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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640940

RESUMEN

Collaborative part transportation is an interesting application as many industrial sectors require moving large parts among different areas of the workshops, using a large amount of the workforce on this tasks. Even so, the implementation of such kinds of robotic solutions raises technical challenges like force-based control or robot-to-human feedback. This paper presents a path-driven mobile co-manipulation architecture, proposing an algorithm that deals with all the steps of collaborative part transportation. Starting from the generation of force-based twist commands, continuing with the path management for the definition of safe and collaborative areas, and finishing with the feedback provided to the system users, the proposed approach allows creating collaborative lanes for the conveyance of large components. The implemented solution and performed tests show the suitability of the proposed architecture, allowing the creation of a functional robotic system able to assist operators transporting large parts on workshops.


Asunto(s)
Brazo , Robótica , Algoritmos , Ambiente , Humanos , Transportes
2.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00518, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing how population density (PD), aging index (AI), use of public transport (URPT), and PM10 concentration (PI) modulated the trajectory of the main COVID-19 pandemic outcomes in Italy, also in the recrudescence phase of the epidemic. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological study. METHODS: For each region, we recovered data about cases, deaths, and case fatality rate (CFR) recorded since both the beginning of the epidemic and September 1, 2020. Data about total hospitalizations were included as well. RESULTS: PD correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. Moreover, URPT correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total CFR. Besides, PI correlated significantly with total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: PD explains COVID-19 morbidity, mortality, and severity while URPT is the best predictor of disease lethality. These findings should be interpreted with caution due to the ecological fallacy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Hospitalización , Pandemias , Densidad de Población , Transportes , Factores de Edad , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ambiente , Humanos , Italia , Tamaño de la Partícula , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
3.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604235, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483811

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the associations between air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits for dry eye disease (DED) in Shenzhen, China. Methods: Generalized additive models were utilized to explore the acute effects of air pollution exposure on pediatric outpatient visits for DED. Results: Single-day lag exposures to NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 were associated with DED outpatient visits at lag days 0, 6, 4 and 2. Relative risks (RRs) for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations were 1.062[95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003, 1.123], 1.015(95% CI 1.001, 1.031), 1.052(95% CI 1.001, 1.115), and 1.038 (95% CI 1.002, 1.076), respectively. RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 over cumulative lag days 0-1 was 1.075 (95% CI 1.009, 1.147), and RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM10 over cumulative lag days 0-4 was 1.051 (95% CI 1.003, 1.102). Conclusion: The observed associations between air pollution and outpatient visits for DED may provide evidence for policy makers to consider implementing measures to reduce the risk of DED owing to air pollution in China.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Atención Ambulatoria , Síndromes de Ojo Seco , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , China/epidemiología , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/epidemiología , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/terapia , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
4.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 400-402, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474709

RESUMEN

Background: On January 20, 2020, the first documented case of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) was reported in the United States. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to report more morbidity and mortality in adults than in children. Early in Pandemic, there was a concern that patients with asthma would be affected disproportionately from COVID-19, but this was not manifested. It is now recognized that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors that are used by the coronavirus for infection have low expression in children with atopy that may contribute to decreased infectivity in children who are atopic. There are several early reports of decreased emergency department (ED) visits for children with asthma. The authors previously reported a decrease in pediatric ED visits in the spring of 2020, which correlated with school closure. Objective: To determine if this trend of decreased ED visits for pediatric asthma was sustained throughout the first COVID-19 pandemic year. Methods: ED data from one inner city children's hospital were collected by using standard medical claims codes. Conclusion: We reported a sustained year of decreased ED visits for children with asthma in one pediatric ED in an inner-city hospital; this seemed to be secondary to school closure and decreased exposure to upper respiratory infections.


Asunto(s)
Asma , COVID-19/prevención & control , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios/tendencias , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Asma/etiología , Asma/fisiopatología , Asma/terapia , Niño , Preescolar , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Distanciamiento Físico , Instituciones Académicas , Salud Urbana
5.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 533-544, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542095

RESUMEN

Animal health risk assessment is one of the key tasks of Veterinary Services. There are well-established protocols created by the World Organisation for Animal Health and Codex Alimentarius Commission for assessing risk. They cover terrestrial and aquatic animals and zoonotic infectious diseases, food safety, and the environment, taking into consideration the connections between them. Significant effort has been made in developing methods to estimate the probability, and consequences, of infectious disease incursion in diseasefree countries through legal or illegal trade or via the movements of insects and wildlife. Additional efforts have been made in the design of prevention strategies and contingency plans. Concerns about possible pandemics of avian influenza continue to be important motivation for monitoring viruses for selection of vaccine candidate strains. The recent COVID-19 pandemic was zoonotic in nature and caused extensive disruption throughout the world. Tools are becoming available for quantitative food safety risk assessments for bacteria, toxins, viruses, and antimicrobial resistance genes, including tools that allow simulations for the selection of effective control options. Applying participatory techniques facilitates the conduct of risk analysis in low- and middle-income countries. In internationally established frameworks, risk assessment is the first step towards elimination of important infectious diseases in endemic countries and it is an important contributor to the reduction of disease risks. Quantitative and qualitative socio-economic and behavioural studies have been developed to design risk management options that are acceptable and sustainable for actors throughout value chains.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Animales , Animales Salvajes , COVID-19/veterinaria , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Medición de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Waste Manag ; 134: 159-169, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419703

RESUMEN

The amount of building demolition waste produced in China is large, and waste treatment processes discharge many pollutants. Pre-evaluating waste's environmental damage at the design stage of building projects could provide an opportunity to understand and minimize potential environmental impacts. Tools that can conveniently estimate the amount of demolition waste and quantify its impacts are lacking. This study combines building information modeling (BIM), geographic information system (GIS), and life cycle assessment (LCA) to develop an estimation and evaluation system for building demolition waste. In this system, BIM digitizes the specific characteristics of the evaluated buildings and provides geometric and semantic information for waste estimation. GIS offers geographic information regarding waste treatment plants and landfill site, and is used to design waste transportation routes. LCA provides an environmental impact assessment framework and quantifies ecological damage impacts and resource depletion impacts due to demolition waste. The system includes five modules, which form the basis of an automated calculation tool. The evaluation tool can quickly quantify the amount of waste and assess its impacts, while achieving automated waste estimation and impact evaluation after a building is designed. A building in a middle school is taken as a case study to demonstrate and verify the system. This study provides an operable tool for waste evaluation and management at the design stage. With the increasing application of BIM technology in the construction industry, this tool is expected to gain popularity and promote efficient waste management.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Administración de Residuos , Materiales de Construcción , Ambiente , Reciclaje , Transportes
7.
Water Res ; 202: 117457, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358909

RESUMEN

Microplastic particles in stormwater pose significant threats to the environment. This study investigated how effective a stormwater treatment train was at removing rubber, bitumen and other microplastics (incl. fibers, fragments, and paint particles) in the 100-300 µm and >300 µm size fractions from highway runoff. The two treatment trains comprise a gross pollutant trap (GPT) followed by either a vegetated bioretention cell or non-vegetated sand filter. Flow-proportional composite samples were taken from the highway runoff, GPT outflow and the outflow from the two parallel filters during nine rain events to determine overall treatment performance, as well as the performance of individual system components. The identified rubber, bitumen and other microplastic particles mainly represented the 100-300 µm fraction and included high ratios of rubber (30%) and bitumen (60%). Overall, the treatment train efficiently removed rubber, bitumen and other microplastic particles in the 100-300 µm size fraction from the stormwater. The filter cells accounted for a major share of this removal, as the GPT did not reduce microplastic particle concentrations. This observation is likely explained by the fact that the rubber, bitumen and other microplastic particles have a density close to the density of water and thus removal by sedimentation is decreased. This identified an inherent weakness of the system; more specifically, the high microplastic concentrations in the surface water of the GPT means there can be a risk of microplastic release through overflow pits when inflows surpass the system capacity. Despite some differences, both the vegetated bioretention cell and the non-vegetated sand filter removed rubber, bitumen and other microplastic particles to similar extent.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Purificación del Agua , Hidrocarburos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Lluvia , Goma , Abastecimiento de Agua
8.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(9): e1362-e1374, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406817

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: There was rapid adoption of teleoncology care in the Veterans Health Administration during the COVID-19 pandemic. One third of 9 million Veterans Health Administration enrolled Veterans live in rural areas. Although digital solutions can expand capacity, enhance care access, and reduce financial burden, they may also exacerbate rural-urban health disparities. Careful evaluation of patients' perceptions and policy tradeoffs are necessary to optimize teleoncology postpandemic. METHODS: Patients with ≥ 1 teleoncology visit with medical, surgical, or radiation oncology between March 2020 and June 2020 were identified retrospectively. Validated, Likert-type survey assessing patient satisfaction was developed. Follow-up survey was conducted on patients with ≥ 1 teleoncology visit from August 2020 to January 2021. Travel distance, time, cost, and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated based on zip codes. RESULTS: A hundred surveys were completed (response rate, 62%). Patients overall were satisfied with teleoncology (83% Agree or Strongly Agree) but felt less satisfied than in-person visits (47% Agree or Strongly Agree). Audiovisual component improved patient perception of involvement in care, ability to self-manage health or medical needs, and comparability to in-person visits. Follow-up survey demonstrated similar satisfaction. Total travel-related savings are as follows: 86,470 miles, 84,374 minutes, $49,720 US dollars, and 35.5 metric tons of carbon dioxide. CONCLUSION: Veterans are broadly satisfied with teleoncology. Audiovisual capabilities are critical to satisfaction. This is challenging for rural populations with lack of technology access. Patients experienced financial and time savings, and society benefitted from reduced carbon emissions. Continued optimization is needed to enhance patient experience and address secondary effects.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Veteranos , Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Satisfacción del Paciente , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Viaje , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes
9.
Rehabil. integral (Impr.) ; 15(1): 30-40, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283454

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: Producto de la pandemia por COVID-19 y para establecer continuidad a los tratamientos de usuarios y familias, Teletón Chile implementó una encuesta para describir las características demográficas, de salud, sociales, ambientales, factores asociados, atención a distancia y problemas asociados por contingencia COVID-19. OBJETIVO: Describir el servicio de atención a distancia (AD) implementado por Teletón Chile, preferencias y utilidad de redes sociales (RR.SS.) de los usuarios. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal de tipo censal a usuarios activos de Teletón al 30 de abril de 2020 desarrollado a través de la aplicación de una encuesta para caracterizar el servicio de AD y RR.SS. RESULTADOS: Se presentan resultados obtenidos entre junio y agosto de 2020, que representan al 31,13% (n = 8.202) de la población total atendida; El 74,54% de los participantes de la encuesta señalan haber recibido AD, de los cuales un 82,02% logra el cumplimiento de las indicaciones siendo la principal razón de no cumplimiento no ser contactado para la modalidad AD desde el área médico-terapéutica (36,55%). Los principales beneficios de la AD son: aumento de la accesibilidad en la atención (44,13%) y disminución de las problemáticas del traslado (17,67%). La preocupación principal es la pérdida de la cantidad de atenciones presenciales (34,41%). CONCLUSIONES: La AD es considerada de utilidad para la continuidad de los programas de rehabilitación. Asimismo, toma relevancia el uso de redes sociales para contacto y seguimiento. Finalmente, para implementar este servicio se requiere considerar las necesidades personales de los usuarios para una rehabilitación remota.


INTRODUCTION: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and to establish continuity in the treatment of users and families, Teletón Chile implemented a survey to describe the demographic, health, social and environmental characteristics, associated factors, distance care and associated problems due to COVID-19. Objective: To describe stance Attention (DA) service implemented by Teleton Chile, and the preferences and usefulness of users' social networks (RRSS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study of a census type which was developed through the application of a survey to characterize the DA and RRSS service, and includes active Teletón users as of April 30, 2020. RESULTS: Results obtained between June and August 2020 are presented, representing 31.13% (n = 8,202) of the total population served; 74.54% of the survey participants indicated having received of which 82.02% achieved compliance with the prescribed indications, the main reason for non-compliance was not being contacted by the medical-therapeutic area for the DA modality (36.55%). The main benefits of DA are: increased accessibility to care (44.13%) and reduction in transportation problems (17.67%). The main concern is the loss of the amount of face-to-face care (34.41%). CONCLUSIONS: DA is considered useful for the continuity of rehabilitation programs. The use of social networks for contact and follow-up is also relevant. Finally, to implement this service, it is necessary to consider the personal needs of the users for a remote rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Telemedicina , Infecciones por Coronavirus , COVID-19 , Neumonía Viral , Rehabilitación/métodos , Chile , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Betacoronavirus
10.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405453

RESUMEN

Invasive non-native species are important drivers of ecosystem change, yet the driving forces of biological invasions themselves are poorly understood. Such information is essential to ensure policies focus on the most relevant drivers, and that future scenarios capture the full range of potential outcomes for invasive non-native species. I carried out a bibliometric analysis of articles published from 2000 to 2020 that address either invasive non-native species or biodiversity and ecosystem services and that also mention 1 or more drivers of ecosystem change. I examined 5 indirect drivers (demographic, economic, governance, sociocultural, and technological) and 6 direct drivers (climate change, invasive non-native species, land-use or sea-use change, natural hazards, pollution, and resource extraction). Using the Web of Science core collection of citation indexes, I undertook searches of article titles and keywords and retrieved 27,462 articles addressing invasive non-native species and 110,087 articles dealing with biodiversity or ecosystem services. Most research to date on biological invasions as well as on biodiversity and ecosystem services has focused on anthropogenic direct drivers of ecosystem change rather than indirect drivers. Yet currently, less than 18% of articles addressing biological invasions examined drivers of ecosystem change, a similar level to that found over 20 years ago for biodiversity or ecosystem services. Knowledge of the drivers of biological invasions is limited, emphasizes tractable drivers over those that require an interdisciplinary approach, and is biased toward developed economies. Drivers generally deemed important for biological invasions, such as governance and resource extraction, accounted for less than 2% of research effort. The absence of a systematic understanding of the forces that drive invasive non-native species and how they interact means that attempts to mitigate or forecast biological invasions are likely to fail. To address biological invasions requires a much better orientation of national and international research on drivers in relation to both their actual importance as well as their policy relevance.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149365, 2021 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364278

RESUMEN

Northern Italy represents the most important rice-growing district in Europe. In this area, rice is the main annual crop and the main revenues source for farmers. However, Italian climatic condition led to a traditional cultivation characterized by continuous flooding, causing emissions of methane into the atmosphere due to the organic matter fermentation in anaerobic conditions, and, consequently, a high environmental impact. The water conditions of paddy fields also affect heavy metals uptake by rice plants. In this context, this study focuses on the evaluation of environmental impact and of heavy metal content in paddy rice, and it may represent an important step in mitigating the environmental impact of rice production. In detail, this study quantifies the environmental benefits related to the adoption of an alternative water management characterized by an additional aeration period during stem elongation. To this purpose, field trials were carried out and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach was applied with a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The potential environmental impact of the production of two rice varieties (Carnaroli and Caravaggio) was analysed in terms of 12 different impact categories and dehulled rice grain were analysed for arsenic and cadmium content. Alternative flooding decreases CH4 emissions in all cases evaluated (from 15% to 52%), resulting in a reduction in the climate change impact of rice cultivation (from 12% to 32%). Furthermore, the alternative water management does not influence grain yield and it reduces all the other environmental impact categories in 2 out of 4 cases. Regarding the heavy metals contents, the arsenic content in the grain decreases in all alternative scenarios, whereas the cadmium content increases, while remaining well below the legal limits.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Agricultura , Ambiente , Metano , Suelo , Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
12.
Water Res ; 202: 117381, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233250

RESUMEN

Mycorrhizae can improve plant growth and drought tolerance by enhancing plant uptake of nutrients and water, which are important targets for biofilters, a common stormwater treatment system. This study evaluated the role of mycorrhizal inoculation on plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency and pollutant removal in two Australian plant species grown in stormwater biofilters. During the establishment period and column study, Ficinia nodosa showed over 80% mycorrhizal colonization, leading to a doubling of shoot and root biomass compared to the control, while Carex appressa showed less than 26% mycorrhizal colonization and no effect on shoot and root biomass. Columns planted with mycorrhizal-inoculated F. nodosa had 5% higher removal of total phosphorus and 10% higher removal of total nitrogen (Figure 5), phosphate (Figure 6), and cadmium (Table 3). Mycorrhizal colonization did not appear to affect plant stress during drought as indicated by similar photosynthetic efficiencies within species. Our results indicate that mycorrhizal inoculation can be highly successful in biofilters while increasing plant growth and nutrient removal, opening opportunities to further study the role of mycorrhizae in enhancing plant drought tolerance and pollutant removal in existing biofiltration systems.


Asunto(s)
Cyperaceae , Contaminantes Ambientales , Micorrizas , Purificación del Agua , Australia , Biomasa , Fósforo , Raíces de Plantas , Lluvia , Abastecimiento de Agua
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280976

RESUMEN

Safety of the hazardous chemicals road transportation system (HCRTS) is an important, complex, social, and environmental sensitive problem. The complexity, dynamics, and multi-link features of HCRTS have made it necessary to think beyond traditional risk analysis methods. Based on the relevant literature, Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) is a relatively new systemic method for modeling and analyzing complex socio-technical systems. In this study, a methodology that integrates FRAM, fuzzy sets, and risk matrix is presented to quantitatively assess the risks factors representing failure function links in HCRTS. As the strength of function links can be illustrated by the RI (risk index) of risk factors identified in failure function links, 32 risk factors representing 12 failure function links were first identified by accident causes analysis and the framework of FRAM. Fuzzy sets were then utilized to calculate the weight of the likelihood and consequence of the risk factors. Finally, according to the assessment results of the identified risk factors by a two-dimensional risk matrix, the weaker function links in the whole HCRTS chain were identified. HCs road companies, regulatory authorities, relevant practitioners, and other stakeholders should pay more attention to these links.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias Peligrosas , Transportes , Accidentes , China , Sustancias Peligrosas/toxicidad , Medición de Riesgo
14.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117823, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325093

RESUMEN

Effective reducing exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during commuting can help lower the risk of adverse health effects therefrom; however, few studies have examined the influence of different background levels of air pollution-particularly in China where PM2.5 concentrations are high globally. In this study, personal sampling was conducted to measure individual exposure during five different modes of commuting (bus, metro, car, bicycle and walking) in Shanghai, China. A total of 125 measurements were conducted for five days under haze and non-haze conditions, following which the corresponding doses of PM2.5 inhaled were estimated. The mean concentrations (±standard deviation, SD, 1-min averaging) of background PM2.5 were 155.9 (±98.7) µg/m3 during haze and 36.3 (±17.6) µg/m3 under the non-haze conditions. Under both conditions, active commuters were exposed to higher PM2.5 concentrations than those using motorized commuting modes (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.01). Moreover, driving with closed windows and air conditioning effectively reduces the PM2.5 concentrations in cars by 35 %-57 %. Cyclists inhaled the highest doses (539.8 ± 313.2 and 134.8 ± 71.3 µg/h under haze and non-haze conditions, respectively), whereas car drivers inhaled the lowest doses (28.8 ± 21.2 and 3.7 ± 2.6 µg/h under haze and non-haze conditions, respectively). Individual exposure to PM2.5 during commuting varied with the modes; the discrepancy between the latter depended largely on the ambient concentration. Our findings provided evidence that traffic-related air pollution contributed to daily pollutant exposure and highlighted the importance of taking personal protective measures while commuting, particularly during haze.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Transportes , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 600-610, 2021 07 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280150

RESUMEN

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL), a family of bacteria that includes Escherichia coli, have emerged as a global health threat. This study examined risks associated with carriage of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R) E. coli, including ESBL-producing, multidrug-resistant, and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains in children living in semirural parishes of Quito, Ecuador. We conducted a longitudinal study with two cycles of sampling (N = 374, N = 366) that included an analysis of child fecal samples and survey questions relating to water, sanitation, and hygiene, socioeconomic status, household crowding, and animal ownership. We used multivariate regression models to assess risk factors associated with a child being colonized. Across the two cycles, 18.4% (n = 516) of the 3GC-R isolates were ESBL-producing E. coli, and 40.3% (n = 516) were XDR E. coli. Children living in households that owned between 11 and 20 backyard animals had an increased odds of being colonized with XDR E. coli (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.60) compared with those with no animals. Households that reported smelling odors from commercial poultry had increased odds of having a child positive for XDR E. coli (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.11-2.66). Our results suggest that colonization of children with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli is influenced by exposure to backyard and commercial livestock and poultry. Future studies should consider community-level risk factors because child exposures to drug-resistant bacteria are likely influenced by neighborhood and regional risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Agricultura , Animales , Preescolar , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/microbiología , Agua Potable , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Ecuador/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Escherichia coli , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Ganado , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Cuartos de Baño
16.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131343, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216927

RESUMEN

In this study, we investigated the use of pipe growth rings from water distribution networks as a catalyst in heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation processes. The major constituents of real pipe growth rings (α- and γ-FeOOH) were prepared and considered as a simulated growth ring (SGR). Its performance in removing 5-bromosalicylic acid (5-BSA), a novel phenolic halogenated disinfection byproduct, was examined. SGR exhibited strong catalytic ability and a certain degree of adsorption capacity. Under acidic conditions, the adsorption and oxidation efficiencies were 32.65% and 87.67%, respectively. Furthermore, 72.19% of 5-BSA could be oxidized even at pH0 of 7. Kinetic characterizations at various temperatures revealed that both the adsorption and catalytic oxidation processes followed pseudo-second-order kinetic models and were surface-controlled with high activation energies (31.26 and 23.58 kJ mol-1, respectively). Ecotoxicity analyses of the transformation products (TPs) showed that the SGR/H2O2 system could effectively reduce the toxicity of 5-BSA. Moreover, the number of iron ions leaching from SGR was below 0.1 mg L-1 in all experiments. The results of this study support further investigation of using real pipe growth rings in off-line water treatment, as well water network contamination remediation.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Catálisis , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Oxidación-Reducción , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Abastecimiento de Agua
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300014

RESUMEN

The outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has become the focus of attention in the field of urban geography. Built environment, such as the layout of public spaces like transportation hubs and urban open spaces, is an important factor affecting the spread of the epidemic. However, due to the different behavior patterns of different age groups, the intensity and frequency of their use of various built environment spaces may vary. Based on this, we selected patients that were infected, with a non-manipulated time period, and the classification of human behavior patterns; we then conducted a regression analysis study on the spatial distribution and building environment of these COVID-19 patients. The results showed that the spatial distribution of young and middle-aged patients (18-59 years old) was more homogeneous, while the spatial distribution of elderly patients (60 years old and above) had a strong clustering characteristic. Moreover, the significant built environment factors exhibited in the two populations were extremely different. More diverse urban facilities and public spaces exhibited influential properties for older patients, while middle-aged and young adults were more influenced by commuting facilities. It can be said that the built environment shows different influences and mechanisms on the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases in different populations. Therefore, the results of this paper can inform decision makers who expect to reduce the occurrence of urban respiratory infectious diseases by improving the urban built environment.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ambiente , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportes , Adulto Joven
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148104, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126484

RESUMEN

The number of daily commuters in Greater Cairo has exceeded 15 million nevertheless personal exposure studies in transport microenvironments are limited. The aim of this study is to quantify PM2.5 exposure during peak hours in four transport modes of Greater Cairo - car (windows-open, windows-closed with recirculation and AC-on), microbus (windows-open), cycling and walking - and understand its underlying drivers. Data was collected using a pDR-1500 monitor and analysed to capture concentration variations, spatial variability, exposure doses, commuting costs versus inhaled doses, health burden and economic losses. Car with recirculation resulted in the least average PM2.5 concentrations (32 ± 6 µg/m3), followed by walking (77 ± 35 µg/m3), car with windows-open (82 ± 32 µg/m3), microbus with windows-open (96 ± 29 µg/m3) and cycling (100 ± 28 µg/m3). Evening hours observed average PM2.5 concentrations by 26-58% lesser than morning. Spatial variability analysis showed that 75th-90th percentile PM2.5 concentrations coincided with congested spots. Cycling and walking lanes are rare hence commuters are exposed to surges in PM2.5 concentrations when passing near construction and solid waste burning sites. Cycling and walking also resulted in inhaling 40-times and 32-times higher PM2.5 dose per kilometre than for car with recirculation. Commuting by microbus cost (with windows-open) ~45% of car cost (with recirculation) but it resulted in 4-times higher inhaled PM2.5 dose. As expected due to the lowest PM2.5 exposure concentrations, health burden resulting from car travel (with recirculation) caused the least death rates of 0.07 (95% CI 0.07-0.08) prematures deaths per 100,000 commuters/year while microbus with windows-open resulted in the highest death rates; 0.52 (95% CI 0.49-0.56). Microbus deaths represent 57% of national economic losses due to PM2.5 exposure amongst the four transport modes. This study provides real-time exposure data and analyses its implications on commuter health as a first step in informed decision-making and better urban planning.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Transportes , Caminata
19.
Water Res ; 201: 117362, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174728

RESUMEN

Even the most carefully designed water distribution network (WDN) can suffer from local capacity deficiencies as a result of the quick and unpredictable growth of the urbanization of new industrial sites. To solve this problem, this paper focuses on the identification of the best possible location for a new pipeline within an existing WDN, which maximizes the node-wise capacity. To determine the optimal solution, a parameter, namely pressure sensitivity, is defined, which can localize nodes with local capacity problems computationally efficiently. During our research, a fitness function transformation technique was defined, which increases the effectivity of the optimization on a larger scale by the formulation of a feasible fitness function. Combining this technique with an extended version of the genetic algorithm, the topology of eleven real-life WDN was optimized. A scrutiny is performed on three networks, highlighting typical deficiencies.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua , Algoritmos , Ambiente , Urbanización
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162313

RESUMEN

The paper presents the results of the study on the transport systems in metropolises by stating the interdisciplinary problems and prospects of applying the environmental and economic approach to the optimization of transport communication in megacities. The main problems of transport communications in large cities have been considered. The world experience in managing transport systems is analyzed. Priority directions for the implementation of environmental and economic tasks of transport industry management using the economic and mathematical approach have been established. It has been established that the performance indicators of the functioning of the megalopolis transport system depend on the work of the service provider. The most effective solution is to ensure that vehicles are working properly, that the vehicles are fully loaded and that they are on schedule. Performance indicators of the functioning of the megalopolis transport system on the part of the consumer of services: the coefficient of determination was 0.9493, the static probability p = 0.2067 standard deviation was 7.9428, the variance did not exceed 0.1015. The correlation of actual and planned results exceeded r2>0.7051; and was described by the equation y = 1.6746 + 0.844x. Logistic models for performance improvement of the transportation system were offered.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Ambiente , Transportes/economía , Ciudades , Modelos Teóricos
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