, and international trade in, livestock products at national and regional levels and made projections of the same up to 2050, generated from an integrated model of the global agricultural and food system. The resulting analyses identified patterns of trade consistent with growing populations, increasing incomes and changing diets in developing countries. The analyses also pointed to slow expansion of livestock production, and the impacts of countries' disease status on livestock trade. For most of the livestock products analysed, economic model projections indicate increased consolidation of production and exports among a few countries. Marked increases in the trade in livestock products suggest a changing role for Veterinary Services in facilitating trade and extension in the years to come.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Porcina Africana , COVID-19 , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , COVID-19/veterinaria , Comercio , Países en Desarrollo , Internacionalidad , Ganado , SARS-CoV-2 , Porcinos
6.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 49(3): 453-462, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478321

RESUMEN

Introduction: Most psychotherapists had no choice during the COVID-19 pandemic but to offer teletherapy in order to provide needed treatment. Several psychoanalytic theorists wondered if the very concept of treatment would change without an embodied relationship in an office setting. Methods: To attempt to understand the current concept of effective psychodynamic treatment in the new norm of teletherapy, we surveyed practitioners from 56 countries and regions who remotely treated patients psychodynamically during the beginning months of the pandemic. We asked the practitioners to rank six factors felt to be important to psychodynamic treatment: use of the couch during sessions, session in-office or via teletherapy, cultural similarity between therapist and patient, number of sessions a week, patient factors (motivation, insightfulness, and high functioning) and therapist factors (empathy, warmth, wisdom, and skillfulness). Results: We received 1,490 survey responses. As predicted, we found that the therapist and patient variables were considered much more important (both tied as highest rankings) to effective treatment than any of the other variables, including if the therapy was in-office or by teletherapy. Discussion: Psychodynamic practitioners worldwide confirmed that the empathy, warmth, wisdom, and skillfulness of the therapist and the motivation, insightfulness, and level of functioning of the patient are most important to treatment effectiveness regardless if the treatment is remote or embodied.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/métodos , Internacionalidad , Terapia Psicoanalítica/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(10): e635-e643, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481768

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Delays in the diagnosis of genetic syndromes are common, particularly in low and middle-income countries with limited access to genetic screening services. We, therefore, aimed to develop and evaluate a machine learning-based screening technology using facial photographs to evaluate a child's risk of presenting with a genetic syndrome for use at the point of care. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we developed a facial deep phenotyping technology based on deep neural networks and facial statistical shape models to screen children for genetic syndromes. We trained the machine learning models on facial photographs from children (aged <21 years) with a clinical or molecular diagnosis of a genetic syndrome and controls without a genetic syndrome matched for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Images were obtained from three publicly available databases (the Atlas of Human Malformations in Diverse Populations of the National Human Genome Research Institute, Face2Gene, and the dataset available from Ferry and colleagues) and the archives of the Children's National Hospital (Washington, DC, USA), in addition to photographs taken on a standard smartphone at the Children's National Hospital. We designed a deep learning architecture structured into three neural networks, which performed image standardisation (Network A), facial morphology detection (Network B), and genetic syndrome risk estimation, accounting for phenotypic variations due to age, sex, and race or ethnicity (Network C). Data were divided randomly into 40 groups for cross validation, and the performance of the model was evaluated in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in both the total population and stratified by race or ethnicity, age, and sex. FINDINGS: Our dataset included 2800 facial photographs of children (1318 [47%] female and 1482 [53%] male; 1576 [56%] White, 432 [15%] African, 430 [15%] Hispanic, and 362 [13%] Asian). 1400 children with 128 genetic conditions were included (the most prevalent being Williams-Beuren syndrome [19%], Cornelia de Lange syndrome [17%], Down syndrome [16%], 22q11.2 deletion [13%], and Noonan syndrome [12%] syndrome) in addition to 1400 photographs of matched controls. In the total population, our deep learning-based model had an accuracy of 88% (95% CI 87-89) for the detection of a genetic syndrome, with 90% sensitivity (95% CI 88-92) and 86% specificity (95% CI 84-88). Accuracy was greater in White (90%, 89-91) and Hispanic populations (91%, 88-94) than in African (84%, 81-87) and Asian populations (82%, 78-86). Accuracy was also similar in male (89%, 87-91) and female children (87%, 85-89), and similar in children younger than 2 years (86%, 84-88) and children aged 2 years or older (eg, 89% [87-91] for those aged 2 years to <5 years). INTERPRETATION: This genetic screening technology could support early risk stratification at the point of care in global populations, which has the potential accelerate diagnosis and reduce mortality and morbidity through preventive care. FUNDING: Children's National Hospital and Government of Abu Dhabi.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Genéticas Congénitas/diagnóstico , Aprendizaje Automático , Fenotipo , Fotograbar , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , África , Asia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Cara , Expresión Facial , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Lactante , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
11.
Anesthesiology ; 135(4): 711-723, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499129

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, characteristics, impact, and risk factors associated with persistent incisional pain. The hypothesis was that patient demographics and perioperative interventions are associated with persistent pain. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of an international prospective cohort study from 2012 to 2014. This study included patients who were 45 yr of age or older who underwent major inpatient noncardiac surgery. Data were collected perioperatively and at 1 yr after surgery to assess for the development of persistent incisional pain (pain present around incision at 1 yr after surgery). RESULTS: Among 14,831 patients, 495 (3.3%; 95% CI, 3.1 to 3.6) reported persistent incisional pain at 1 yr, with an average pain intensity of 3.6 ± 2.5 (0 to 10 numeric rating scale), with 35% and 14% reporting moderate and severe pain intensities, respectively. More than half of patients with persistent pain reported needing analgesic medications, and 85% reported interference with daily activities (denominator = 495 in the above proportions). Risk factors for persistent pain included female sex (P = 0.007), Asian ethnicity (P < 0.001), surgery for fracture (P < 0.001), history of chronic pain (P < 0.001), coronary artery disease (P < 0.001), history of tobacco use (P = 0.048), postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (P < 0.001), postoperative continuous nerve block (P = 0.010), insulin initiation within 24 h of surgery (P < 0.001), and withholding nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication or cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on the day of surgery (P = 0.029 and P < 0.001, respectively). Older age (P < 0.001), endoscopic surgery (P = 0.005), and South Asian (P < 0.001), Native American/Australian (P = 0.004), and Latin/Hispanic ethnicities (P < 0.001) were associated with a lower risk of persistent pain. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent incisional pain is a common complication of inpatient noncardiac surgery, occurring in approximately 1 in 30 adults. It results in significant morbidity, interferes with daily living, and is associated with persistent analgesic consumption. Certain demographics, ethnicities, and perioperative practices are associated with increased risk of persistent pain.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico/epidemiología , Dolor Crónico/etiología , Dolor Postoperatorio/epidemiología , Dolor Postoperatorio/etiología , Herida Quirúrgica/complicaciones , Herida Quirúrgica/epidemiología , Anciano , Dolor Crónico/diagnóstico , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor Postoperatorio/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Herida Quirúrgica/diagnóstico
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 934, 2021 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496792

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Delay in Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis affects foreign-born and nationals in different ways, especially in low-incidence countries. This study characterises total delay and its components amongst foreign-born individuals in Portugal. Additionally, we identify risk factors for each type of delay and compare their effects between foreign-born and nationals. METHODS: We analysed data from the Portuguese TB surveillance system and included individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB), notified between 2008 and 2017. We described patient, healthcare, and total delays. Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with each type of delay. All analyses were stratified according to the origin country: nationals (those born in Portugal) and foreign-born. RESULTS: Compared with nationals, foreign-born persons presented statistically significant and longer median total and patient delays (Total: 67 vs. 63; Patient: 44 vs. 36 days), and lower healthcare services delays (7 vs. 9 days). Risk factors for delayed diagnosis differed between foreign-born and nationals. Being unemployed, having drug addiction, and having comorbidities were identified as risk factors for delayed diagnosis in national individuals but not in foreigners. Alcohol addiction was the only factor identified for healthcare delay for both populations: foreign-born (Hazard Ratio 1.34 [95% confidence interval 1.17;1.53]); nationals (Hazard Ratio 1.20 [95% confidence interval 1.13;1.27]). CONCLUSIONS: Foreign-born individuals with PTB take longer to seek health care. While no specific risk factors were identified, more in-depth studies are required to identify barriers and support public health intervention to address PTB diagnosis delay in foreign-born individuals.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Tuberculosis , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Factores de Riesgo , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología
15.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113568, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479153

RESUMEN

After the Paris Climate Conference (Conference of the Paris COP: 21), many countries started progressing towards carbon neutrality. In doing so, the present study aims to assess the role of eco-innovation and globalization in mitigating CO2 emissions in the case of the USA. The study applied Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag (QARDL) approach to estimate the short-run and long-run relationship among the selected variables. According to the empirical results, gross domestic product (GDP) positively influences the level of CO2 emissions for the USA economy at all quantiles. However, GDP square is negatively associated with CO2 emissions in the USA; therefore, our study supports the existence of EKC for the USA. Further, eco-innovation is the mitigating factor of CO2 emissions in our empirical analysis. Our study proved that globalization is the stimulating factor of CO2 emissions in the US economy. The empirical estimates of the Granger causality test show the bidirectional causality from GDP, eco-innovations, and globalization to GDP for the USA economy. To mitigate CO2 emissions, the study provides useful insights for policymakers in the USA economy.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Internacionalidad , Condiciones Sociales , Estados Unidos
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5310, 2021 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493729

RESUMEN

Nutritional stability - a food system's capacity to provide sufficient nutrients despite disturbance - is an important, yet challenging to measure outcome of diversified agriculture. Using 55 years of data across 184 countries, we assemble 22,000 bipartite crop-nutrient networks to quantify nutritional stability by simulating crop and nutrient loss in a country, and assess its relationship to crop diversity across regions, over time and between imports versus in country production. We find a positive, saturating relationship between crop diversity and nutritional stability across countries, but also show that over time nutritional stability remained stagnant or decreased in all regions except Asia. These results are attributable to diminishing returns on crop diversity, with recent gains in crop diversity among crops with fewer nutrients, or with nutrients already in a country's food system. Finally, imports are positively associated with crop diversity and nutritional stability, indicating that many countries' nutritional stability is market exposed.


Asunto(s)
Productos Agrícolas/química , Seguridad Alimentaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Agricultura/organización & administración , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos Agrícolas/economía , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Seguridad Alimentaria/economía , Humanos , Internacionalidad
17.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113386, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526282

RESUMEN

Despite extensive studies into international trade and CO2 pollution, a panel of only top exporting economies was not considered. As the current research is an endeavor to address the gap by exploring the impact of economic complexity index (ECI) and renewable energy electricity (RELC) on consumption-based carbon emissions (CCO2) in the presences of exports, imports, and gross domestic product (GDP) in the top exporting countries from 1990 to 2019. The results confirm a relationship between consumption-based carbon emissions, economic complexity index, renewable energy electricity, exports, imports, and economic growth in both the short-run and long run. Empirical evidence for cross-sectional auto-regressive distributed lags (CS-ARDL) estimates, confirms that economic complexity index imports and GDP are positively associated and have significant adverse short-run and long-run impacts on consumption-based carbon emission. Whereas, export and renewable energy electricity significantly reduce carbon emissions. To achieve carbon neutrality target, policymakers should make economic complexity reforms, import green products, and promote investments in sustainable sources.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comercio , Dióxido de Carbono , Estudios Transversales , Desarrollo Económico , Electricidad , Internacionalidad , Energía Renovable
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544851

RESUMEN

Across publicly owned natural resources, the practice of recovering financial compensation, commonly known as resource rent, from extractive industries influences wealth distribution and general welfare of society. Catch shares are the primary approach adopted to diminish the economically wasteful race to fish by allocating shares of fish quotas-public assets-to selected fishing firms. It is perceived that resource rent is concentrated within catch share fisheries, but there has been no systematic comparison of rent-charging practices with other extractive industries. Here, we estimate the global prevalence of catch share fisheries and compare rent recovery mechanisms (RRM) in the fishing industry with other extractive industries. We show that while catch share fisheries harvest 17.4 million tons (19% of global fisheries landings), with a value of 17.7 billion USD (17% of global fisheries landed value), rent charges occurred in only 5 of 18 countries with shares of fish quotas primarily allocated free of charge. When compared with other extractive industries, fishing is the only industry that consistently lacks RRM. While recovering resource rent for harvesting well-governed fishery resources represents a source of revenue to coastal states, which could be sustained indefinitely, overcharging the industry might impact fish supply. Different RRM occurred in extractive industries, though generally, rent-based charges can help avoid affecting deployment of capital and labor to harvest fish since they depend on the profitability of the operations. Our study could be a starting point for coastal states to consider adapting policies to the enhanced economic condition of the fishing industry under catch shares.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras/estadística & datos numéricos , Peces/fisiología , Modelos Biológicos , Dinámica Poblacional , Animales , Explotaciones Pesqueras/economía , Internacionalidad
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580214

RESUMEN

Global cooperation rests on popular endorsement of cosmopolitan values-putting all humanity equal to or ahead of conationals. Despite being comparative judgments that may trade off, even sacrifice, the in-group's interests for the rest of the world, moral cosmopolitanism finds support in large, nationally representative surveys from Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, China, Japan, the United States, Colombia, and Guatemala. A series of studies probe this trading off of the in-group's interests against the world's interests. Respondents everywhere distinguish preventing harm to foreign citizens, which almost all support, from redistributing resources, which only about half support. These two dimensions of moral cosmopolitanism, equitable security (preventing harm) and equitable benefits (redistributing resources), predict attitudes toward contested international policies, actual charitable donations, and preferences for mask and vaccine allocations in the COVID-19 response. The dimensions do not reflect several demographic variables and only weakly reflect political ideology. Moral cosmopolitanism also differs from related psychological constructs such as group identity. Finally, to understand the underlying thought structures, natural language processing reveals cognitive associations underlying moral cosmopolitanism (e.g., world, both) versus the alternative, parochial moral mindset (e.g., USA, first). Making these global or local terms accessible introduces an effective intervention that at least temporarily leads more people to behave like moral cosmopolitans.


Asunto(s)
Internacionalidad , Principios Morales , Humanos , Juicio , Lingüística , Teoría Psicológica , Política Pública , Asignación de Recursos , Seguridad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578468

RESUMEN

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has expanded into a global pandemic, with more than 220 million affected persons and almost 4.6 million deaths by 8 September 2021. In particular, Europe and the Americas have been heavily affected by high infection and death rates. In contrast, much lower infection rates and mortality have been reported generally in Africa, particularly in the sub-Saharan region (with the exception of the Southern Africa region). There are different hypotheses for this African paradox, including less testing, the young age of the population, genetic disposition, and behavioral and epidemiological factors. In the present review, we address different immunological factors and their correlation with genetic factors, pre-existing immune status, and differences in cytokine induction patterns. We also focus on epidemiological factors, such as specific medication coverage, helminth distribution, and malaria endemics in the sub-Saharan region. An analysis combining different factors is presented that highlights the central role of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the African paradox. Importantly, insights into the interplay of different factors with the underlying immune pathological mechanisms for COVID-19 can provide a better understanding of the disease and the development of new targets for more efficient treatment strategies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , África/epidemiología , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/metabolismo , Comorbilidad , Citocinas/metabolismo , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Geografía Médica , Salud Global , Humanos , Mortalidad , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Vigilancia de la Población , Transducción de Señal
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...