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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252594, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339400

RESUMEN

Abstract The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.


Resumo O presente estudo explicou o efeito de sistemas alternativos de produção sobre o crescimento, características morfométricas e carcaças de quatro genótipos de frango diferentes. A segunda geração de dois genótipos RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) e BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtida por duas autocruzes (RNN × RNN = RR e B ANN × BNN = BB) e duas cruzes recíprocas (RNN × BNN = RB e BNN × RNN = BR) foi avaliada em três sistemas de produção alternativos (gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e aviário). Na 6ª semana de idade após o sexo, um total de 600 aves, compostas por 150 de cada raça cruzada com um total de 300 pullets e 300 galos, foi dividido em gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e sistemas aviários com 200 aves em cada. As aves foram organizadas em 3×4 arranjos fatoriais sob projeto completamente randomizado (3 sistemas de produção × 4 genótipos × 2 sexos × 25 aves = 600 aves). Em relação aos genótipos, os machos RB e BR apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça (p < 0,01), peso da baqueta, peso mamário e peso da coxa do que os genótipos BB e RR. As fêmeas do genótipo BR apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso mamário, peso da coxa e peso da baqueta. No que diz respeito aos sistemas de produção, maior (p < 0,01) peso hepático, peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa foram observados nos machos criados em gaiolas enriquecidas em comparação com gaiolas convencionais e sistema aviário. As fêmeas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa quando comparadas com as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias. Conclui-se que as galinhas (ambos os sexos) dos genótipos BR e RB apresentaram melhores medidas morfológicas e traços de carcaça do que os de frangos genótipos RR e BB. Entre os sistemas de produção alternativos, as galinhas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas tinham características melhores do que as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias durante a fase de cultivo.

2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(4): e20201035, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339675

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: In this study, the labour requirement and labour cost of common vegetable cultivation were investigated to help agricultural enterprises and family farms establishing reasonable "working hour" management systems in Jiangsu Province. The labour requirement of each step of three type of producers, agriculture enterprises, family farms, and private vegetable growers, in three regions in Jiangsu Province, named north, middle and south Jiangsu, was investigated by on-site observation or questionnaire survey during 2018 and 2019. The labour cost of each step and each vegetable was counted according to the labour requirement and the salary level. The results indicated that "residue cleaning", "soil preparation and bedding", "plant regulation", "auxin treatment of tomato flowers" and "hand pollination" accounted for higher proportions of labour cost amongst the entire vegetable culture process. No significant differences in the labour requirements of the investigated vegetables were reported amongst three regions in Jiangsu Province. However, the order of labour cost is south Jiangsu > north Jiangsu > middle Jiangsu, due to the salary difference amongst three regions. Watermelon, broccoli and chive are more suitable for growing by agricultural enterprises since they have relatively low unit labour and high prices. We established a method to calculate and analyze labour requirement and cost of vegetable production in Jiangsu Province, which also may be instructive for other regions. In addition, our results provided useful data for various vegetable producers to improve their labour management.


RESUMO: Neste estudo, a necessidade de trabalho e o custo do cultivo comum de vegetais foram investigados para ajudar as empresas agrícolas e fazendas familiares a estabelecer sistemas de gestão de "horas de trabalho" razoáveis ​​na província de Jiangsu. A necessidade de trabalho de cada etapa de três tipos de produtores, empresas agrícolas, fazendas familiares e horticultores privados, em três regiões da província de Jiangsu, denominadas norte, centro e sul de Jiangsu, foi investigada por observação no local ou pesquisa por questionário durante 2018 e 2019. O custo da mão de obra de cada etapa e de cada hortaliça foi contabilizado de acordo com a necessidade de mão de obra e o nível salarial. Os resultados indicaram que "limpeza de resíduos", "preparo de solo e cama", "regulação de plantas", "tratamento com auxina de flores de tomate" e "polinização manual" foram responsáveis ​​por maiores proporções de custo de mão de obra em todo o processo de cultivo de vegetais. Nenhuma diferença significativa nas necessidades de trabalho dos vegetais investigados foi encontrada entre as três regiões da província de Jiangsu. No entanto, a ordem do custo da mão-de-obra é sul de Jiangsu> norte de Jiangsu> meio de Jiangsu, devido à diferença salarial entre as três regiões. Melancia, brócolis e cebolinha são mais adequados para o cultivo por empresas agrícolas, uma vez que têm uma unidade de trabalho relativamente baixa e preços altos. Estabelecemos um método para calcular e analisar a necessidade de mão de obra e o custo da produção de vegetais na província de Jiangsu, que também pode ser empregado para outras regiões. Além disso, nossos resultados forneceram dados úteis para vários produtores de vegetais melhorarem sua gestão de mão de obra.

3.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(4): e20200639, 2022. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339677

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The fungus Microdochium albescens can interfere in the germination of seeds and in the death of rice seedlings; however, there is not technical indication for its control by seed treatment. This research evaluated the efficiency of fungicides in the treatment of pre-germinated and dryland rice seeds in the control of M. albescens. Seeds of the cultivars, Epagri 109, SCS116 Satoru, SCS121 CL and SCS122 Miura were treated with the following fungicides (g a.i./100 kg of seeds): fluazinam + thiophanate methyl (9.45 + 63), pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl (5 + 45), carboxin + thiram (60 + 60), metalaxyl-M + thiabendazole + fludioxonil (3 + 22.5 + 3.75), carbendazim + thiram (45 + 105), carbendazim (45). Seeds without fungicide treatment constituted the control. The treated seeds were sown in potato-sucrose-agar (PSA) culture medium and incubated at 25 ± 2 °C and photoperiod of 12 hours for 14 days. Treated seeds were also submitted to the germination test. Fluazinam + thiophanate methyl and metalaxyl-M + thiabendazole + fludioxonil showed greater control of M. albescens, not differing statistically between them, in the five cultivars and in the two cultivation systems. The tested fungicides provided seed germination above 90% in the four cultivars.


RESUMO: O fungo Microdochium albescens pode interferir na germinação de sementes e na emergência de plântulas de arroz, porém não há indicação técnica para seu controle via tratamento de semente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas em tratamento de sementes de arroz pré-germinado e sequeiro no controle de M. albescens. Sementes das cultivares Epagri 109, SCS116 Satoru, SCS121 CL e SCS122 Miura foram tratadas com os seguintes fungicidas (g i.a./100 kg de sementes): fluazinam + tiofanato metílico (9,45 + 63), piraclostrobina + tiofanato metílico (5 + 45), carboxina + tiram (60 + 60), metalaxil-M + tiabendazol + fludioxonil (3 + 22,5 + 3,75), carbendazim + tiram (45 + 105), carbendazim (45). Sementes sem tratamento com fungicida constituíram a testemunha. As sementes tratadas foram semeadas em meio de cultura de batata-sacarose-ágar (BSA) e incubadas a 25 ± 2°C e fotoperíodo de 12 horas por 14 dias. Sementes tratadas também foram submetidas ao teste de germinação. Fluazinam + tiofanato metílico e metalaxil-M + tiabendazol + fludioxonil apresentaram maior controle de M. albescens, não diferindo estatisticamente entre si, nas cinco cultivares e nos dois sistemas de cultivo. Contudo, os fungicidas testados proporcionaram germinação das sementes superior a 90% nas quatro cultivares.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243168, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278514

RESUMEN

Abstract The yellow clam is a sand-burrowing bivalve that inhabits the dissipative beaches from southern Brazil to the north coast of Argentina. In the last decades, populations of this species have been impacted by mass mortality events, overfishing and other anthropogenic activities. The production of juveniles in captivity would allow feasibility studies to be carried out to restore the natural stock as well as the production in aquaculture systems. Given the scarcity of studies on the maintenance of this species in captivity, a culture system and a management protocol were developed and tested. Wild-caught clams (total length ≥50 mm) were used in a series of 14 day-long trials. Survival was higher in clams that were allowed to bury into the sand. A permanent ink marker covered with a thin layer of a quick-hardening adhesive proved to be a reliable method to tag clams. The maintenance of yellow clams in this system resulted in high survival and growth, increases in the condition factor and oocyte diameter, and a relative advancement of gonadal development.


Resumo O marisco branco é um bivalve de areia que habita as praias dissipativas do sul do Brasil até a costa norte da Argentina. Nas últimas décadas, as populações desta espécie têm sido afetadas por eventos de mortalidade maciça, sobrepesca e outras atividades antropogênicas. A produção de juvenis em cativeiro permitiria a realização de estudos de viabilidade para restaurar o estoque natural, assim como a produção em sistemas de aquicultura. Dada a escassez de estudos sobre a manutenção desta espécie em cativeiro, um sistema de cultivo e um protocolo de manejo foram desenvolvidos e testados. Mariscos branco selvagens (comprimento total ≥50 mm) foram utilizados em uma série de ensaios de 14 dias de duração. A sobrevivência foi maior nos mariscos que podiam ser enterrados na areia. Um marcador de tinta permanente coberto com uma fina camada de adesivo de endurecimento rápido provou ser um método confiável para marcar os mariscos. A manutenção dos mariscos neste sistema resultou em alta sobrevivência e crescimento, aumento do fator de condição e do diâmetro do ovócito, e um relativo avanço do desenvolvimento gonadal.

5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 242: 106051, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915354

RESUMEN

Fish otolith marking with the alizarin dye is a commonly used tool in sustainable fishery management. However, the reported effects of this dye on fish health are rather controversial and are possibly linked to differences in the composition of different brands of Alizarin red S (ARS). Laboratory experiments designed to elucidate effects of different concentrations of theoretically the same ARS as indicated by the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) number on fish at different development stages were carried out. The acute toxicity of ARS to Salmo trutta was found to be concentration- and fish developmental stage-dependant. Our study results showed that S. trutta sensitivity to ARS varies depending on its developmental stages as follows: fry (50-days after hatching) > alevins (30-days after hatching) > alevins (1-day after hatching). One of the tested ARS brands (purchased from VWR International LLC (Matsonford Road, USA)) was found to be several times more toxic to fish than another (purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, USA)), although according to the certificates of analysis, the tested substances were identical. Survival and growth of the S. trutta fry, which was marked with different ARS brands and stocked in the same natural stream, was investigated for two consecutive years. The results obtained indicate remarkable differences (p < 0.05) in the effects produced by the tested ARS brands, thus confirming our laboratory findings. The performed elemental analysis of the tested ARS dyes revealed significant differences in chemical impurities that these dyes contain. This study has, for the first time, expressed concern about the probable long-term impact of some ARS brands on the marked fish and their potential to bias the results of the studies dealing with ARS-marked fish.


Asunto(s)
Antraquinonas/toxicidad , Colorantes/toxicidad , Trucha , Sistemas de Identificación Animal , Animales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Ríos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150450, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599959

RESUMEN

Sustainable environmental management needs to consider multiple ecological and societal objectives simultaneously while accounting for the many uncertainties arising from natural variability, insufficient knowledge about the system's behaviour leading to diverging model projections, and changing ecosystem. In this paper we demonstrate how a Bayesian network- based decision support model can be used to summarize a large body of research and model projections about potential management alternatives and climate scenarios for the Baltic Sea. We demonstrate how this type of a model can act as an emulator and ensemble, integrating disciplines such as climatology, biogeochemistry, marine and fisheries ecology as well as economics. Further, Bayesian network models include and present the uncertainty related to the predictions, allowing evaluation of the uncertainties, precautionary management, and the explicit consideration of acceptable risk levels. The Baltic Sea example also shows that the two biogeochemical models frequently used in future projections give considerably different predictions. Further, inclusion of parameter uncertainty of the food web model increased uncertainty in the outcomes and reduced the predicted manageability of the system. The model allows simultaneous evaluation of environmental and economic goals, while illustrating the uncertainty of predictions, providing a more holistic view of the management problem.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Teorema de Bayes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Cadena Alimentaria , Incertidumbre
7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166278, 2022 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601016

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The vascular pathology of peripheral artery disease (PAD) encompasses abnormal microvascular architecture and fibrosis in response to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) cycles. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which pathological changes in the microvasculature direct fibrosis in the context of I/R. METHODS: Primary human aortic endothelial cells (ECs) were cultured under cycles of normoxia-hypoxia (NH) or normoxia-hypoxia-hyperoxia (NHH) to mimic I/R. Primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were cultured and treated with media from the ECs. FINDINGS: The mRNA and protein expression of the pro-fibrotic factors platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were significantly upregulated in ECs undergoing NH or NHH cycles. Treatment of SMCs with media from ECs undergoing NH or NHH cycles led to significant increases in TGF-ß1, TGF-ß pathway signaling intermediates, and collagen expression. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against PDGF-BB and CTGF to the media blunted the increases in TGF-ß1 and collagen expression. Treatment of SMCs with PAD patient-derived serum also led to increased TGF-ß1 levels. INTERPRETATION: In an in-vitro model of I/R, which recapitulates the pathophysiology of PAD, increased secretion of PDGF-BB and CTGF by ECs was shown to be predominantly driving TGF-ß1-mediated expression by SMCs. These cell culture experiments help elucidate the mechanism and interaction between ECs and SMCs in microvascular fibrosis associated with I/R. Thus, targeting these pro-fibrotic factors may be an effective strategy to combat fibrosis in response to cycles of I/R. FUNDING: National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health grant number R01AG064420. RESEARCH IN CONTEXT: Evidence before this study: Previous studies in gastrocnemius biopsies from peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients showed that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1), the most potent inducer of pathological fibrosis, is increased in the vasculature of PAD patients and correlated with collagen deposition. However, the exact cellular source of TGF-ß1 remained unclear. Added value of this study: Exposing cells to cycles of normoxia-hypoxia-hyperoxia (NHH) resulted in pathological changes that are consistent with human PAD. This supports the idea that the use of NHH may be a reliable, novel in vitro model of PAD useful for studying associated pathophysiological mechanisms. Furthermore, pro-fibrotic factors (PDGF-BB and CTGF) released from endothelial cells were shown to induce a fibrotic phenotype in smooth muscle cells. This suggests a potential interaction between these cell types in the microvasculature that drives increased TGF-ß1 expression and collagen deposition. Thus, targeting these pro-fibrotic factors may be an effective strategy to combat fibrosis in response to cycles of ischemia-reperfusion.


Asunto(s)
Becaplermina/genética , Factor de Crecimiento del Tejido Conjuntivo/genética , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/genética , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/genética , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patología , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/patología , Fibrosis/genética , Fibrosis/patología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/genética , Humanos , Hiperoxia/genética , Hiperoxia/patología , Hipoxia/genética , Hipoxia/patología , Microvasos/metabolismo , Microvasos/patología , Miocitos del Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miocitos del Músculo Liso/patología , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/patología , Cultivo Primario de Células , Transducción de Señal/genética
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149620, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461474

RESUMEN

Triggered by the adoption of the Water Framework Directive, a variety of fish-based systems were developed throughout Europe to assess the ecological status of lakes. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of all existing systems and summarizes sampling methods, fish community traits (metrics) and the relevant anthropogenic pressures assessed by them. Twenty-one European countries developed fish-based assessment systems. Three countries each developed two distinct systems to approach different ecoregions, either to use different data, or to assess different lake types leading to a total number of 24 systems. The most common approach for the setting of reference conditions, used in seventeen systems, was the utilisation of fish communities in comparably undisturbed natural lakes as reference. Eleven used expert judgment, nine historical data and eight modelled relationships. Fourteen systems combined at least two approaches. The most common fish sampling method was a standardized fishing procedure with multimesh-gillnets. Many countries applied combinations of fishing methods, e.g. non-standard gillnets, fyke nets and electrofishing. Altogether 177 metrics were used for index development and each system combined 2-13 metrics. The most common ones were total standardized catches of number and biomass, relative abundance of Perca fluviatilis, Rutilus rutilus, and Abramis brama, feeding preferences, sensitive species, and non-natives. The pressure-response-relationships for these metrics were supported with both correlations established during system development and scientific publications. However, the metrics and their combinations were highly diverse and no metric was applied universally. Our analysis reveals that most fish-based assessment systems address multiple pressures (eutrophication, hydromorphological alterations, fishery pressure and occurrence of non-natives), whilst few are pressure-specific, tackling only eutrophication or acidification. We argue that the value of fish-based systems for lakes lies in their capacity to capture the effect of many different pressures and their interactions which is lacking for most assessment systems based on other biota.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Percas , Animales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149875, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478901

RESUMEN

Invasive alien fishes have had pernicious ecological and economic impacts on both aquatic ecosystems and human societies. However, a comprehensive and collective assessment of their monetary costs is still lacking. In this study, we collected and reviewed reported data on the economic impacts of invasive alien fishes using InvaCost, the most comprehensive global database of invasion costs. We analysed how total (i.e. both observed and potential/predicted) and observed (i.e. empirically incurred only) costs of fish invasions are distributed geographically and temporally and assessed which socioeconomic sectors are most affected. Fish invasions have potentially caused the economic loss of at least US$37.08 billion (US2017 value) globally, from just 27 reported species. North America reported the highest costs (>85% of the total economic loss), followed by Europe, Oceania and Asia, with no costs yet reported from Africa or South America. Only 6.6% of the total reported costs were from invasive alien marine fish. The costs that were observed amounted to US$2.28 billion (6.1% of total costs), indicating that the costs of damage caused by invasive alien fishes are often extrapolated and/or difficult to quantify. Most of the observed costs were related to damage and resource losses (89%). Observed costs mainly affected public and social welfare (63%), with the remainder borne by fisheries, authorities and stakeholders through management actions, environmental, and mixed sectors. Total costs related to fish invasions have increased significantly over time, from

Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Especies Introducidas , Animales , Europa (Continente) , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos
10.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113918, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731943

RESUMEN

The need to reverse decades of species and ecosystem decline has created an imperative to understand the governance of recovery. To pursue this imperative, we ask a question at the centre of recovery governance: when is a commercial species recovered? To answer this question we conduct a case study of northern cod (Gadus morhua, NAFO subdivision 2J3KL), a species perhaps best known for the scale of its biological collapse and subsequent socioeconomic consequences. Northern cod has experienced recent biomass growth, raising the question of when the species can once again be the target of commercial fishing. We conducted 26 interviews with key stakeholders from Newfoundland and Labrador's fishing sector and identify three core discourses characterizing the governance of the northern cod recovery: (1) the biological recovery discourse, (2) the industrial recovery discourse, and (3) the community recovery discourse. We find these recovery discourses are composed of five dimensions: (i) epistemic orientation and inputs, (ii) emphasis on institutions and rules, (iii) framings of risk, (iv) stakeholder priorities, goals, and interests, and (v) different lessons learned from the collapse. Our findings suggest that the recovery of a commercial species is not determined only by biological metrics, but also how decision-makers view the value of different knowledge systems, what frames of risk they find most salient, and the lessons they glean from collapse on behalf of the societies they represent. Our discussion notes that co-productive approaches could supplement adaptive approaches as a potential strategy to reconcile competing discourses.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Gadus morhua , Animales , Ecosistema , Dinámica Poblacional
11.
Theriogenology ; 178: 85-94, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808561

RESUMEN

Heat stress causes oxidative damage and induces excessive cell apoptosis and thus affects the development and/or even causes the death of preimplantation embryos. The effects of baicalin on the developmental competence of heat-stressed mouse embryos were investigated in this experiment. Two-cell embryos were cultured in the presence of baicalin and subjected to heat stress (42 °C for 1 h) at their blastocyst stage followed by continuous culture at 37 °C until examination. The results showed that heat stress (H group) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis and even embryo death, along with reductions in both mitochondrial activity and membrane potential (ΔΨm). Both heat stress (H group) and inhibition of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway (U group) led to significantly reduced expression levels of the genes c-fos, AP-1 and ERK2, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and c-Fos, along with significantly increased c-Jun mRNA expression and phosphorylation levels. These negative effects of heat stress on the ERK1/2 signaling pathway were neutralized by baicalin treatment. To explore the signal transduction mechanism of baicalin in improving embryonic tolerance to heat stress, mitochondrial quality and apoptosis rate in the mouse blastocysts were also examined. Baicalin was found to up-regulate the expression of mtDNA and TFAM mRNA, increased mitochondria activity and ΔΨm, and improved the cellular mitochondria quality of mouse blastocysts undergoing heat stress. Moreover, baicalin decreased Bax transcript abundance in blastocyst, along with an increase in the blastocyst hatching rate, which were negatively affected by heat stress. Our findings suggest that baicalin improves the developmental capacity and quality of heat-stressed mouse embryos via a mechanism whereby mitochondrial quality is improved by activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and inducing anti-cellular apoptosis.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Cultivo de Embriones , Termotolerancia , Animales , Apoptosis , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultivo de Embriones/veterinaria , Desarrollo Embrionario , Flavonoides , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Ratones , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal
12.
J Environ Radioact ; 241: 106774, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823203

RESUMEN

Thousands of offshore oil and gas facilities are coming to the end of their life in jurisdictions worldwide and will require decommissioning. In-situ decommissioning, where the subsea components of that infrastructure are left in the marine environment following the end of its productive life, has been proposed as an option that delivers net benefits, including from: ecological benefits from the establishment of artificial reefs, economic benefits from associated fisheries, reduced costs and improved human safety outcomes for operators. However, potential negative impacts, such as the ecological risk of residual contaminants, are not well understood. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are a class of contaminants found in some oil and gas infrastructure (e.g. pipelines) and includes radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, radon, lead, and polonium. NORM are ubiquitous in oil and gas reservoirs around the world and may form contamination products including scales and sludges in subsea infrastructure due to their chemistries and the physical processes of oil and gas extraction. The risk that NORM from these sources pose to marine ecosystems is not yet understood meaning that decisions made about decommissioning may not deliver the best outcomes for environments. In this review, we consider the life of NORM-contamination products in oil and gas systems, their expected exposure pathways in the marine environment, and possible ecological impacts following release. These are accompanied by the key research priorities that need to better describe risk associated with decommissioning options.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Monitoreo de Radiación , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Humanos , Yacimiento de Petróleo y Gas , Medición de Riesgo
13.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 144, 2021 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895324

RESUMEN

Emergence of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca algae is the impetus to better understand these infections. Both P. bovis and P. ciferrii belong to Prototheca algae, but they differ in their pathogenicity to induce inflammatory responses. The objective was to characterize and compare pathogenesis of inflammatory responses in bMECs induced by P. bovis versus P. ciferrii. Mitochondrial ultrastructure, activity and mtROS in bMECs were assessed with transmission electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-18, were measured by ELISA and real-time PCR, whereas expressions of various proteins in the NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways were detected with immunofluorescence or Western blot. Infection with P. bovis or P. ciferrii damaged mitochondria, including dissolution and vacuolation of cristae, and decreased mitochondrial activity, with P. bovis being more pathogenic and causing greater destruction. There were increases in NADPH production and mtROS accumulation in infected bMECs, with P. bovis causing greater increases and also inducing higher cytokine concentrations. Expressions of NF-κB-p65, p-NF-κB-p65, IκBα and p-IκBα proteins in the NF-κB pathway, as well as NLRP3, Pro Caspase1, Caspase1 p20, ASC, Pro IL-1ß, and IL-1ß proteins in the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, were significantly higher in P. bovis-infected bMECs. However, mito-TEMPO significantly inhibited production of cytokines and decreased expression of proteins in NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways in bMECs infected with either P. bovis or P. ciferrii. In conclusion, P. bovis or P. ciferrii infections induced inflammatory responses in bMECs, with increased mtROS in damaged mitochondria and activated NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways, with P. bovis causing a more severe reaction.


Asunto(s)
Inflamasomas , Prototheca , Transducción de Señal , Animales , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Femenino , Inflamasomas/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/metabolismo , Prototheca/fisiología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/fisiología
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261514, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929001

RESUMEN

Local and regional trade networks in small-scale fisheries are important for food security and livelihoods across the world. Such networks consist of both economic flows and social relationships, which connect different production regions to different types of fish demand. The structure of such trade networks, and the actions that take place within them (e.g., people fishing, buying, selling), can influence the capacity of small-scale fisheries to provide sufficient fish in a changing social and ecological context. In this study, we aim to understand the importance of networks between different types of traders that access spatially-distinct fish stocks for the availability and variability of fish provision. We deployed a mixed-methods approach, combining agent-based modelling, network analysis and qualitative data from a small-scale fishery in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The empirical data allowed us to investigate the trade processes that occur within trade networks; and the generation of distinct, empirically-informed network structures. Formalized in an agent-based model, these network structures enable analysis of how different trade networks affect the dynamics of fish provision and the exploitation level of fish stocks. Model results reveal how trade strategies based on social relationships and species diversification can lead to spillover effects between fish species and fishing regions. We found that the proportion of different trader types and their spatial connectivity have the potential to increase fish provision. However, they can also increase overexploitation depending on the specific connectivity patterns and trader types. Moreover, increasing connectivity generally leads to positive outcomes for some individual traders, but this does not necessarily imply better outcomes at the system level. Overall, our model provides an empirically-grounded, stylized representation of a fisheries trading system, and reveals important trade-offs that should be considered when evaluating the potential effect of future changes in regional trade networks.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/organización & administración , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras/organización & administración , Peces , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , México
15.
Adv Mar Biol ; 90: 1-49, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728053

RESUMEN

Sharks are iconic and ecologically important predators found in every ocean. Because of their ecological role as predators, some considered apex predators, and concern over the stability of their populations due to direct and indirect overfishing, there has been an increasing amount of work focussed on shark conservation, and other elasmobranchs such as skates and rays, around the world. Here we discuss many aspects of current shark science and conservation and the path to the future of shark conservation in the Northeastern and Eastern Central Pacific. We explore their roles in ecosystems as keystone species; the conservation measures and laws in place at the international, national, regional and local level; the conservation status of sharks and rays in the region, fisheries for sharks in the Northcentral Pacific specifically those that target juveniles and the implications to shark conservation; a conservation success story: the recovery of Great White Sharks in the Northeast Pacific; public perceptions of sharks and the roles zoos and aquariums play in shark conservation; and the path to the future of shark conservation that requires bold partnerships, local stakeholders and innovative measures.


Asunto(s)
Tiburones , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Océano Pacífico
16.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105507, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742025

RESUMEN

Mediterranean coastal ecosystems provide various valuable ecosystem goods and services; however, they are vulnerable to ecological degradation due to a dramatic increase in resource use and environmental stress. Disentangling the effects of multiple human interventions on coastal ecosystems requires whole description of food web interactions using quantitative tools. A mass balance Ecopath model has been developed here for Saronikos Gulf, a naturally oligotrophic Mediterranean coastal ecosystem with a long history of human interventions. Our main focus was to describe the structure and functioning of the ecosystem, investigate the trophic interplay among the various compartments of the food web under the impact of mixed multi-gear fisheries, and to quantify resilience related emergent ecosystem properties. To this end, we reviewed a large amount of local and regional biological information which was integrated in 40 functional groups covering all trophic levels, while fishing activities were described with 7 fleets. The model shared characteristics of both productive (e.g., high amount of flows) and oligotrophic systems (e.g., low biomass accumulation) and presented typical features of Mediterranean ecosystem functioning, such as the importance of detritus as an energy source, strong benthic-pelagic coupling and the dominance of the pelagic compartment in terms of total production and consumption. Trophic forcing in the ecosystem of Saronikos Gulf was complex with both top-down and bottom-up drivers being important. Zooplankton was the central nexus between basal resources and higher trophic levels, while top predators such as hake, squids and anglerfish were identified as keystone species presenting a significant overall effect on the food web via direct and indirect trophic interactions. Ecological indicators depicted a moderately complex food-web of a large and immature ecosystem with its strengths in reserve being affected by environmental degradation. Additionally, exploitation indices classified fishing activities in Saronikos Gulf as unsustainable, affecting several target groups, including high trophic level species. However, the morphological and bathymetric complexity of Saronikos Gulf seems to function as a natural ecological reserve for the ecosystem by providing nursery grounds to various species (e.g., hake, small pelagic fishes) and supporting important fish stocks for local fisheries.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Cadena Alimentaria , Animales , Biomasa , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos , Zooplancton
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(14): 5, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730792

RESUMEN

Purpose: The arrangement of lens cells is regulated by ocular growth factors. Although the effects of these inductive molecules on lens cell behavior (proliferation, survival, and fiber differentiation) are well-characterized, the precise mechanisms underlying the regulation of growth factor-mediated signaling in lens remains elusive. Increasing evidence highlights the importance of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for the signaling regulation of growth factors; however, the identity of the different lens HSPGs and the specific roles they play in lens biology are still unknown. Methods: Semiquantitative real-time (RT)-PCR and immunolabeling were used to characterize the spatial distribution of all known HSPG core proteins and their associated glycosaminoglycans (heparan and chondroitin sulfate) in the postnatal rat lens. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-treated lens epithelial explants, cultured in the presence of Surfen (an inhibitor of heparan sulfate [HS]-growth factor binding interactions) were used to investigate the requirement for HS in FGF-2-induced proliferation, fiber differentiation, and ERK1/2-signaling. Results: The lens expresses all HSPGs. These HSPGs are differentially localized to distinct functional regions of the lens. In vitro, inhibition of HS-sulfation with Surfen blocked FGF-2-mediated ERK1/2-signaling associated with lens epithelial cell proliferation and fiber differentiation, highlighting that these cellular processes are dependent on HS. Conclusions: These findings support a requirement for HSPGs in FGF-2 driven lens cell proliferation and fiber differentiation. The identification of specific HSPG core proteins in key functional lens regions, and the divergent expression patterns of closely related HSPGs, suggests that different HSPGs may differentially regulate growth factor signaling networks leading to specific biological events involved in lens growth and maintenance.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Proteoglicanos de Heparán Sulfato/genética , Cristalino/metabolismo , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Western Blotting , Diferenciación Celular/fisiología , Proliferación Celular/fisiología , Sulfatos de Condroitina/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Factor 2 de Crecimiento de Fibroblastos/farmacología , Proteoglicanos de Heparán Sulfato/metabolismo , Heparitina Sulfato/antagonistas & inhibidores , Heparitina Sulfato/metabolismo , Cristalino/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/fisiología , Técnicas de Cultivo de Órganos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Transducción de Señal , Urea/análogos & derivados , Urea/farmacología
18.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105504, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717129

RESUMEN

Carnivorous fish are a key part of the Indonesian human population sustenance, and it is important to design marine protected areas that include environmental features that allow these species to thrive. Many studies report the role of coral cover and habitat complexity in determining fish distribution on coral reefs but broader environmental factors such as current velocity and productivity are less studied. Southern Indonesia is characterised by upwellings and strong currents, stemming from the tidal cycle and the Indonesian Throughflow. In this study we investigate how current velocity, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), sea surface height and temperature relate to the biomass of carnivorous fish, considering the influence of habitat complexity and coral cover. Data were collected by surveying seven sites around Nusa Penida MPA for a total of 97 h of observation. Serranids and Lutjanids showed higher dependency on coral cover than fish from family Lethrinidae, Carangidae and Scombridae for which current, sea surface height, chl-a, and temperature were more influential predictors. Considering the similar trophic ecology of these species, the different relationship with oceanographic factors is likely related to different body shapes, living, and feeding habits between fish families. Changes in sea surface temperature and current velocity induced by vertical mixing are affecting coral reef fisheries-targeted species distribution in Nusa Penida and investigating these relationships on a broader scale will better inform marine spatial planning decisions.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Arrecifes de Coral , Animales , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105510, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717130

RESUMEN

European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) are crucial species for the marine ecosystem of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. They account for a high percentage of fish landings and they represent an important economic income for the fishery sector. Concerns over their stock status are rising in recent years as biomass, growth, reproductive capacity, and body condition of both species are declining, with latitudinal variations. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a body condition monitoring scheme. Energy storage variability has important implications for both fish recruitment and population structure. Direct condition indices, such as energy density (ED) with bomb calorimetry, are highly reliable for measuring the energy content, but time-consuming. Alternatively, fatmeter analysis and relative condition index (Kn) have been proposed as effective indirect methods. The aim of this study is to test the application of fatmeter as a surrogate of bomb calorimetry to infer the energy content of sardine and anchovy. To validate its use, fatmeter values were compared with both ED and Kn values. Individuals of both species were sampled monthly for a year in order to assess seasonal variations in energy content. Our results highlight that fatmeter measurements are strongly correlated with calorimetry ED for sardine, while a weaker but significant correlation was found for anchovy. The observed differences between the two species are related to their breeding strategies. Based on this study, Kn cannot be considered a good proxy of the energy density of sardine, in particular during the resting period. By contrast, fatmeter analysis appears to be a faster and suitable method to evaluate the energy content of both species routinely. In addition, we provide a linear model to infer ED from fatmeter values for both small pelagic fish. Eventually, these findings could be used to implement body condition monitoring protocols and boost continuous large-scale monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Peces , Animales , Calorimetría , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Humanos , Alimentos Marinos
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