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Bull World Health Organ ; 98(2): 117-125, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015582


Sustaining universal health coverage requires robust active public participation in policy formation and governance. Thailand's universal coverage scheme was implemented nationwide in 2002, allowing Thailand to achieve full population coverage through three public health insurance schemes and to demonstrate improved health outcomes. Although Thailand's position on the World Bank worldwide governance indicators has deteriorated since 1996, provisions for voice and accountability were embedded in the legislation and design of the universal coverage scheme. We discuss how legislation related to citizens' rights and government accountability has been implemented. Thailand's constitution allowed citizens to submit a draft bill in which provisions on voice and accountability were successfully embedded in the legislative texts and adopted into law. The legislation mandates registration of beneficiaries, a 24/7 helpline, annual public hearings and no-fault financial assistance for patients who have experienced adverse events. Ensuring the right to health services, and that citizens' voices are heard and action taken, requires the institutional capacity to implement legislation. For example, Thailand needed the capacity to register 47 million people and match them with the health-care provider network in the district where they live, and to re-register members who move out of their districts. Annual public hearings need to be inclusive of citizens, health-care providers, civil society organizations and stakeholders such as local governments and patient groups. Subsequent policy and management responses are important for building trust in the process and citizens' ownership of the scheme. Annual public reporting of outcomes and performance of the scheme fosters transparency and increases citizens' trust.

Formulación de Políticas , Responsabilidad Social , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Tailandia
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 523-536, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés, Francés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866678


The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) develops international standards for the prevention, detection and control of aquatic animal diseases as well as the safe international trade of amphibians, crustaceans, fish, molluscs and their products. The Competent Authorities of importing and exporting countries should implement the OIE international standards by adopting the required legislation as this provides the basis for setting sanitary measures that ensure safe international trade, while avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers to trade. Based on an analysis of legislation notified by countries to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in the context of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), the authors explore how and to what extent Member Countries use the OIE international standards when developing sanitary measures. The study develops an analytical framework for collecting and presenting countries' legislation to determine if a direct link can be demonstrated between national legislation and OIE international standards. Results show that OIE international standards are implemented through different categories of legislation which range from more general (those providing a general sanitary framework) to more specific (those setting requirements for the import of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products). However, the study illustrates the difficulty of identifying direct links between countries' legislation and OIE international standards. Nonetheless, this study is the first step in the design of an approach to better understand how OIE international standards are used by Member Countries to devise sanitary measures in the context of international trade. It further notes that increased transparency of national sanitary legislation can facilitate efforts to improve knowledge on the implementation of OIE international standards.

Enfermedades de los Animales , Cooperación Internacional , Medicina Veterinaria/normas , Enfermedades de los Animales/prevención & control , Animales , Comercio/normas , Salud Global , Internacionalidad
Rev. bras. educ. espec ; 25(2): 267-282, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013531


RESUMO: O presente artigo é resultado de uma pesquisa que teve como objetivo investigar, em uma perspectiva de educação comparada, a circularidade de um pensamento educacional e modelos de formação docente envolvendo o Curso Normal (1951-1957) e os Cursos de Especialização de Professores de Deficientes Auditivos (1957-1972/1981-1985), mantidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Surdos-Mudos (INSM)/Instituto Nacional de Educação de Surdos (INES) e os cursos congêneres oferecidos pelo Instituto Jacob Rodrigues Pereira - IJRP (1952-1956/1961-1963/1982-1984), em Portugal. A investigação foi de cunho qualitativo e as fontes consultadas foram: textos legislativos, anteprojetos, regulamentos, regimentos, grades curriculares, fichas de matrículas e históricos das ex-normalistas e ex-cursistas, fichas funcionais de professores, periódicos, livros, manuais, ordens de serviço, relatórios e anais de Campanha. Esses documentos foram encontrados no Acervo Histórico, nos Arquivos corrente e permanente do INES, no Brasil, e no Centro de Documentação, Acervo Histórico e Biblioteca do Centro Cultural da Casapiano e na Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, em Lisboa. Também houve a produção de entrevistas semiestruturadas com doze docentes, entre ex-normalistas, ex-cursistas e ex-professores dos cursos investigados, à luz da metodologia da História Oral, por esta contribuir para a compreensão dos processos histórico-sociais. A pesquisa identificou elementos que evidenciaram a circulação de um pensamento educacional e modelos de formação docente, na área do ensino de surdos, que conectaram e entrelaçaram, de forma indireta e direta, as instituições pesquisadas, refletindo realidades globais que foram fruto de como os agentes escolares/institucionais se relacionaram, compartilhando conhecimentos, calcados na matriz oralista, que ultrapassaram as escalas nacionais.

ABSTRACT: The present paper is the result of a research that had the objective to investigate, in a comparative education perspective, educational mindsets and teacher qualification models involving the Escola Normal [Undergraduate Teacher-training School] (1951-1957) and the Cursos de Especialização de Professores de Deficientes Auditivos [Specialization Programs for Teachers of Students with Hearing Impairment] (1957-1972/1981-1985), offered by the Instituto Nacional dos Surdos-Mudos (INSM)/Instituto Nacional de Educação de Surdos (INES), as well as by their counterpart institutions -Instituto Jacob Rodrigues Pereira (IJRP) (1952-1956/1961-1963/1982-1984), in Portugal. This qualitative research has used as sources legislative texts, preliminary drafts, regulations, by-laws, syllabuses, student registration forms, school transcripts of ex-training-teachers, teacher employment and performance records, journals, books, manuals, work orders, reports and Campaign records found. These documents were found in the Historical Collection, INES current and permanent Archives, in Brazil, as well as in the Document Centre, Historical Collection and Library of the Cultural Centre of Casapiano and the National Library in Lisbon, Portugal. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with twelve ex-training-teachers and teachers of the investigated institutions and programs, in the light of the Oral History methodology, for it is believed to provide qualitative interpretations of historical and social processes. The research identified elements that evidenced the interplay between their similar educational mindsets and teacher qualification models in the field of teaching students with hearing impairment, that have directly or indirectly connected and intermeshed the above mentioned institutions, and reflect global realities that resulted from the way through which institutional/school agents interacted and shared knowledge, embedded in the oral history matrix, that went beyond national borders.

Rev Sci Tech ; 38(3): 695-702, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286575


The economic costs of contagious agalactia (CA) to the small ruminant dairy industry are not well known but include losses due to mortality, lowered milk production, spoiled products, abortions and animal welfare problems, as well as diagnosis and treatment. This paper reports financial estimates made in southern Europe, including a study on small- and large-scale farming systems in Italy, indicating that the financial losses are high and underestimated. Furthermore, the current control strategies, including chemotherapy and vaccination, in selected countries in Europe are described. In some countries, disease control is hampered by excessively strict veterinary legislation which discourages farmers and private veterinarians from notifying outbreaks because it leads to the prohibition of milk sales and can result in delays in lifting restrictions. In addition, new European Union legislation may downgrade the importance of CA, which will have implications for international research efforts. Finally, a series of recommendations are provided that cover the proper notification and handling of CA outbreaks, including movement control, current diagnostics, treatment, vaccination and disinfection.

Industria Lechera , Legislación Veterinaria , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/economía , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Europa (Continente)
Saúde debate ; 41(115): 995-1006, Out.-Dez. 2017.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-903954


RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo foi oferecer uma visão crítica à gestão da saúde pública via Organizações Sociais, entendendo-as como parte do processo de desestruturação da proteção social em um contexto de reforço ao capital. O texto considera a interação entre Estado e capital, as críticas internacional e nacional aos Estados sociais e, sobretudo, uma série de problemas intrínsecos às Organizações Sociais. Metodologicamente, vale-se de revisão e organização de literatura relevante e de textos legislativos. Conclui-se que este mecanismo de gestão consiste em privatização da saúde pública, favorecendo a expansão do setor privado de saúde, em detrimento do sistema público.

ABSTRACT The objective of this article was to offer a critical view of public health management through Social Organizations, understanding them as part of a larger process of dismantling of social protection in a context of strengthening of capital. The text considers the interaction between State and capital, the international and national criticism of the Social States, and mainly, several problems intrinsic to Social Organizations. Methodologically, it revised and organized relevant literature and legislation. It is concluded that this management mechanism is the privatization of public health, contributing to the expansion of the private health sector, to the detriment of the public system.

Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 14(1): 81-93, ene.-jun. 2016.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-794038


En este artículo ofrezco una reflexión acerca de la participación de niñas y niños promovida a nivel institucional en México. Presento el marco legal y la inclusión del derecho a la participación en distintos textos legislativos, antes de analizar el marco institucional de protección de los derechos de la infancia y ejercicios de participación infantil promovidos por instituciones de gobierno. Resalto los obstáculos que limitan el ejercicio de la participación en este contexto. En particular, muestro cómo la ausencia de cambio de paradigma acerca de la infancia dificulta el reconocimiento de niñas y niños como sujetos plenos de derecho y como actores sociales, necesario para su participación real en el ámbito analizado.

This article presents a reflection on children’s participation practices at the institutional level in Mexico. It presents the legal context and the inclusion of the right to participation in different laws, prior to analyzing the institutional framework for children’s rights protection and the children’s participation exercises promoted by state institutions. Obstacles that limit the exercising of the right to participation in these contexts are highlighted. Specifically, this article shows how the absence of paradigm change in the area of childhood makes it difficult to acknowledge children as real subjects of rights and social actors and limits their current participation in these realms.

Este artigo oferece uma reflexão a respeito da participação de crianças no âmbito institucional no México. Apresenta-se o marco legal e a inclusão do direito à participação em distintos textos legislativos antes de avaliar o marco institucional de proteção aos direitos da infância e os exercícios de participação infantil promovidos por instituições de governo. Ressalta-se os obstáculos que limitam o exercício da participação nesse contexto. Em particular, é indicado como a ausência de mudança de paradigma em relação à infância dificulta o reconhecimento de crianças como sujeitos plenos de direitos e atores sociais, necessário para sua participação real no âmbito analisado.

Defensa del Niño , México
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. 146 p.
Tesis en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-790644


Introdução - A obesidade infantil está pautada como assunto de saúde pública e exige a análise, implementação e avaliação de novas intervenções. O marketing é apontado como um dos fatores que interferem no aumento do índice de sobrepeso e de obesidade da população. As estratégias de comunicação publicitária se utilizam de processos cognitivos para determinar, através de elementos emocionais do receptor, a escolha e o consumo de alimentos não saudáveis, já que os publicitários respondem à demanda das empresas que buscam lucrar com seus produtos. Já se afirma que a regulamentação legal do marketing dos alimentos infantis não saudáveis deve ser adotada como instrumento de política pública na prevenção da obesidade. Assim, justifica-se a investigação de quais seriam as formas mais apropriadas para regular esse tipo de marketing no Brasil, de forma a garantir o direito à saúde e à alimentação adequada e saudável. Objetivo - Analisar o papel do marketing como um dos determinantes da obesidade infantil, buscando apontar, no campo jurídico, estratégias para a sua regulamentação no Brasil. Métodos - Revisão de literatura, análise de textos legislativos e de programas adotados para controle da obesidade infantil, além de entrevistas com representantes de entidades e profissionais diretamente ligados à implementação de políticas públicas, nacionais e internacionais, de controle da nutrição e saúde infantil, bem como de proteção dos direitos do consumidor infanto-juvenil interpretação dos dados levantados deu-se através do método científico dedutivo.

Introduction - Childhood obesity is considered a public health issue and requires the analysis, implementation and evaluation of new interventions. Marketing is considered as one of the factors that play a role in the increase of overweight and obesity rates in the population. Advertisement strategies use cognitive processes to determine, by means of emotional elements of the receptor, the choice and consumption of unhealthy foods, since advertisement professionals respond to the demand of companies willing to make a profit by selling their their products. The regulation of the marketing of unhealthy foods for children must be adopted as a public policy instrument for the prevention of obesity. Thus, we should investigate what are the most appropriate ways to regulate this kind of marketing in Brazil to guarantee the right to health and to adequate and healthy foods. Objective - Analyze the role of marketing as one of the determinants of childhood obesity, and try to identify legal strategies for its regulation in Brazil. Methods - Literature review, analysis of legal texts and programs implemented for the control of childhood obesity and interviews with representatives of institutions and professionals directly related to the implementation of public national and international policies for the control of childhood nutrition and health, as well as the protection of children and youth consumer rights. Deductive scientific method was used to interpret data.

Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Publicidad de Alimentos , Alimentos Industrializados , Mercadotecnía/legislación & jurisprudencia , Obesidad , Control de la Publicidad de Productos , Publicidad Directa al Consumidor/legislación & jurisprudencia , Brasil , Dieta , Salud Pública
Index enferm ; 23(3): 171-175, jul.-sept. 2014.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-130259


Objetivo principal: analizar la influencia del género en la formación de las matronas durante el siglo XX. El punto de inflexión será el Decreto de 18 de enero de 1957. Metodología: este trabajo es un estudio cualitativo con enfoque fenomenológico. Realizamos entrevistas en profundidad a 13 matronas y el análisis de textos legislativos. Resultados principales: el Decreto de 1957 que estableció la especialización de matronas para las Ayudantes Técnicos Sanitarios femeninas supuso un cambio, ampliando las enseñanzas de estas profesionales y exigiéndoles un mayor esfuerzo en sus vidas. La capacitación percibida por las matronas no fue suficiente para que se les reconociera como profesión autónoma hasta el siglo XXI. Conclusión principal: el género será determinante en la formación de las matronas. Como mujeres inmersas en una profesión femenina se les ha exigido una serie de requisitos legislativos desiguales a otros profesionales

Objective: analyze the influence of gender in midwifery training in Twentieth Century. The turning point is the Decree of January 18, 1957. Methods: this work is a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted to midwives and some laws were analyzed. Results: the 1957 decree that established the specialization of midwives for female Sanitary Technical Assistant will be a change, will expand the learnings of these professionals and will require more effort in their lives. Although midwives felt themselves well-trained it was not enough to be recognized as an autonomous profession until the XXI century. Conclusion: gender will be decisive in midwives training. Women immersed in a female profession have been demanded unequal legislative requirements to other professionals

Humanos , Partería/historia , Enfermería Obstétrica/historia , Educación en Enfermería/historia , Identidad de Género , Especialización/historia
Rev. bras. educ. espec ; 19(3): 307-324, jul.-set. 2013.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-687864


Com os recentes avanços legislativos no sentido da massificação da inclusão de alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais nas escolas regulares, emergem discussões sobre as mudanças requeridas na formação de docentes para o atendimento desta nova demanda. O objetivo deste estudo foi discutir os modelos brasileiro e italiano de formação de professores para atuar na educação especial. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa documental, analisando textos legais de ambos os países que versassem sobre o tema. A Itália foi o primeiro país na Europa a promover o fim das escolas especiais e a inclusão de todos os alunos com deficiência nas escolas regulares. Ainda neste país, nota-se que as diretrizes governamentais são claras com relação à capacitação de professores para atuar com alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais. Por outro lado no Brasil, embora tenham ocorrido grandes avanços no que se refere à legislação que sustenta a formação docente, ainda existe uma carência de parâmetros mais específicos sobre os conteúdos mínimos necessários para que os professores tenham maiores subsídios para promover a inclusão com qualidade.

As public policies advance in the direction of mass producing inclusion of special educational needs students in regular schools, discussions have emerged about changes that are required in teacher preparation to meet this new demand. The aim of this study was to discuss Brazilian and Italian models of teacher preparation for those working in special education. To this end, we conducted a documentary study, analyzing legal texts related to the topic from both countries. Italy was the first country in Europe to promote the end of special schools and the inclusion of all students with disabilities in regular schools. Furthermore, in this country there are clear government guidelines regarding teacher preparation to work with students with special educational needs. On the other hand in Brazil, despite the great advances regarding public policies that support teacher preparation, specific parameters on the minimum content necessary for providing teachers with the subsidies they need to promote quality inclusion are still lacking.

Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-35843


Pode-se acessar despachos do ministro, medidas e ações do ministério tais como valorização dos espaços escolares, necessidades educativas especiais, prevenção do abandono escolar. Íntegra dos textos legislativos educacionais, relação de publicações editadas pelo ministério, balanço orçamentário.

s.l; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1987. 27 p.
Monografía en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-75989


Examina la situación epidemiológica del SIDA en Perú hasta febrero de 1987. Detalla los objetivos, estructura, etapas de desarrollo, actividades y líneas de acción del Programa. Presenta recomendaciones para ponerlo en práctica. Incluye los siguientes textos legislativos: Decreto Supremo 013-87-SA; Resolución Suprema 011-87-SA; Resolución Ministerial 238-87-SA/DM y 373-87-SA/DM

Legislación como Asunto , Programas Nacionales de Salud/organización & administración , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Perú