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1.
Conserv Biol ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841461

RESUMEN

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments are essential for prioritizing conservation needs but are resource intensive and therefore available only for a fraction of global species richness. Automated conservation assessments based on digitally available geographic occurrence records can be a rapid alternative, but it is unclear how reliable these assessments are. We conducted automated conservation assessments for 13,910 species (47.3% of the known species in the family) of the diverse and globally distributed orchid family (Orchidaceae), for which most species (13,049) were previously unassessed by IUCN. We used a novel method based on a deep neural network (IUC-NN). We identified 4,342 orchid species (31.2% of the evaluated species) as possibly threatened with extinction (equivalent to IUCN categories critically endangered [CR], endangered [EN], or vulnerable [VU]) and Madagascar, East Africa, Southeast Asia, and several oceanic islands as priority areas for orchid conservation. Orchidaceae provided a model with which to test the sensitivity of automated assessment methods to problems with data availability, data quality, and geographic sampling bias. The IUC-NN identified possibly threatened species with an accuracy of 84.3%, with significantly lower geographic evaluation bias relative to the IUCN Red List and was robust even when data availability was low and there were geographic errors in the input data. Overall, our results demonstrate that automated assessments have an important role to play in identifying species at the greatest risk of extinction.

2.
Conserv Biol ; 2020 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656858

RESUMEN

Measuring progress toward international biodiversity targets requires robust information on the conservation status of species, which the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species provides. However, data and capacity are lacking for most hyperdiverse groups, such as invertebrates, plants, and fungi, particularly in megadiverse or high-endemism regions. Conservation policies and biodiversity strategies aimed at halting biodiversity loss by 2020 need to be adapted to tackle these information shortfalls after 2020. We devised an 8-point strategy to close existing data gaps by reviving explorative field research on the distribution, abundance, and ecology of species; linking taxonomic research more closely with conservation; improving global biodiversity databases by making the submission of spatially explicit data mandatory for scientific publications; developing a global spatial database on threats to biodiversity to facilitate IUCN Red List assessments; automating preassessments by integrating distribution data and spatial threat data; building capacity in taxonomy, ecology, and biodiversity monitoring in countries with high species richness or endemism; creating species monitoring programs for lesser-known taxa; and developing sufficient funding mechanisms to reduce reliance on voluntary efforts. Implementing these strategies in the post-2020 biodiversity framework will help to overcome the lack of capacity and data regarding the conservation status of biodiversity. This will require a collaborative effort among scientists, policy makers, and conservation practitioners.

3.
Conserv Biol ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671869

RESUMEN

Megafauna species are intrinsically vulnerable to human impact. Freshwater megafauna (i.e., freshwater animals ≥30 kg, including fishes, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians) are subject to intensive and increasing threats. Thirty-four species are listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Red List of Threatened Species, the assessments for which are an important basis for conservation actions but remain incomplete for 49 (24%) freshwater megafauna species. Consequently, the window of opportunity for protecting these species could be missed. Identifying the factors that predispose freshwater megafauna to extinction can help predict their extinction risk and facilitate more effective and proactive conservation actions. Thus, we collated 8 life-history traits for 206 freshwater megafauna species. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the relationships between extinction risk based on the IUCN Red List categories and the combined effect of multiple traits, as well as the effect of human impact on these relationships for 157 classified species. The most parsimonious model included human impact and traits related to species' recovery potential including life span, age at maturity, and fecundity. Applying the most parsimonious model to 49 unclassified species predicted that 17 of them are threatened. Accounting for model predictions together with IUCN Red List assessments, 50% of all freshwater megafauna species are considered threatened. The Amazon and Yangtze basins emerged as global diversity hotspots of threatened freshwater megafauna, in addition to existing hotspots, including the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mekong basins and the Caspian Sea region. Assessment and monitoring of those species predicted to be threatened are needed, especially in the Amazon and Yangtze basins. Investigation of life-history traits and trends in population and distribution, regulation of overexploitation, maintaining river connectivity, implementing protected areas focusing on freshwater ecosystems, and integrated basin management are required to protect threatened freshwater megafauna in diversity hotspots.

4.
Conserv Biol ; 34(5): 1252-1261, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058610

RESUMEN

Birds have been comprehensively assessed on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List more times than any other taxonomic group. However, to date, generation lengths have not been systematically estimated to scale population trends when undertaking assessments, as required by the criteria of the IUCN Red List. We compiled information from major databases of published life-history and trait data for all birds and imputed missing life-history data as a function of species traits with generalized linear mixed models. Generation lengths were derived for all species, based on our modeled values of age at first breeding, maximum longevity, and annual adult survival. The resulting generation lengths varied from 1.42 to 27.87 years (median 2.99). Most species (61%) had generation lengths <3.33 years, meaning that the period of 3 generations-over which population declines are assessed under criterion A-was <10 years, which is the value used for IUCN Red List assessments of species with short generation times. For these species, our trait-informed estimates of generation length suggested that 10 years is a robust precautionary value for threat assessment. In other cases, however, for whole families, genera, or individual species, generation length had a substantial impact on their estimated extinction risk, resulting in higher extinction risk in long-lived species than in short-lived species. Although our approach effectively addressed data gaps, generation lengths for some species may have been underestimated due to a paucity of life-history data. Overall, our results will strengthen future extinction-risk assessments and augment key databases of avian life-history and trait data.

5.
Conserv Biol ; 34(1): 26-40, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435956

RESUMEN

Population viability analysis (PVA) is useful in management of imperiled species. Applications range from research design, threat assessment, and development of management frameworks. Given the importance of PVAs, it is essential that they be rigorous and adhere to widely accepted guidelines; however, the quality of published PVAs is rarely assessed. We evaluated the quality of 160 PVAs of 144 species of birds and mammals published in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 to 2017. We hypothesized that PVA quality would be lower with generic programs than with custom-built programs; be higher for those developed for imperiled species; change over time; and be higher for those published in journals with high impact factors (IFs). Each included study was evaluated based on answers to an evaluation framework containing 32 questions reflecting whether and to what extent the PVA study adhered to published PVA guidelines or contained important PVA components. All measures of PVA quality were generally lower for studies based on generic programs. Conservation status of the species did not affect any measure of PVA quality, but PVAs published in high IF journals were of higher quality. Quality generally declined over time, suggesting the quantitative literacy of PVA practitioners has not increased over time or that PVAs developed by unskilled users are being published in peer-reviewed journals. Only 18.1% of studies were of high quality (score >75%), which is troubling because poor-quality PVAs could misinform conservation decisions. We call for increased scrutiny of PVAs by journal editors and reviewers. Our evaluation framework can be used for this purpose. Because poor-quality PVAs continue to be published, we recommend caution while using PVA results in conservation decision making without thoroughly assessing the PVA quality.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Animales , Aves , Mamíferos
6.
Conserv Biol ; 34(3): 561-571, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621946

RESUMEN

Species interactions matter to conservation. Setting an ambitious recovery target for a species requires considering the size, density, and demographic structure of its populations such that they fulfill the interactions, roles, and functions of the species in the ecosystems in which they are embedded. A recently proposed framework for an International Union for Conservation of Nature Green List of Species formalizes this requirement by defining a fully recovered species in terms of representation, viability, and functionality. Defining and quantifying ecological function from the viewpoint of species recovery is challenging in concept and application, but also an opportunity to insert ecological theory into conservation practice. We propose 2 complementary approaches to assessing a species' ecological functions: confirmation (listing interactions of the species, identifying ecological processes and other species involved in these interactions, and quantifying the extent to which the species contributes to the identified ecological process) and elimination (inferring functionality by ruling out symptoms of reduced functionality, analogous to the red-list approach that focuses on symptoms of reduced viability). Despite the challenges, incorporation of functionality into species recovery planning is possible in most cases and it is essential to a conservation vision that goes beyond preventing extinctions and aims to restore a species to levels beyond what is required for its viability. This vision focuses on conservation and recovery at the species level and sees species as embedded in ecosystems, influencing and being influenced by the processes in those ecosystems. Thus, it connects and integrates conservation at the species and ecosystem levels.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Animales , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
7.
Conserv Biol ; 34(4): 997-1007, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782203

RESUMEN

Conservation science involves the collection and analysis of data. These scientific practices emerge from values that shape who and what is counted. Currently, conservation data are filtered through a value system that considers native life the only appropriate subject of conservation concern. We examined how trends in species richness, distribution, and threats change when all wildlife count by adding so-called non-native and feral populations to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List and local species richness assessments. We focused on vertebrate populations with founding members taken into and out of Australia by humans (i.e., migrants). We identified 87 immigrant and 47 emigrant vertebrate species. Formal conservation accounts underestimated global ranges by an average of 30% for immigrants and 7% for emigrants; immigrations surpassed extinctions in Australia by 52 species; migrants were disproportionately threatened (33% of immigrants and 29% of emigrants were threatened or decreasing in their native ranges); and incorporating migrant populations into risk assessments reduced global threat statuses for 15 of 18 species. Australian policies defined most immigrants as pests (76%), and conservation was the most commonly stated motivation for targeting these species in killing programs (37% of immigrants). Inclusive biodiversity data open space for dialogue on the ethical and empirical assumptions underlying conservation science.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Animales , Australia , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Humanos
8.
Conserv Biol ; 34(1): 256-265, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460682

RESUMEN

Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) were commercially exploited on the subantarctic island of South Georgia for over 100 years and nearly driven to extinction. Since the cessation of harvesting, however, their populations have rebounded, and they are now often considered a nuisance species whose impact on the terrestrial landscape should be mitigated. Any evaluation of their current population requires the context provided by their historic, pre-exploitation abundance, lest ecologists fall prey to shifting baseline syndrome in which their perspective on current abundance is compared only with an altered state resulting from past anthropogenic disturbance. Estimating pre-exploitation abundance is critical to defining species recovery and setting recovery targets, both of which are needed for the International Union for the Conservation of Nature's recent efforts to develop a green list of recovering species. To address this issue, we reconstructed the South Georgia fur seal harvest from 1786 to 1908 from ship logbooks and other historical records and interpolated missing harvest data as necessary with a generalized linear model fit to the historical record. Using an approximate Bayesian computation framework, harvest data, and a stochastic age-structured population model, we estimated the pre-exploitation abundance of Antarctic fur seals on South Georgia was 2.5 million females (95% CI 1.5-3.5 million). This estimate is similar to recent abundance estimates, and suggests current populations, and the ecological consequences of so many fur seals on the island, may be similar to conditions prior to human harvest. Although the historic archive on the fur sealing era is unavoidably patchy, the use of archival records is essential for reconstructing the past and, correspondingly, to understanding the present. Article impact statement: Defining species recovery requires an understanding of baseline population state, which can be estimated through statistical methods.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Georgia , Humanos , Densidad de Población
9.
Conserv Biol ; 34(3): 743-753, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825105

RESUMEN

Information on population sizes and trends of threatened species is essential for their conservation, but obtaining reliable estimates can be challenging. We devised a method to improve the precision of estimates of population size obtained from capture-recapture studies for species with low capture and recapture probabilities and short seasonal activity, illustrated with population data of an elusive grasshopper (Prionotropis rhodanica). We used data from 5 capture-recapture studies to identify methodological and environmental factors affecting capture and recapture probabilities and estimates of population size. In a simulation, we used the population size and capture and recapture probability estimates obtained from the field studies to identify the minimum number of sampling occasions needed to obtain unbiased and robust estimates of population size. Based on these results we optimized the capture-recapture design, implemented it in 2 additional studies, and compared their precision with those of the nonoptimized studies. Additionally, we simulated scenarios based on thresholds of population size in criteria C and D of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List to investigate whether estimates of population size for elusive species can reliably inform red-list assessments. Identifying parameters that affect capture and recapture probabilities (for the grasshopper time since emergence of first adults) and optimizing field protocols based on this information reduced study effort (-6% to -27% sampling occasions) and provided more precise estimates of population size (reduced coefficient of variation) compared with nonoptimized studies. Estimates of population size from the scenarios based on the IUCN thresholds were mostly unbiased and robust (only the combination of very small populations and little study effort produced unreliable estimates), suggesting capture-recapture can be considered reliable for informing red-list assessments. Although capture-recapture remains difficult and costly for elusive species, our optimization procedure can help determine efficient protocols to increase data quality and minimize monitoring effort.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Saltamontes , Animales , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Densidad de Población
10.
Conserv Biol ; 34(3): 632-643, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876054

RESUMEN

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, a species extinction risk assessment tool, has been guiding conservation efforts for over 5 decades. It is widely assumed to have been instrumental in preventing species from moving closer to extinction and driving recoveries. However, the impact of the IUCN Red List in guiding conservation has not been evaluated. We conducted, transcribed, and coded interviews with experts who use the IUCN Red List across a range of sectors to understand how the list is used in conservation. We developed a theory of change to illustrate how and why change is expected to occur along causal pathways contributing to the long-term goal of the IUCN Red List and an evaluation framework with indicators for measuring the impact of the IUCN Red List in generating scientific knowledge, raising awareness among stakeholders, designating priority conservation sites, allocating funding and resources, influencing development of legislation and policy, and guiding targeted conservation action (key themes). Red-list assessments were the primary input leading to outputs (scientific knowledge, raised awareness), outcomes (better informed priority setting, access to funding and resource availability, improved legislation and policy), and impact (implemented conservation action leading to positive change) that have resulted in achievement of IUCN Red List goals. To explore feasibility of attributing the difference made by the IUCN Red List across themes, we studied increased scientific knowledge, raised awareness, access to funding and resource allocation, and increased conservation activity. The feasibility exploration showed increased scientific knowledge over time identified through positive trends in publications referring to the IUCN Red List in the literature; raised awareness of the list following high IUCN activity identified by peaks in online search activity; an increased proportion of conservation funding bodies requesting IUCN Red List status in the application process; and, based on interviews with Amphibian Specialist Group members, red-list assessments were essential in connecting relevant stakeholders and ensuring conservation action. Although we identified the IUCN Red List as a vital tool in global conservation efforts, it was challenging to measure specific impacts because of its ubiquitous nature. We are the first to identify the influence of the IUCN Red List on conservation.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Animales , Recolección de Datos , Extinción Biológica , Medición de Riesgo
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112159, 2019 Dec 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419502

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In French Polynesia, embellishment of the hair and skin is an important cultural and everyday practice. Yet, little research has focused on traditional preparations used for beautification in this region and their potential development as innovative cosmetic ingredients. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this present study we aim to assess and compile the ethnocosmetic potential of plants of French Polynesia to select and further study plants showing the most promise to be developed as anti-aging, anti-blemish and hair care products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature analysis of plants of the IECIC list, present in French Polynesia was conducted. The most interesting plants from a cosmetic development standpoint were selected based on four main criteria, i.e. their traditional use in Polynesian cosmetic-related preparations, their biogeographical status, their phytochemistry of cosmetic interest, and lastly their availability and absence from the UICN list. Furthermore, a preliminary screening of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities was also performed on several extracts obtained. RESULTS: Eleven plants were chosen, and a compilation of multidisciplinary data emphasized each selected plant's potentiality. Traditional allegations showed uses ranging from dermatology such as wound healing or anti-inflammatory properties, to hair growth promoting preparations or even skin ligthening ones. Preliminary screenings were useful in narrowing the number of extracts to study. Literature-based data associated to traditional uses depicted how the remaining plants and plant parts could be developed for targeted cosmetic applications. CONCLUSIONS: A prospective approach of plants used traditionally for cosmetic purposes in French Polynesia gave insight on their development potential when paired with the appropriate multidisciplinary data. The eleven plants presented show promise in being developed sustainably as natural anti-aging or hair care products and as skin brightening agents.


Asunto(s)
Cosméticos , Preparaciones de Plantas/uso terapéutico , Plantas Medicinales , Envejecimiento/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Cabello/efectos de los fármacos , Cabello/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humanos , Polinesia , Preparaciones para Aclaramiento de la Piel/uso terapéutico
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 345-357, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-989441

RESUMEN

Abstract The lack of knowledge about the majority of fish species harvested in Amazonian small-scale fisheries, in association with impacts from hydroelectric power plants, may lead to biodiversity loss and a decrease in the protein food supply for riverine Amazonians. This study uses existing datasets on fisheries and riverine developmental projects to infer effects associated with fish losses where actual data and outcomes are not available. The targeted fish species' status may be regarded as either threatened or there being no knowledge of their conservation requirements, biology or ecology. Among the 90 Amazonian fish species that are the most important for the diet of the riverine fishers, 78% are not assessed or their biological information is unknown, according to the IUCN Red List. Consequently, the effects created by the thoroughly disregarded trade-off between energy generation and food security in the planning of Amazonian land use have been worsened by the lack of biological and ecological information on fish species.


Resumo A falta de conhecimento sobre a maioria das espécies alvo de comunidades pesqueiras da Amazonia, associada ao impacto das hidrelétricas pode levar ao descréscimo da biodiversidade e na disponibilidade de proteína para os ribeirinhos da Amazônia. As espécies alvo são vulneráveis ou pouco conhecidas em sua biologia ou ecologia. Dentre 90 espécies de peixes importantes na dieta dos ribeirinhos, 78% não são estudadas ou sua biologia é desconhecida, de acordo com a lista da UICN. Dessa forma, os efeitos criados pela negligenciada relação de custo e benefício entre a produção de energia e a segurança alimentar no planejamento da Amazônia tem ainda piorado a situação de desconhecimento sobre as espécies de peixes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Ríos , Dieta , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Centrales Eléctricas , Brasil , Alimentos Marinos , Biodiversidad , Peces
13.
Conserv Biol ; 33(3): 511-522, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779869

RESUMEN

The value of natural history collections for conservation science research is increasingly recognized, despite their well-documented limitations in terms of taxonomic, geographic, and temporal coverage. Specimen-based analyses are particularly important for tropical plant groups for which field observations are scarce and potentially unreliable due to high levels of diversity-amplifying identification challenges. Specimen databases curated by specialists are rich sources of authoritatively identified, georeferenced occurrence data, and such data are urgently needed for large genera. We compared entries in a monographic database for the large Neotropical genus Myrcia in 2007 and 2017. We classified and quantified differences in specimen records over this decade and determined the potential impact of these changes on conservation assessments. We distinguished misidentifications from changes due to taxonomic remodeling and considered the effects of adding specimens and georeferences. We calculated the potential impact of each change on estimates of extent of occurrence (EOO), the most frequently used metric in extinction-risk assessments of tropical plants. We examined whether particular specimen changes were associated with species for which changes in EOO over the decade were large enough to change their conservation category. Corrections to specimens previously misidentified or lacking georeferences were overrepresented in such species, whereas changes associated with taxonomic remodeling (lumping and splitting) were underrepresented. Among species present in both years, transitions to less threatened status outnumbered those to more threatened (8% vs 3%, respectively). Species previously deemed data deficient transitioned to threatened status more often than to not threatened (10% vs 7%, respectively). Conservation scientists risk reaching unreliable conclusions if they use specimen databases that are not actively curated to reflect changing knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Extinción Biológica , Animales , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Plantas , Medición de Riesgo
14.
Conserv Biol ; 33(5): 1084-1093, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653250

RESUMEN

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List categories and criteria are the most widely used framework for assessing the relative extinction risk of species. The criteria are based on quantitative thresholds relating to the size, trends, and structure of species' distributions and populations. However, data on these parameters are sparse and uncertain for many species and unavailable for others, potentially leading to their misclassification or classification as data deficient. We devised an approach that combines data on land-cover change, species-specific habitat preferences, population abundance, and dispersal distance to estimate key parameters (extent of occurrence, maximum area of occupancy, population size and trend, and degree of fragmentation) and hence predict IUCN Red List categories for species. We applied our approach to nonpelagic birds and terrestrial mammals globally (∼15,000 species). The predicted categories were fairly consistent with published IUCN Red List assessments, but more optimistic overall. We predicted 4.2% of species (467 birds and 143 mammals) to be more threatened than currently assessed and 20.2% of data deficient species (10 birds and 114 mammals) to be at risk of extinction. Incorporating the habitat fragmentation subcriterion reduced these predictions 1.5-2.3% and 6.4-14.9% (depending on the quantitative definition of fragmentation) for threatened and data deficient species, respectively, highlighting the need for improved guidance for IUCN Red List assessors on the application of this aspect of the IUCN Red List criteria. Our approach complements traditional methods of estimating parameters for IUCN Red List assessments. Furthermore, it readily provides an early-warning system to identify species potentially warranting changes in their extinction-risk category based on periodic updates of land-cover information. Given our method relies on optimistic assumptions about species distribution and abundance, all species predicted to be more at risk than currently evaluated should be prioritized for reassessment.


Asunto(s)
Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Extinción Biológica , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Densidad de Población
15.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 26(1): 9-20, ene.-mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094347

RESUMEN

La Puya raimondii Harms es endémica de los Andes de Perú y Bolivia, forma poblaciones conocidas como rodales, distribuidas entre los 3500 y 4800 m de altitud, teniendo preferencia por terrenos rocosos con pendientes moderadas a muy fuertes. En este trabajo se estudia la flora y vegetación asociada a P. raimondii. Se realizaron colectas botánicas intensivas en los rodales de Huarochirí, durante la época húmeda y seca de los años 2016 y 2017. Se registraron en total 172 especies agrupadas en 114 géneros y 51 familias. Las familias más diversas fueron Asteraceae (44 spp.), Poaceae (23), Brassicaceae (8) y Fabaceae (8). Las formas de vida dominantes fueron las hierbas con el 81.4% y los arbustos con el 17.4%. El rodal de Cerro piño-Huaquinanchi albergó el 74% de la flora total, le siguió Huajlasana con el 67.5% y el rodal de Pacchapuquio con el 61%. Se registraron 16 especies endémicas de Perú, además de nueve especies categorizadas por la legislación peruana y tres por la UICN. Por último, se registraron 45 nuevos registros para la región de Lima, evidenciándose así la carencia de inventarios botánicos en regiones alto andinas y la necesidad de seguir realizando estudios en ecosistemas de alta montaña.


Puya raimondii Harms is endemic of Peru and Bolivia Andes, their populations are distributed between 3500 and 4800 m of altitude; living on rocky soils with moderate to very strong slopes. In this paper, we present a inventory of the flora and vegetation associated Puya raimondii stands. Intensive botanical collections were carried out in Huarochirí, during wet and dry seasons of 2016 and 2017 years. A total of 172 species grouped in 114 genera and 51 families were registered. The families most diverse were Asteraceae (44 species), Poaceae (23), Brassicaceae (8) and Fabaceae (8). Growth habits dominant were herbs (81.4%) and bushes (17.4%). Cerro Piño-Huaquinanchi stand had 74% of the total flora, Huajlasana 67.5% and the Pacchapuquio stand 61%. There were 16 endemic species of Peru; additionally, nine species were categorized by Peruvian legislation and three by IUCN. Finally, 45 new records were registered for Lima region, evidencing the lack of botanical inventories in the high Andean regions and the need to continue carrying out studies in high mountain ecosystems.

16.
Conserv Biol ; 33(2): 369-376, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039592

RESUMEN

Knowing how much biodiversity is captured by protected areas (PAs) is important to meeting country commitments to international conservation agreements, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, and analyzing gaps in species coverage by PAs contributes greatly to improved locating of new PAs and conservation of species. Regardless of their importance, global gap analyses have been conducted only for a few taxonomic groups (e.g., mangroves, corals, amphibians, birds, mammals). We conducted the first global gap analysis for a complete specious plant group, the highly threatened Cactaceae. Using geographic distribution data of 1438 cactus species, we assessed how well the current PA network represents them. We also systematically identified priority areas for conservation of cactus species that met and failed to meet conservation targets accounting for their conservation status. There were 261 species with no coverage by PAs (gap species). A greater percentage of cacti species (18%) lacked protection than mammals (9.7%) and birds (5.6%), and also a greater percentage of threatened cacti species (32%) were outside protected areas than amphibians (26.5%), birds (19.9%), or mammals (16%). The top 17% of the landscape that best captured covered species represented on average 52.9% of species ranges. The priority areas for gap species and the unprotected portion of the ranges of species that only partially met their conservation target (i.e., partial gap) captured on average 75.2% of their ranges, of which 100 were threatened gap species. These findings and knowledge of the threats affecting species provide information that can be used to improve planning for cacti conservation and highlight the importance of assessing the representation of major groups, such as plants, in PAs to determining the performance of the current PA network.


Asunto(s)
Cactaceae , Anfibios , Animales , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1272-1281, jul.-sep. 2018. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-977383

RESUMEN

Abstract Whereas more than 10 % of global amphibian richness is known to occur in Colombia, almost 16 % of these species are currently classified as Data Deficient according to the IUCN. These estimates suggest that the available data for a large portion of amphibians occurring in Colombia is insufficient to assess extinction risk. Here we aim to (1) review the available information on the distribution of the Colombian Data Deficient (DD hereafter) amphibians, (2) analyze their geographic distribution, and (3) evaluate the relationship between anthropogenic impact and their current conservation status. For this, we first compiled geographical records for the DD amphibian species using primary sources. Geographical records were obtained mainly from taxonomic descriptions and non-systematic surveys. We then estimated the geographical range and inferred the potential distribution for each species using letsR and MaxEnt, respectively. We quantified the human footprint for each species and tested the relationship between spatial distribution and anthropogenic change across populations. Analyses are here based on 128 of the 129 DD amphibian species that occur in Colombia. We found that most of these species were recently described and have small geographic ranges. A large proportion of these DD amphibians inhabit the Colombian Andes, and their populations have been strongly affected by human activities. Overall, the spatial clustering suggests that many of these species have faced similar environmental and anthropogenic pressures that have contributed to their rareness. We also suggest that the conservation status for several of the analyzed DD amphibians should be changed to account for the threats they face. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1272-1281. Epub 2018 September 01.


Resumen A pesar de que más del 10 % de la riqueza global de anfibios se encuentra en Colombia, cerca del 16 % de estas especies es actualmente clasificada con Datos Deficientes según la IUCN. Estas estimaciones sugieren que los datos disponibles para esta gran porción de anfibios que habitan en Colombia, son insuficientes para evaluar su riesgo de extinción. En este documento nosotros (1) revisamos la información disponible sobre la distribución de los anfibios colombianos con Datos Deficientes (ó DD), (2) analizamos su distribución geográfica, e (3) hipotetizamos sobre la relación entre el impacto antropogénico y su estado de conservación. Para esto, compilamos los registros geográficos para las especies de anfibios DD usando referencias primarias. Los registros geográficos fueron obtenidos principalmente a partir de descripciones taxonómicas y búsquedas no sistemáticas. Para estimar la distribución geográfica e inferir la distribución potencial de cada especie usamos letsR y MaxEnt, respectivamente. Cuantificamos la huella humana para cada especie y evaluamos la relación entre la distribución espacial y el cambio antropogénico entre poblaciones. Los análisis fueron basados en 128 de las 129 especies de anfibios que se encuentran en Colombia y actualmente son clasificadas como DD. Encontramos que la mayoría de estas especies fueron descritas recientemente, y presentan una distribución geográfica reducida. Una gran proporción de estas especies de anfibios DD habitan los Andes colombianos, y sus poblaciones han sido fuertemente afectadas por las actividades humanas. Este agrupamiento geográfico sugiere que muchas de estas especies enfrentan similares presiones ambientales y antropogénicas que contribuyen a su rareza. Sugerimos además que el estado de conservación para muchas de las especies de anfibios DD aquí analizados podría ser reevaluado para considerar las amenazas que enfrentan.

18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 709-721, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-977339

RESUMEN

Resumen La diversidad de coleópteros acuáticos de Cuba se encuentra entre las más elevadas en el Caribe insular. Sin embargo, existe escasa información sobre los ditíscidos cubanos para identificar las especies y hábitats que requieren urgentes acciones de conservación. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los taxa amenazados de la familia Dytiscidae en Cuba según su grado de vulnerabilidad. Para ello se recopiló información sobre la distribución de todos los ditíscidos cubanos, incluyendo datos de la literatura, de colecciones y de muestreos realizados en el período comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2014. Además, fue evaluada la vulnerabilidad de las especies a partir de una metodología que combina seis criterios referentes a las características de las especies y los hábitats que ocupan. El análisis de vulnerabilidad fue posible realizarlo a 50 de las 53 especies de ditíscidos (94 %) presentes en Cuba. Un total de cinco especies (9 %) presentan vulnerabilidad alta, 20 (38 %) media y 25 (48 %) baja. Las cinco especies más amenazadas son Laccodytes cobrinae, Laccophilus alariei, Copelatus barbouri, C. darlingtoni, and Desmopachria glabella. Estas son endémicas de Cuba y se caracterizan por presentar poblaciones muy localizadas, poco abundantes, así como por una alta especificidad de hábitat. Por ello, se propone su inclusión en lista roja de la fauna de Cuba, así como en la Lista Roja de la UICN bajo la categoría de "Vulnerable". Además, no todas las áreas donde se encuentran estas especies pertenecen al Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas de Cuba, por lo que recomendamos la inclusión de la Laguna Base Julio A. Mella y el Norte de Imías en este sistema. Así mismo, sugerimos la implementación de medidas de gestión efectivas que eviten o mitiguen la alteración de los ecosistemas acuáticos en los que aparecen las especies vulnerables.


Abstract Cuba has one of the richest diving beetles species diversity in the Caribbean islands. However, Cuban Dytiscidae remain scarcely studied, and there is need to identify those species and habitats that urgently require effective conservation actions. Here we aim to identify the threatened taxa of the family Dytiscidae in Cuba according to their degree of vulnerability. For that, we compiled distributional data on the Cuban fauna, including data from literature, collections and own samplings carried out between the period 2000 and 2014. In addition, the vulnerability of the species was evaluated using a methodology that combines six criteria regarding both species and habitat attributes. This analysis of vulnerability was completed to 50 (94 %) out of 53 Cuban species. Five species (9 %) were identified as highly vulnerable, 20 (38 %) moderately and 25 (48 %) as having low conservation status. The five most threatened species were Laccodytes cobrinae, Laccophilus alariei, Copelatus barbouri, C. darlingtoni, and Desmopachria glabella. These species are endemic to Cuba and characterized by highly localized populations and low abundance as well as high habitat specificity. Thus, we propose the inclusion of these five species in both the red list of Cuban fauna and the IUCN Red List (under the category of "Vulnerable"). In addition, not all areas where these species were found belong to the National System of Protected Areas of Cuba. Thus, we suggest the inclusion of the Laguna Base Julio A. Mella and the North of Imías, and to develop effective management measures to prevent the alteration of these aquatic ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 709-721. Epub 2018 June 01.

19.
Conserv Biol ; 32(6): 1278-1289, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797481

RESUMEN

The modifiable areal unit problem is prevalent across many aspects of spatial analysis within ecology and conservation. The problem is particularly manifested when calculating metrics for extinction risk estimation, for example, area of occupancy (AOO). Although embedded in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria, AOO is often not used or is poorly applied. We evaluated new and existing methods for calculating AOO from occurrence records and devised a method for determining the minimum AOO with a uniform grid. We evaluated the grid cell shape, origin, and rotation with real-world and simulated data and reviewed the effects on AOO values and possible impacts for species already assessed on the IUCN Red List. The AOO varied by up to 80%, and a ratio of cells to points of 1:1.21 yielded the maximum variation in the number of occupied cells. These findings potentially impact 3% of existing species on the IUCN Red List and species not yet assessed. Our new method combined grid rotation and moving grid origin and gave fast, robust, and reproducible results and, in the majority of cases, achieved the minimum AOO. As well as determining minimum AOO, our method yielded a confidence interval that should be incorporated into existing tools that support species risk assessment. We recommend when recording AOO and other areal measurements that the methods; summary statistics across multiple iterations; angle and origin of the minimum grid; map projection; and datum be recorded, this will lead to more robust species risk assessments.


Asunto(s)
Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Extinción Biológica , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecología , Medición de Riesgo
20.
Conserv Biol ; 32(6): 1233-1245, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528525

RESUMEN

Ongoing ecosystem degradation and transformation are major threats to biodiversity. Measuring ecosystem change toward collapse relies on monitoring indicators that quantify key ecological processes. Yet little guidance is available on selection and use of indicators for ecosystem risk assessment. We reviewed indicator use in ecological studies of ecosystem collapse in marine pelagic and temperate forest ecosystems. We examined indicator-selection methods, indicator types (geographic distribution, abiotic, biotic), methods of assessing multiple indicators, and temporal quality of time series. We compared how these factors were applied in the ecological studies with how they were applied in risk assessments by using the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of Ecosystems (RLE), for which indicators are used to estimate risk of ecosystem collapse. Ecological studies and RLE assessments rarely reported how indicators were selected, particularly in terrestrial ecosystems. Few ecological studies and RLE assessments quantified ecosystem change based on all 3 indicator types, and indicators types used differed between marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies used indices or multivariate analyses to assess multiple indicators simultaneously, but RLE assessments did not because as RLE guidelines advise against them. Most studies and RLE assessments used time-series data that spanned at least 30 years, which increases the probability of reliably detecting change. Limited use of indicator-selection protocols and infrequent use of all 3 indicator types may hamper accurate detection of change. To improve the value of risk assessments for informing policy and management, we recommend using explicit protocols, including conceptual models, to identify and select indicators; a range of indicators spanning distributional, abiotic, and biotic features; indices and multivariate analyses with extreme care until guidelines are developed; time series with sufficient data to increase ability to accurately diagnose directional change; data from multiple sources to support assessments; and explicitly reporting steps in the assessment process.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , Ecología , Medición de Riesgo
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