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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259098, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727102

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cyclone Amphan swept into Bangladesh's southwestern coast at the end of May 2020, wreaking havoc on food security and economic stability, as well as possibly worsening mental health. We studied the prevalence of post-cyclone stressors in adults following the cyclone and its association with symptoms of psychological distress. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a coastal district of Bangladesh. A five-item brief symptom rating scale was used to measure the symptoms of psychological distress. Household food insecurity was measured using the USAID Household Food Insecurity Access Scale questionnaire. We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) using robust log-linear models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 478 adults (mean [SD] age, 37.0[12.6] years; 169[35.4%] women) participated in the study. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe psychological symptoms and suicidal ideation was 55.7% and 10.9%, respectively. Following the cyclone, 40.8% of the adults reported severe food insecurity, and 66% of them reported moderate-to-severe mental health symptoms. Also, 54.4% of women and 33.7% of men reported severe food insecurity in the households. Moreover, 25.5% of respondents reported no income or a significant income loss after the cyclone, and 65.5% of them had moderate-to-severe psychological symptoms. Also, 13.8% of respondents reported housing displacement because of severely damaged houses, and 68.2% of them reported moderate-to-severe psychological symptoms. The high prevalence of mental health symptoms was found in women (aPR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.06-1.82), people with severe food insecurity (aPR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.01-2.64), and people who lost jobs or lost a major income source (aPR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.02-1.54). CONCLUSION: Following cyclone Amphan, many low-income individuals saw their income drop drastically while others were unemployed and living with severe food insecurity. The result suggests gender inequalities in food-security after the cyclone. Immediate action is needed to ensure household food-security for reducing the burden of mental illness. Rising opportunities of paid-jobs and decreasing income-loss, especially for the poor people, can have a protective impact on psychological distress. However, due to the high prevalence of severe psychological symptoms, long-term mental health services are required among the population of coastal Bangladesh.

2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 709, 2021 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686143

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) practice improves newborn survival and child development through preventing hypothermia in newborns, improving early initiation of breastfeeding practice, and strengthening mother-child bonding. Despite having numerous benefits, it is one of the least practiced interventions in low and middle-income countries (1 to 74%). In Bangladesh, the prevalence of SSC was 26% in 2014. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of SSC in the study districts and identify factors that facilitate or inhibit SSC practice so that context-specific recommendations can be made to advance the use of this intervention. METHODS: We used baseline household survey data of USAID's MaMoni MNCSP project conducted in 10 districts of Bangladesh in 2019. Our analysis included 13,695 recently delivered women (RDW) with a live birth outcome. Our primary outcome was the mother's reported practice of SSC. We examined various antepartum, intrapartum, newborn, and sociodemographic factors associated with SSC using a multivariable generalized linear model. Our findings were reported using adjusted Prevalence Risk Ratios (aPRRs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Overall, 28% of RDW reported practicing SSC across the 10 surveyed districts. Our multivariable analysis showed that public facility delivery (aPRR 2.01; 95%CI: 1.80, 2.26), private facility delivery (aPRR 1.23; 95%CI: 1.06, 1.42) and ≥ 4 antenatal care (ANC) visits at least one from a medically trained provider (MTP) (aPRR 1.17; 95%CI: 1.03, 1.26) had a significant positive association with SSC practice. Caesarean section (aPRR 0.64; 95%CI: 0.56, 0.73) had a significant negative association with SSC practice compared to vaginal births. We also found a significant positive association of SSC practice with mothers' who perceived the birth size of their baby to be small, mothers with a higher education level (≥10 years), and mothers from households in the highest wealth quintile. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SSC is very low in the surveyed districts of Bangladesh. Considering the factors associated with SSC, relevant stakeholders need to increase their efforts on improving ANC and facility delivery coverages as well as improving SSC practice in the facilities especially after caesarean deliveries. Countries with a high burden of home deliveries, also need to emphasize community-based interventions and increasing coverage of skilled birth attendance for improving this life-saving intervention.

3.
Am Surg ; : 31348211047493, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636629

RESUMEN

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) receives directives and funding through the appropriation process, though until recently, global surgery was not included in its mission. Nevertheless, an estimated five billion people lack access to safe, timely, and affordable surgical care, in large part due to lack of economic resources. Using coalition-based advocacy, the G4 Alliance successfully developed and submitted language that was incorporated into the 2020 Appropriations report language, directing USAID to financially support global surgery. This has significant implications for global surgical investment, yet few advocates are aware of the 2020 Appropriations language, let alone how they can utilize it now to advance global surgery in their respective countries. Here, we describe how advocates navigate the US appropriations process and the ways USAID funds are obtained for the purposes of global health. We also highlight the importance of coalition-based advocacy and provide guidance in how to increase success.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670193

RESUMEN

Countries across West Africa began reporting COVID-19 cases in February 2020. By March, the pandemic began disrupting activities to control and eliminate neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) as health ministries ramped up COVID-19-related policies and prevention measures. This was followed by interim guidance from the WHO in April 2020 to temporarily pause mass drug administration (MDA) and community-based surveys for NTDs. While the pandemic was quickly evolving worldwide, in most of West Africa, governments and health ministries took quick action to implement mitigation measures to slow the spread. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Act to End NTDs | West program (Act | West) began liaising with national NTD programs in April 2020 to pave a path toward the eventual resumption of activities. This process consisted of first collecting and analyzing COVID-19 epidemiological data, policies, and standard operating procedures across the program's 11 countries. The program then developed an NTD activity restart matrix that compiled essential considerations to restart activities. By December 2020, all 11 countries in Act | West safely restarted MDA and certain surveys to monitor NTD prevalence or intervention impact. Preliminary results show satisfactory MDA program coverage, meaning that enough people are taking the medicine to keep countries on track toward achieving their NTD disease control and elimination goals, and community perceptions have remained positive. The purpose of this article is to share the lessons and best practices that have emerged from the adoption of strategies to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus during MDA and other program activities.

5.
One Health ; 13: 100325, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584927

RESUMEN

Objectives: One Health is transiting from multidisciplinary to transdisciplinary concepts and its viewpoints should move from 'proxy for zoonoses', to include other topics (climate change, nutrition and food safety, policy and planning, welfare and well-being, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), vector-borne diseases, toxicosis and pesticides issues) and thematic fields (social sciences, geography and economics). This work was conducted to map the One Health landscape in Africa. Methods: An assessment of existing One Health initiatives in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries was conducted among selected stakeholders using a multi-method approach. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to One Health initiatives were identified, and their influence, interest and impacts were semi-quantitatively evaluated using literature reviews, questionnaire survey and statistical analysis. Results: One Health Networks and identified initiatives were spatiotemporally spread across SSA and identified stakeholders were classified into four quadrants. It was observed that imbalance in stakeholders' representations led to hesitation in buying-in into One Health approach by stakeholders who are outside the main networks like stakeholders from the policy, budgeting, geography and sometimes, the environment sectors. Conclusion: Inclusion of theory of change, monitoring and evaluation frameworks, and tools for standardized evaluation of One Health policies are needed for a sustained future of One Health and future engagements should be outputs- and outcomes-driven and not activity-driven. National roadmaps for One Health implementation and institutionalization are necessary, and proofs of concepts in One Health should be validated and scaled-up. Dependence on external funding is unsustainable and must be addressed in the medium to long-term. Necessary policy and legal instruments to support One Health nationally and sub-nationally should be implemented taking cognizance of contemporary issues like urbanization, endemic poverty and other emerging issues. The utilization of current technologies and One Health approach in addressing the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 and other emerging diseases are desirable. Finally, One Health implementation should be anticipatory and preemptive, and not reactive in containing disease outbreaks, especially those from the animal sources or the environment before the risk of spillover to human.

6.
Implement Sci Commun ; 2(1): 112, 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588002

RESUMEN

UNICEF operates in 190 countries and territories, where it advocates for the protection of children's rights and helps meet children's basic needs to reach their full potential. Embedded implementation research (IR) is an approach to health systems strengthening in which (a) generation and use of research is led by decision-makers and implementers; (b) local context, priorities, and system complexity are taken into account; and (c) research is an integrated and systematic part of decision-making and implementation. By addressing research questions of direct relevance to programs, embedded IR increases the likelihood of evidence-informed policies and programs, with the ultimate goal of improving child health and nutrition.This paper presents UNICEF's embedded IR approach, describes its application to challenges and lessons learned, and considers implications for future work.From 2015, UNICEF has collaborated with global development partners (e.g. WHO, USAID), governments and research institutions to conduct embedded IR studies in over 25 high burden countries. These studies focused on a variety of programs, including immunization, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, birth registration, nutrition, and newborn and child health services in emergency settings. The studies also used a variety of methods, including quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods.UNICEF has found that this systematically embedding research in programs to identify implementation barriers can address concerns of implementers in country programs and support action to improve implementation. In addition, it can be used to test innovations, in particular applicability of approaches for introduction and scaling of programs across different contexts (e.g., geographic, political, physical environment, social, economic, etc.). UNICEF aims to generate evidence as to what implementation strategies will lead to more effective programs and better outcomes for children, accounting for local context and complexity, and as prioritized by local service providers. The adaptation of implementation research theory and practice within a large, multi-sectoral program has shown positive results in UNICEF-supported programs for children and taking them to scale.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1660, 2021 09 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517875

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a significant public health challenge in Nigeria. Consistent bed net use (sleeping under a treated net every night) has been identified as a key malaria prevention behavior. This paper explores the relationship between mass media social and behavior change interventions, psychosocial factors, and consistent bed net use. METHODS: Data is from the endline survey of a USAID-funded social and behavior change communication campaign conducted from 2012 to 2017 across five states in Nigeria. The outcome measure was consistent bed net use, and the mediator variable was a composite measure called ideation from a set of psychosocial factors believed to influence bed net use. The independent variable was recall of malaria specific media messages. Multilevel mediation analysis explored if recall of malaria specific media messages had any effect on bed net related ideation and if this ideation had any effect on consistent net use. RESULTS: Respondents included in this study were on average aged 31 years, mostly married or cohabiting (97.5%) and female 75%. Four in 10 (39.7%) respondents were able to recall malaria specific messages. Respondents with low, moderate and high recall were 23, 32 and 80% more likely to have a higher ideational score in the emotional domain compared to those not able to recall. Respondents were more likely to have higher ideational scores in the cognitive domain if they had low (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.15-1.38), moderate (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34) or high recall (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.16-2.06), respectively compared to those with no recall. Similarly, respondents with low (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI .99-1.08), moderate (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.23) and high (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.30) recall were more likely to have a higher ideational score in the social domain compared to those with no recall. After adjusting for recall of media messages and other potential covariates, all three ideational domains also had a significant positive effect on consistent bed net use. For every unit increase in ideational score, the likelihood of reporting consistent bed net use increased by 5 to 10%. There was a significant indirect effect of recalling malaria specific messages on consistent bed net use through each of the ideational domains. CONCLUSION: Access to a bed net is a critical first step in the process of bed net utilization. However, psychosocial factors e.g., emotional, cognitive, and social domains of ideation also play a major role in bed net use. Mass media SBC interventions could potentially influence bed net related ideation and consequently improve net use behavior. Future Social and behavior change interventions should employ approaches that improve these domains of ideation within their audiences in order to increase bed net utilization.


Asunto(s)
Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida , Malaria , Cuidadores , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria/prevención & control , Análisis de Mediación , Nigeria
8.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 119, 2021 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583729

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health (HRH) emphasizes the importance of dynamic and effective health worker regulation for achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals, with the establishment of education standards and quality assurance of education programs being critical. Governments in West Africa have struggled to address the problems within their higher education systems for health professionals, and it is now generally acknowledged that private institutions can play a crucial role in revitalizing the region's outdated universities. However, the rapid expansion of private schools raises concerns about the quality of education and adequacy of regulatory mechanisms. The USAID-funded Mali HRH Strengthening Activity, led by IntraHealth International, assisted Mali's Ministry of Health and Social Development to deliver targeted HRH interventions to improve the quality of education in private universities, better manage available health workers, and initiate a decentralized strategy for health worker recruitment and motivation. CASE PRESENTATION: In 2018, the HRH activity leveraged the West African Health Organization (WAHO)'s accreditation system to support 10 private nursing schools to introduce WAHO's regionally accepted, competency-based curriculum in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. The project undertook a 10-step process to work alongside private nursing and midwifery schools to assess their current status against WAHO regional standards, implement action plans to address identified gaps, and support the institutions toward accreditation. As a result, eight schools in Mali are now accredited compared to only three at project inception. CONCLUSIONS: This case study underscores the importance of private school accreditation in Mali to improve the quality of health worker training through a standardized local curriculum. By supporting existing regulatory bodies that oversee accreditation, local capacity for initial accreditation of private nursing schools has been increased. Engaging universities in a partnership that shows the benefits of accreditation while maintaining a focus on the need to protect communities is critical to success. If the global community is to meet the WHO's predicted health worker shortfall, then private education providers will need to be part of the solution. Robust and engaging health worker education accreditation systems are an essential part of that future.


Asunto(s)
Partería , Facultades de Enfermería , Acreditación , Niño , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Malí , Embarazo
9.
Eval Program Plann ; 89: 102005, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555737

RESUMEN

This study explores the valued-added of USAID/Senegal's Governance for Local Development (GOLD) project's integrated approach to working with four sector projects: two in health, one in water and sanitation, and one in nutrition. The study builds on a partnership evaluation framework that identifies practices related to preconditions, factors linked with success, implementation structures and processes, contribution of collaboration to performance, and collaboration outcomes. A survey instrument developed statements of positive practices and asked respondents to agree or disagree with each one. The analysis includes exploration of differences in perception. Respondents generally expressed agreement with the statements in the survey instrument associated with the various dimensions of effective partnerships. All projects mentioned the presence of partnership champions. Problems with joint action (e.g., planning, budgeting, managing) were the most frequently cited constraints. The study confirms most of the hypotheses embedded in the evaluation framework regarding partnership's potential for creating synergies and improved outcomes and affirms the framework's usefulness as a developmental evaluation tool. Positive outcomes result from intentional efforts to build relationships, cultivate champions, and design systems and processes that support a partnership culture and contribute to each partners' success as well as the success of the partnership itself.

10.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(7): 672-678, 2021 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369581

RESUMEN

Background: Pakistan and USAID have invested in improving the contraceptive supply chain data and commodity security. In 2011, the first digital contraceptive logistics management information system (cLMIS) was launched, enabling supply chain data visibility from the federal level to health facilities. The system has built-in modules on forecasting and supply planning, inventory management, consumption reporting, business intelligence tools, automatic email and SMS alerts. Using these features, policy-makers and health managers annually forecast needs, and procure contraceptives accordingly. Aims: The objective of this research was to understand the existing technological platforms for family planning (FP) supply chain data visibility and the potential impact on contraceptive commodity security. Methods: The authors reviewed available published and grey literature papers on contraceptives and supplies in Pakistan. We extracted data from the cLMIS, evaluated indicators including reporting compliance, reported stock-out rates, and contraceptive performance. The analysis was validated by reviewing supply chain and FP indicators, such as average monthly consumption, months of stock, and couple years of protection. Results: The cLMIS has resulted in improved distribution, early warning and accountability at the lowest tiers in the FP supply chain in the public sector. At the facility level, FP commodity availability increased from 40% in 2009 to 84% in 2018. Conclusion: Contraceptive supply chain has seen significant growth over the past decade to meet expanding reproductive health evidence to inform strategic decisions; cLMIS is a prime contributor to improvements registered in FP stock availability at public sector facilities.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Sector Público , Humanos , Pakistán , Tecnología
11.
J Nutr Sci ; 10: e58, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422260

RESUMEN

Animal source foods (ASF) contain quality nutrients important for growth, development, immunity and behavioural outcomes. Plant-based foods also provide the nutrients, but with lower bioavailability than ASF. Evidence on household-level ASF consumption frequency, constraints and determinants are limited for Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the consumption frequency of ASF and to identify determinants and constraints among rural households in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 422 households. The consumption frequency of ASF was assessed using a food frequency screener over 30 days. Twelve statements with Likert scale responses were used to identify constraints to ASF consumption. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify determinants of ASF consumption. About a quarter (26 %) of the households consumed milk one to two times per week. One out of five households consumed eggs one to two times per week (20 %) or one to two times per month (19 %). Poultry and meat were never consumed by 92 and 60 % of the households, respectively. Unavailability, unaffordability, consumption tradition and income generation priority were constraints identified. Food insecurity, livestock ownership, income, family size and women's education were associated (P < 0⋅05) with selected ASF consumption. Rural households in Ethiopia did not consume ASF on regular basis. Poor socio-demographic and economic conditions as determined by food insecurity, property ownership, income, educational achievement, family size and ASF unavailability and unaffordability contributed to the lower consumption frequency of ASF by households in rural Ethiopia. Nutrition policies and programmes should focus on nutrition-sensitive agricultural extension, livelihood improvement and women empowerment interventions integrated with nutrition education to improve ASF consumption in rural settings.

12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 862, 2021 Aug 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leadership, management, and governance (LMG) interventions play a significant role in improving management systems, enhancing the work climate, and creating responsive health systems. Hence, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health with the support of the USAID Transform: Primary Health Care project has been implementing LMG interventions to improve performances of primary healthcare entities. The purpose of this evaluation was to compare maternal and child health service performances and overall health system strengthening measurement results of primary health care entities by LMG intervention exposed groups. METHODS: The study used a cross-sectional study design with a propensity matched score analysis, and was conducted from August 28, 2017, to September 30, 2018, in Amhara, Oromia, Tigray, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' (SNNP) regions. Data collection took place through interviewer and self-administered questionnaires among 227 LMG intervention exposed and 227 non-exposed health workers. Propensity score matched analysis was used to balance comparison groups with respect to measured covariates. RESULTS: The mean overall maternal and child health key performance indicator score with standard deviation (± SD) for the LMG intervention exposed group was 63.86 ± 13.16 and 57.02 ± 13.71 for the non-exposed group. The overall health system strengthening score for the LMG intervention exposed group (mean rank = 269.31) and non-exposed group (mean rank = 158.69) had statistically significant differences (U = 10.145, z = - 11.175, p = 0.001). In comparison with its counterpart, the LMG exposed group had higher average performances in 3.54, 3.51, 2.64, 3.00, 1.07, and 3.34 percentage-points for contraceptive acceptance rate, antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, postnatal care, full immunization, and growth monitoring services, respectively. CONCLUSION: There were evidences on the positive effects of the LMG intervention on increased maternal and child health services performances at primary healthcare entities. Moreover, health facilities with LMG intervention exposed health workers had higher and statistically significant differences in management systems, work climates, and readiness to face new challenges. Therefore, this study generated evidence for integrating LMG interventions to improve the performance of primary healthcare entities and maternal and child service uptake of community members, which contributes to the reduction of maternal and child deaths.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud del Niño , Servicios de Salud Materna , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Embarazo , Puntaje de Propensión
13.
One Health ; 13: 100291, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307824

RESUMEN

Based on recommendations from two consultative meetings held in Dakar, Senegal (2016) and Abuja, Nigeria (2017) the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) implemented a Regional One Health Coordination Mechanism (R-OHCM). This study analyzed the process, challenges and gaps in operationalizing the R-OHCM in West Africa. We utilized a scoping review to assess five dimensions of the operation of an R-OHCM based on political commitment, institutional structure, management and coordination capacity, joint planning and implementation, as well as technical and financial resources. Information was gathered through a desk review, interview of key informants, and the viewpoints of relevant stakeholders from ECOWAS region during a regional One Health technical meeting in Lomé, Togo in October 2019. It was found that political commitment at regional meetings and the countries adoption of regional frameworks were key strengths of the R-OHCM, although there are continued challenges with commitment, sustainability, and variability of awareness about One Health approach. ECOWAS formulated regional strategic documents and operationalized the One Health secretariat for strengthening coordination. The R-OHCM has technical working groups however, there is need for engagement of more specialized workforce and a harmonized reporting structure. Furthermore, inadequate focus on operational research, and weak national OHCM are identified as main gaps. Finally, the support of technical and financial partners will help to address the lack of funding which limits the implementation of the R-OHCM. West Africa has demonstrated profound effort in adopting the One Health approach at regional level but is presently deterred by challenges such as limited skilled One Health workforce, especially in the animal and environmental health sectors, and access to quality of One Health surveillance.

14.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04042, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326992

RESUMEN

Background: Tuberculosis Health Action Learning Initiative (THALI) funded by USAID is a person-centered initiative, supporting vulnerable urban populations to gain access to TB services. THALI trained and placed 112 Community health workers (CHWs) to detect and support individuals with TB symptoms or disease within urban slums in two cities, Hyderabad and Bengaluru, covering a population of about 3 million. Methods: CHWs visited the slums once in a fortnight. They conducted TB awareness activities. They referred individuals with TB symptoms for sputum testing to nearest public sector laboratories. They visited those testing TB positive, once a fortnight in the intensive phase, and once a month thereafter. They supported TB patients and families with counselling, contact screening and social scheme linkages. They complemented the shortfall in urban TB government field staff numbers and their capacity to engage with TB patients. Data on CHWs' patient referral for TB diagnosis and treatment support activities was entered into a database and analyzed to examine CHWs' role in the cascade of TB care. We compared achievements of six monthly referral cohorts from September 2016 to February 2019. Results: Overall, 31 617 (approximately 1%) of slum population were identified as TB symptomatic and referred for diagnosis. Among the referred persons, 23 976 (76%) underwent testing of which 3841 (16%) were TB positive. Overall, 3812 (99%) were initiated on treatment and 2760 (72%) agreed for regular follow up by the CHWs. Fifty-seven percent of 2952 referred were tested in the first cohort, against 86% of 8315 in the last cohort. The annualized case detection rate through CHW referrals in Bengaluru increased from 5.5 to 52.0 per 100 000 during the period, while in Hyderabad it was 35.4 initially and increased up to 118.9 per 100 000 persons. The treatment success rate was 87.1% among 193 in the first cohort vs 91.3% among 677 in the last cohort. Conclusions: CHWs in urban slums augment TB detection to care cascade. Their performance and TB treatment outcomes improve over time. It would be important to examine the cost per TB case detected and successfully treated.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Áreas de Pobreza , Servicios de Salud Rural , Tuberculosis , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciudades , Femenino , Humanos , India , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Servicios de Salud Rural/organización & administración , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/terapia , Adulto Joven
15.
Med (N Y) ; 2(6): 701-719.e19, 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223402

RESUMEN

Background: Development of an effective vaccine against the pathogenic blood-stage infection of human malaria has proved challenging, and no candidate vaccine has affected blood-stage parasitemia following controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum. Methods: We undertook a phase I/IIa clinical trial in healthy adults in the United Kingdom of the RH5.1 recombinant protein vaccine, targeting the P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5), formulated in AS01B adjuvant. We assessed safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against blood-stage CHMI. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02927145. Findings: The RH5.1/AS01B formulation was administered using a range of RH5.1 protein vaccine doses (2, 10, and 50 µg) and was found to be safe and well tolerated. A regimen using a delayed and fractional third dose, in contrast to three doses given at monthly intervals, led to significantly improved antibody response longevity over ∼2 years of follow-up. Following primary and secondary CHMI of vaccinees with blood-stage P. falciparum, a significant reduction in parasite growth rate was observed, defining a milestone for the blood-stage malaria vaccine field. We show that growth inhibition activity measured in vitro using purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody strongly correlates with in vivo reduction of the parasite growth rate and also identify other antibody feature sets by systems serology, including the plasma anti-RH5 IgA1 response, that are associated with challenge outcome. Conclusions: Our data provide a new framework to guide rational design and delivery of next-generation vaccines to protect against malaria disease. Funding: This study was supported by USAID, UK MRC, Wellcome Trust, NIAID, and the NIHR Oxford-BRC.

16.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 99, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130745

RESUMEN

The importance of using research findings to inform policy and program decisions is well recognized, but the literature on measuring research utilization activities is scarce. As funding to support some areas of research wanes or remains stagnant, the need to document the value of investing in research by its' effect on improved programs and policies becomes increasingly necessary. We present the experience of Project SOAR, a six-year USAID-funded project focusing on HIV/AIDS-related implementation research, to demonstrate measurement of research utilization. We follow the project's research-utilization logic model, including inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes. We present tools the project developed and examples from project studies and discuss what works, remaining challenges and how to overcome them, and lessons learned. We then make recommendations for incorporating research-utilization activities and measurement in implementation-research studies.

17.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2021: 5536633, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121834

RESUMEN

Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) due to RSV is a common cause of global infant mortality, with most cases occurring in developing countries. Using data aggregated from priority countries as designated by the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Maternal Child Health and Nutrition (MCHN) program, we created an adjustable algorithmic tool for visualizing the effectiveness of candidate maternal RSV vaccination on infant mortality. Country-specific estimates for disease burden and case fatality rates were computed based on established data. Country-specific RSV-ALRI incidence rates for infants 0-5 months were scaled based on the reported incidence rates for children 0-59 months. Using in-hospital mortality rates and predetermined "inflation factor," we estimated the mortality of infants aged 0-5 months. Given implementation of a candidate maternal vaccination program, estimated reduction in infant RSV-ALRI incidence and mortality rates were calculated. User input is used to determine the coverage of the program and the efficacy of the vaccine. Using the generated algorithm, the overall reduction in infant mortality varied considerably depending on vaccine efficacy and distribution. Given a potential efficacy of 70% and a maternal distribution rate of 50% in every USAID MCHN priority country, annual RSV-ALRI-related infant mortality is estimated to be reduced by 14,862 cases. The absolute country-specific reduction is dependent on the number of live births; countries with the highest birth rates had the greatest impact on annual mortality reduction. The adjustable algorithm provides a standardized analytical tool in the evaluation of candidate maternal RSV vaccines. Ultimately, it can be used to guide public health initiatives, research funding, and policy implementation concerning the effectiveness of potential maternal RSV vaccination on reducing infant mortality.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Niño , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/prevención & control , Vacunación
18.
One Health Outlook ; 3(1): 11, 2021 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990224

RESUMEN

In an effort to strengthen global capacity to prevent, detect, and control infectious diseases in animals and people, the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) PREDICT project funded development of regional, national, and local One Health capacities for early disease detection, rapid response, disease control, and risk reduction. From the outset, the EPT approach was inclusive of social science research methods designed to understand the contexts and behaviors of communities living and working at human-animal-environment interfaces considered high-risk for virus emergence. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches, PREDICT behavioral research aimed to identify and assess a range of socio-cultural behaviors that could be influential in zoonotic disease emergence, amplification, and transmission. This broad approach to behavioral risk characterization enabled us to identify and characterize human activities that could be linked to the transmission dynamics of new and emerging viruses. This paper provides a discussion of implementation of a social science approach within a zoonotic surveillance framework. We conducted in-depth ethnographic interviews and focus groups to better understand the individual- and community-level knowledge, attitudes, and practices that potentially put participants at risk for zoonotic disease transmission from the animals they live and work with, across 6 interface domains. When we asked highly-exposed individuals (ie. bushmeat hunters, wildlife or guano farmers) about the risk they perceived in their occupational activities, most did not perceive it to be risky, whether because it was normalized by years (or generations) of doing such an activity, or due to lack of information about potential risks. Integrating the social sciences allows investigations of the specific human activities that are hypothesized to drive disease emergence, amplification, and transmission, in order to better substantiate behavioral disease drivers, along with the social dimensions of infection and transmission dynamics. Understanding these dynamics is critical to achieving health security--the protection from threats to health-- which requires investments in both collective and individual health security. Involving behavioral sciences into zoonotic disease surveillance allowed us to push toward fuller community integration and engagement and toward dialogue and implementation of recommendations for disease prevention and improved health security.

19.
Int Rev Educ ; : 1-26, 2021 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935296

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen an unprecedented shutdown of society. Among the various safety measures taken, much attention has been given to school closure as a non-pharmaceutical mitigation tool to curb the spread of the disease through ensuring "social" (physical) distancing. Nearly 1.725 billion children in over 95% of countries worldwide have been affected by school closures implemented in April 2020 as the virus continued to spread. In the field of education, policymakers' attention has been directed at keeping students on board through remote learning and addressing the immediate needs of schools upon reopening. The study presented in this article focuses on who remains absent after schools resume. Using publicly available survey data from the USAID Demographic Health Surveys Program and the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey from before and after the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic in Guinea and Sierra Leone in West Africa, the author examined changes in school enrolment and dropout patterns, with targeted consideration given to traditionally marginalised groups. At the time, schools closed for between seven to nine months in the two countries; this length and intensity makes this Ebola pandemic the only health crisis in the recent past to come close to the pandemic-related school closures experienced in 2020. The author's findings suggest that post-Ebola, youth in the poorest households saw the largest increase in school dropout. Exceeding expected pre-Ebola dropout rates, an additional 17,400 of the poorest secondary-age youth were out of school. This evidence is important for minimising the likely post-COVID-19 expansion in inequality. The author's findings point to the need for sustainable planning that looks beyond the reopening of educational institutions to include comprehensive financial support packages for groups most likely to be affected.

20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251958, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043663

RESUMEN

Scaling is a ubiquitous concept in agricultural research in the global south as donors require their research grantees to prove that their results can be scaled to impact upon the livelihoods of a large number of beneficiaries. Recent studies on scaling have brought critical perspectives to the rather technocratic tendencies in the agricultural innovations scaling literature. Drawing on theoretical debates on spatial strategies and practical experience of agricultural innovation scaling in Ethiopia, this paper adds to the current debate on what constitutes scaling and how to overcome critical scaling constraints. The data for the paper came from a qualitative assessment using focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and document analysis on scaling work done in Ethiopia by a USAID-funded research for development project. The paper concludes with four broad lessons for the current understating of agricultural innovation scaling. First, scaling of agricultural innovations requires a balanced focus on technical requirements and associated social dynamics surrounding scaling targets, actors involved and their social relations. Second, appreciating the social dynamics of scaling emphasizes the fact that scaling is more complex than a linear rolling out of innovations towards diffusion. Third, scaling may not be strictly planned; instead, it might be an extension of the innovation generation process that relies heavily on both new and long-term relationships with key partners, trust, and continuous reflection and learning. Fourth, the overall implication of the above three conclusions is that scaling strategies need to be flexible, stepwise, and reflective. Despite the promises of flourishing scaling frameworks, scaling strategies it would appear from the Africa RISING experience that, if real impact is to be achieved, approaches will be required to be flexible enough to manage the social, processual and emergent nature of the practice of scaling.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Invenciones/economía , Desarrollo de Programa/métodos , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Financiación del Capital/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía , Humanos , Desarrollo de Programa/economía , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía
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