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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(2): 416-423, 2025 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819045

RESUMEN

Several experimental evidence suggests a link between brain Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection and the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association are not completely understood. Among the molecular mediators of synaptic and cognitive dysfunction occurring after Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection and reactivation in the brain neuroinflammatory cytokines seem to occupy a central role. Here, we specifically reviewed literature reports dealing with the impact of neuroinflammation on synaptic dysfunction observed after recurrent Herpes simplex virus type-1 reactivation in the brain, highlighting the role of interleukins and, in particular, interleukin 1ß as a possible target against Herpes simplex virus type-1-induced neuronal dysfunctions.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(2): 533-547, 2025 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819065

RESUMEN

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202502000-00030/figure1/v/2024-05-28T214302Z/r/image-tiff In patients with Alzheimer's disease, gamma-glutamyl transferase 5 (GGT5) expression has been observed to be downregulated in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. However, the functional role of GGT5 in the development of Alzheimer's disease remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effect of GGT5 on cognitive function and brain pathology in an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, as well as the underlying mechanism. We observed a significant reduction in GGT5 expression in two in vitro models of Alzheimer's disease (Aß1-42-treated hCMEC/D3 and bEnd.3 cells), as well as in the APP/PS1 mouse model. Additionally, injection of APP/PS1 mice with an adeno-associated virus encoding GGT5 enhanced hippocampal synaptic plasticity and mitigated cognitive deficits. Interestingly, increasing GGT5 expression in cerebrovascular endothelial cells reduced levels of both soluble and insoluble amyloid-ß in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. This effect may be attributable to inhibition of the expression of ß-site APP cleaving enzyme 1, which is mediated by nuclear factor-kappa B. Our findings demonstrate that GGT5 expression in cerebrovascular endothelial cells is inversely associated with Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and that GGT5 upregulation mitigates cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice. These findings suggest that GGT5 expression in cerebrovascular endothelial cells is a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

3.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(2): 491-502, 2025 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819062

RESUMEN

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202502000-00027/figure1/v/2024-05-28T214302Z/r/image-tiff Neurotoxic astrocytes are a promising therapeutic target for the attenuation of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Low-density lipoprotein receptor, a classic cholesterol regulatory receptor, has been found to inhibit NLR family pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in neurons following ischemic stroke and to suppress the activation of microglia and astrocytes in individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, little is known about the effects of low-density lipoprotein receptor on astrocytic activation in ischemic stroke. To address this issue in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which low-density lipoprotein receptor regulates astrocytic polarization in ischemic stroke models. First, we examined low-density lipoprotein receptor expression in astrocytes via immunofluorescence staining and western blotting analysis. We observed significant downregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor following middle cerebral artery occlusion reperfusion and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation. Second, we induced the astrocyte-specific overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptor using astrocyte-specific adeno-associated virus. Low-density lipoprotein receptor overexpression in astrocytes improved neurological outcomes in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice and reversed neurotoxic astrocytes to create a neuroprotective phenotype. Finally, we found that the overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptor inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injured astrocytes and that the addition of nigericin, an NLRP3 agonist, restored the neurotoxic astrocyte phenotype. These findings suggest that low-density lipoprotein receptor could inhibit the NLRP3-meidiated neurotoxic polarization of astrocytes and that increasing low-density lipoprotein receptor in astrocytes might represent a novel strategy for treating cerebral ischemic stroke.

4.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 253-264, 2025 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767490

RESUMEN

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202501000-00033/figure1/v/2024-05-14T021156Z/r/image-tiff The E3 ubiquitin ligase, carboxyl terminus of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) interacting protein (CHIP), also functions as a co-chaperone and plays a crucial role in the protein quality control system. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of overexpressed CHIP on Alzheimer's disease. We used an adeno-associated virus vector that can cross the blood-brain barrier to mediate CHIP overexpression in APP/PS1 mouse brain. CHIP overexpression significantly ameliorated the performance of APP/PS1 mice in the Morris water maze and nest building tests, reduced amyloid-ß plaques, and decreased the expression of both amyloid-ß and phosphorylated tau. CHIP also alleviated the concentration of microglia and astrocytes around plaques. In APP/PS1 mice of a younger age, CHIP overexpression promoted an increase in ADAM10 expression and inhibited ß-site APP cleaving enzyme 1, insulin degrading enzyme, and neprilysin expression. Levels of HSP70 and HSP40, which have functional relevance to CHIP, were also increased. Single nuclei transcriptome sequencing in the hippocampus of CHIP overexpressed mice showed that the lysosomal pathway and oligodendrocyte-related biological processes were up-regulated, which may also reflect a potential mechanism for the neuroprotective effect of CHIP. Our research shows that CHIP effectively reduces the behavior and pathological manifestations of APP/PS1 mice. Indeed, overexpression of CHIP could be a beneficial approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

5.
Rev. esp. patol ; 57(2): 111-115, Abr-Jun, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-232414

RESUMEN

Russell bodies (RBs) are round eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions formed by condensed immunoglobulins in mature plasma cells, which are called Mott cells. These cells are rarely found in the gastric tract, with even less cases reported in the colorectal region. There are still many questions about this event, as it is still unknown the relationship between the agents reported of increasing the probability of appearance of these cells and the generation of RBs. In this case report we describe the fifth patient presenting an infiltration of Mott cells in a colorectal polyp, being the second case with a monoclonal origin without a neoplastic cause, and the first one monoclonal for lambda. A comparison with previously similar reported cases is also done, and a possible etiopathogenic hypothesis proposed. (AU)


Los cuerpos de Russell (RB) son inclusiones intracitoplasmáticas eosinofílicas redondas formadas por inmunoglobulinas condensadas en las células plasmáticas maduras, que se denominan células de Mott. Estas células rara vez se encuentran en el tracto gástrico, y son aún más infrecuentes en la región colorrectal. Actualmente hay muchas dudas sobre este evento, ya que se desconoce la relación entre los agentes causantes de aumentar la probabilidad de aparición tanto de estas células como de la de RB. En este caso describimos al quinto paciente con un pólipo colorrectal, localizado en el tracto colorrectal e infiltrado por células de Mott, siendo el segundo caso de origen monoclonal sin causa neoplásica y el primero monoclonal para lambda. También se hace una comparación con casos similares previamente reportados y se propone una hipótesis etiopatogénica. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Siphoviridae , Pólipos del Colon , Células Plasmáticas , Cuerpos de Lewy , Inmunoglobulinas
6.
Arch Virol ; 169(7): 139, 2024 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849620

RESUMEN

Amdoparvoviruses infect various carnivores, including mustelids, canids, skunks, and felids. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) belongs to the prototypical species Amdoparvovirus carnivoran1. Here, we identified a novel amdoparvovirus in farmed Asian badgers (Meles meles), and we named this virus "Meles meles amdoparvovirus" (MMADV). A total of 146 clinical samples were collected from 134 individual badgers, and 30.6% (41/134) of the sampled badgers tested positive for amdoparvovirus by PCR. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, spleen, liver, lung, and adipose tissue from these animals. Viral sequences from eight samples were determined, five of which represented nearly full-length genome sequences (4,237-4,265 nt). Six serum samples tested positive by PCR, CIEP, and IAT, four of which had high antibody titers (> 512) against AMDV-G. Twenty-six of the 41 amdoparvovirus-positive badgers showed signs of illness, and necropsy revealed lesions in their organs. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the viral NS1 and VP2 genes of these badger amdoparvoviruses showed that their NS1 proteins shared 62.6%-88.8% sequence identity with known amdoparvoviruses, and they clustered phylogenetically into two related clades. The VP2 proteins shared 76.6%-97.2% identity and clustered into two clades, one of which included raccoon dog and arctic fox amdoparvovirus (RFAV), and the other of which did not include other known amdoparvoviruses. According to the NS1-protein-based criterion for parvovirus species demarcation, the MMADV isolate from farm YS should be classified as a member of a new species of the genus Amdoparvovirus. In summary, we have discovered a novel MMADV and other badger amdoparvoviruses that naturally infect Asian badgers and are possibly pathogenic in badgers.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón , Mustelidae , Filogenia , Animales , Mustelidae/virología , Virus de la Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/genética , Virus de la Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/clasificación , ADN Viral/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/virología , Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/virología , Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre
7.
Nat Microbiol ; 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849624

RESUMEN

Influenza virus infection is initiated by the attachment of the viral haemagglutinin (HA) protein to sialic acid receptors on the host cell surface. Most virus particles enter cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). However, it is unclear how viral binding signals are transmitted through the plasma membrane triggering CME. Here we found that metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (mGluR2) and potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M alpha 1 (KCa1.1) are involved in the initiation and completion of CME of influenza virus using an siRNA screen approach. Influenza virus HA directly interacted with mGluR2 and used it as an endocytic receptor to initiate CME. mGluR2 interacted and activated KCa1.1, leading to polymerization of F-actin, maturation of clathrin-coated pits and completion of the CME of influenza virus. Importantly, mGluR2-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to different influenza subtypes than the wild type. Therefore, blocking HA and mGluR2 interaction could be a promising host-directed antiviral strategy.

8.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(7): 292, 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849633

RESUMEN

In recent years, the evolution of antibiotic resistance has led to the inefficacy of several antibiotics, and the reverse of resistance was a novel method to solve this problem. We previously demonstrated that matrine (Mat) and berberine hydrochloride (Ber) had a synergistic effect against multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (MDREC). This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of Mat combined with Ber in reversing the resistance of MDREC. The MDREC was sequenced passaged in the presence of Mat, Ber, and a combination of Mat and Ber, which did not affect its growth. The reverse rate was up to 39.67% after MDREC exposed to Mat + Ber for 15 days. The strain that reversed resistance was named drug resistance reversed E. coli (DRREC) and its resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline was reversed. The MIC of Gentamicin Sulfate (GS) against DRREC decreased 128-fold to 0.63 µg/mL, and it was stable within 20 generations. Furthermore, the susceptible phenotype of DRREC remained stable within 20 generations, as well. The LD50 of DRREC for chickens was 8.69 × 109 CFU/mL. qRT-PCR assays revealed that the transcript levels of antibiotic-resistant genes and virulence genes in the DRREC strain were significantly lower than that in the MDREC strain (P < 0.05). In addition, GS decreased the death, decreased the bacterial loading in organs, alleviated the injury of the spleen and liver, and decreased the cytokine levels in the chickens infected by the DRREC strain. In contrast, the therapeutic effect of GS in chickens infected with MDREC was not as evident. These findings suggest that the combination of Mat and Ber has potential for reversing resistance to MDREC.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Antibacterianos , Berberina , Pollos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Infecciones por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Gentamicinas , Matrinas , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Quinolizinas , Animales , Gentamicinas/farmacología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Berberina/farmacología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Quinolizinas/farmacología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Alcaloides/farmacología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/tratamiento farmacológico , Virulencia/efectos de los fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(7): 215, 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849666

RESUMEN

Non-tailed icosahedral phages belonging to families Fiersviridae (phages MS2 and Qbeta), Tectiviridae (PRD1) and Microviridae (phiX174) have not been considered in detail so far as potential antibacterial agents. The aim of the study was to examine various aspects of the applicability of these phages as antibacterial agents. Antibacterial potential of four phages was investigated via bacterial growth and biofilm formation inhibition, lytic spectra determination, and phage safety examination. The phage phiX174 was combined with different classes of antibiotics to evaluate potential synergistic interactions. In addition, the incidence of phiX174-insensitive mutants was analyzed. The results showed that only phiX174 out of four phages tested against their corresponding hosts inhibited bacterial growth for > 90% at different multiplicity of infection and that only this phage considerably prevented biofilm formation. Although all phages show the absence of potentially undesirable genes, they also have extremely narrow lytic spectra. The synergism was determined between phage phiX174 and ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, macrolides, and chloramphenicol. It was shown that the simultaneous application of agents is more effective than successive treatment, where one agent is applied first. The analysis of the appearance of phiX174 bacteriophage-insensitive mutants showed that mutations occur with a frequency of 10-3. The examined non-tailed phages have a limited potential for use as antibacterial agents, primarily due to a very narrow lytic spectrum and the high frequency of resistant mutants appearance, but Microviridae can be considered in the future as biocontrol agents against susceptible strains of E. coli in combinations with conventional antimicrobial agents.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Biopelículas , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiología , Escherichia coli/virología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Bacteriófago phi X 174/efectos de los fármacos , Bacteriófago phi X 174/genética , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/virología , Mutación
10.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(7): 242, 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849707

RESUMEN

Emerging from the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is time to ground ourselves and retrospectively assess the recent achievements of SEGH over the past years. This editorial serves as a comprehensive report on the progress made in comparison to the aspirations and goals set by the society's board in 2019 (Watts et al., Environ Geochem Health 42:343-347, 2019) (Fig. 1) and reflects on the state of the SEGH community as it reached its 50th anniversary at the close of 2021 (Watts et al. Environ Geochem Health 45:1165-1171, 2023). The focus lies on how the SEGH community navigated through the extraordinary challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic since early 2020, and to what extent the 2023 targets have been met.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Salud Ambiental , Sociedades Científicas , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Rev Med Virol ; 34(4): e2551, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849982

RESUMEN

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of azvudine versus nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid) in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The researchers conducted searches on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, medRxiv, and Google Scholar until January 2024. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was utilised to evaluate the quality of the included studies, and data analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Thirteen studies, including 4949 patients, were analysed. The meta-analysis results showed no significant difference between the azvudine and Paxlovid groups in terms of mortality rate (odds rate [OR] = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-1.21), negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conversion time (standard mean difference [SMD] = 1.52, 95% CI: -1.07-4.11), and hospital stay (SMD = -0.39, 95% CI: -1.12-0.33). However, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of intensive care unit admission (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.23-0.75) and the need for mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.44-0.86) in favour of azvudine. The incidence of adverse events in the azvudine group was significantly lower (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99). The certainty of evidence was rated as low and moderate. Azvudine and Paxlovid demonstrated similar effectiveness in reducing mortality rates, negative PCR conversion time and hospital stay. However, azvudine showed better effectiveness in improving other outcomes. Regarding the level of certainty of evidence, further research is needed to validate or challenge these results.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales , Tratamiento Farmacológico de COVID-19 , Combinación de Medicamentos , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , SARS-CoV-2/efectos de los fármacos , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/efectos adversos , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/virología , Lopinavir/uso terapéutico , Lopinavir/efectos adversos , Lopinavir/administración & dosificación , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
J Clin Apher ; 39(3): e22131, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850077

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). Endemic in East Asia, SFTS is characterized by an exceptionally high mortality rate. Presently, there is no established treatment for SFTS, particularly for patients in critical condition. In this study, we collected and analyzed laboratory and clinical data from 92 critically ill patients with SFTS treated at Weihai Municipal Hospital between 2019 and 2022. We hope that our study will provide some hints for the treatment of critically ill patients with SFTS. METHODS: A total of 92 critically ill patients with SFTS were included in this study. Of these patients, 45 received treatment with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and ribavirin (referred to as the TPE group), while the remaining patients received only ribavirin (referred to as the non-TPE group). Clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The results showed significant improvements in multiple laboratory parameters following treatment with TPE and ribavirin, including white blood cell and neutrophil count, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, D-Dimer, serum sodium and copies of virus genomes. The combination of TPE with ribavirin demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality rates, with a mortality rate of 20.0% in the TPE group compared to 40.4% in the non-TPE group (P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that critically ill patients with SFTS who received TPE and ribavirin experienced improvements in both clinical and laboratory parameters. These results indicate that TPE combined with ribavirin may represent a promising novel therapeutic approach for managing critically ill patients with SFTS. However, comparative studies of large sample size or randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm the effectiveness of this combination therapy in the treatment of severe SFTS cases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crítica , Intercambio Plasmático , Ribavirina , Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave , Humanos , Ribavirina/uso terapéutico , Intercambio Plasmático/métodos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Anciano , Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave/terapia , Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave/tratamiento farmacológico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Terapia Combinada
13.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(6): e14671, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850106

RESUMEN

The study aimed to assess loneliness experiences among athletes with disabilities (AWD) during the different phases of the pandemic and to understand its relationship with coping styles. Ninety-one AWD participated in a longitudinal study spanning 10 months, covering three time points: April (A), June (Time B), and November (Time C) 2021. The study used the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations and the revised University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale-Revised (UCLA-R) to measure coping mechanisms and feelings of loneliness, respectively. Loneliness levels peaked during the most intense phase of the pandemic, showing significant differences between consecutive time points (χ2 = 20.29, p < 0.001, d = 0.24). The most robust regression models were built in Time B, using the "intimate contacts" dimension of loneliness as the dependent variable and "emotion-oriented coping", "avoidance-oriented coping", and "impairment" as independent variables, explaining 44% of the variance (p < 0.001). Loneliness among Paralympic athletes fluctuated during various phases of the pandemic. The findings highlight the significant influence of coping styles, particularly emotional styles which heightened perceived loneliness, and task-oriented styles which reduced it, on athletes' experiences of loneliness. These results underscore the need for longitudinal studies to delve deeper into the relationship between loneliness and mental health. Moreover, they stress the importance of developing tailored interventions that promote effective coping mechanisms in AWD during challenging times amid to COIVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , COVID-19 , Soledad , Humanos , COVID-19/psicología , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Longitudinales , Adulto , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Atletas/psicología , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven , Pandemias , Deportes para Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Paratletas/psicología
14.
Ethn Dis ; 34(1): 33-40, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854786

RESUMEN

Introduction: Despite widespread efforts to promote coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in the United States, a significant segment of the population is still unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated. Objective: The objective of this study was to understand attitudes toward the vaccine in patients presenting to an urban emergency department. Methods: We used a qualitative analysis and semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of patients presenting to an urban emergency department from January 18, 2021, to March 14, 2021. Our final sample consisted of 32 people. Results: We found that people trusted their own medical providers rather than popular or political figures. Critiques of the vaccination program highlighted difficulties in navigation and perceptions of inequity. Conclusions: Equitable distribution strategies and honest messaging may facilitate acceptance of the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine. Trustworthy sources for vaccine knowledge should be used to target populations in which vaccine hesitancy is a persistent concern.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Vacilación a la Vacunación , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , COVID-19/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vacilación a la Vacunación/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estados Unidos , Investigación Cualitativa , Anciano , Vacunación/psicología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Entrevistas como Asunto , Confianza , SARS-CoV-2 , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Adulto Joven
15.
Ethn Dis ; 34(1): 8-18, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854789

RESUMEN

Historically, the US immigration system (ie, institutions, agencies, and laws) has served the goals and principles of white supremacy through its treatment of globally displaced people and this appears to have continued through the COVID pandemic. Yet, the implications for immigrant health are not routinely addressed in mainstream public health discourse, and especially so in regard to public health disasters. This study conducted a series of focus groups with participants from social justice organizations working with immigrants, migrants, undocumented persons, refugees, persons seeking asylum, and persons detained in immigration jails to collect stories on how the immigration system undermined efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 and exacerbated health inequity within immigrant jails and across related community contexts during the pandemic. Focus groups were conducted to explore issues related to immigrants and immigration detention during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a total of N=14 participants across the 4 focus groups with a dedicated focus group on perspectives of Black immigrants/from Black immigrant organizations only. Each focus group consisted of 3 to 4 participants. Five key themes emerged: 1) dehumanization of immigrants and migrants and devaluation of their lives; 2) inhumane conditions of confinement that propagate risk of disease; 3) denial of resources for COVID-19 prevention and mitigation; 4) expansion of intersecting oppressive systems; and 5) community-based resistance and mobilization against immigration policies and enforcement. Our findings highlight the harms from policing, criminalization, and exclusion that racialized communities face as a result of the (in)actions within the immigration system during a public health disaster including the COVID context.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Grupos Focales , Investigación Cualitativa , Inmigrantes Indocumentados , Humanos , COVID-19/etnología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estados Unidos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Emigración e Inmigración/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Masculino , Refugiados/psicología , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ethn Dis ; 34(1): 49-52, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854788

RESUMEN

Introduction: Over the past two years, public health practitioners in African countries have worked actively to combat the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with relatively low fatality rates. This pandemic has forced healthcare professionals to re-think and redesign the healthcare system within their own country. Methods: Using the Afrocentric PEN-3 framework and a letter style, the purpose of this commentary was to describe the positive, existential, and negative socio-cultural values associated with African healthcare systems. The commentary also highlights socio-cultural factors affecting public trust in African healthcare systems and their health agencies and how systematically decolonizing them may decrease foreign reliance and empower efficient locally based solutions. Results: We, as African public health practitioners, make three key points in this commentary. First, African public health practitioners have developed resilience within under-resourced healthcare systems. Secondly, oral tradition in African societies and its byproduct (social media) is the means through which people connect and share what they know about any topics (COVID-19). Thirdly, African leaders have particularly contributed to the high level of distrust in their countries' healthcare systems in favor of the healthcare systems of industrialized countries. Conclusion: This commentary concludes with implications for encouraging African public health practitioners to cultivate the resilience that has led to contributing to the wellness of millions of Africans during this COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , África/etnología , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Salud Pública , Confianza , SARS-CoV-2 , Colonialismo , Pandemias
17.
Ethn Dis ; 34(1): 1-7, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854790

RESUMEN

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID) dashboards rarely provide insights about the racialized contexts in which vaccination inequities occur. Objective: The purpose of this study was to use the emerging Project REFOCUS dashboard to contextualize COVID vaccination patterns among 6 diverse communities. Methods: We queried the dashboard to generate descriptive statistics on vaccination trends and racism-related contextual factors among the 6 Project REFOCUS pilot sites (Albany, Georgia, Bronx, New York, Detroit, Michigan, Helena-West Helena, Arkansas, San Antonio, Texas, and Wake County, North Carolina). Results: Vaccination rates, demographic indicators, and contextual factors differed across sites. As of October 17, 2022, the proportion of people who had received at least 1 COVID vaccine dose ranged from 58.4% (Wayne County, Michigan) to 95.0% (Wake County, North Carolina). The pilot sites with the greatest percentage of Black residents (Dougherty County, Georgia, Wayne County, Michigan, and Phillips County, Arkansas) had lower proportions of fully vaccinated people. Wayne County, Michigan, had the highest level of residential segregation between Black and White residents (78.5%) and non-White and White residents (68.8%), whereas Phillips County, Arkansas, had the highest overall mortgage denial rates (38.9%). Both counties represent settings where over 75.0% of residents report Black race and over 30.0% of the population live in poverty. Discussion: The dashboard integrates racism-related factors with COVID vaccination visualizations and provides a fuller picture of the context in which COVID trends are occurring. Conclusions: Community organizers, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners can track racism-related factors and other social determinants of health as part of the contexts in which COVID-related inequities occur.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Racismo , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/etnología , Proyectos Piloto , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Negro o Afroamericano/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Femenino , Masculino , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Michigan , Adulto , Población Blanca/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
PeerJ ; 12: e17241, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854801

RESUMEN

Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) is an antimicrobial agent, and hence, its use in fabricating nanoparticles (NP) may be useful in providing more efficacious antimicrobial agents. The current research aimed to test the antimicrobial efficacy of TTO and its TTO-Metal-NPs against oral microbes: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans. The antimicrobial activity of TTO and zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) and the combined effects of antimicrobial agents were investigated using agar well diffusion assays. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify the phyto-constituents of TTO. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), dynamic light scatter (DLS), and zeta potential were utilized to analyze the biogenic nanoparticles' morphology, size, and potential. The antimicrobial mode of action was determined by assessing the morphological changes under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TTO extracts converted Zn and Fe ions to NPs, having an average size of 97.50 (ZnNPs) and 102.4 nm (FeNPs). All tested agents had significant antibacterial efficacy against the tested oral microbes. However, the TTO extract was more efficacious than the NPs. Combination treatment of TTO with antibiotics resulted in partial additive effects against P. gingivalis and partial antagonistic effects against E. faecalis, S. mutans, and common mouthwashes (Oral B and chlorhexidine). TTO and NP-treated bacteria underwent morphological changes on treatment. M. alternifolia phytochemicals could be useful for further research and development of antimicrobial NPs. The current study highlights the variance in activity observed for different types of bacteria and antagonistic effects seen with common mouthwashes, which represent a threat to therapeutic efficacy and heighten the risk of clinical microbial resistance.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas del Metal , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Streptococcus mutans , Aceite de Árbol de Té , Aceite de Árbol de Té/farmacología , Aceite de Árbol de Té/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Enterococcus faecalis/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/química , Boca/microbiología , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Melaleuca/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/química , Humanos , Hierro , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
19.
Virus Evol ; 10(1): veae044, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854849

RESUMEN

Lizards have diverse ecologies and evolutionary histories, and represent a promising group to explore how hosts shape virome structure and virus evolution. Yet, little is known about the viromes of these animals. In Australia, squamates (lizards and snakes) comprise the most diverse order of vertebrates, and Australia hosts the highest diversity of lizards globally, with the greatest breadth of habitat use. We used meta-transcriptomic sequencing to determine the virome of nine co-distributed, tropical lizard species from three taxonomic families in Australia and analyzed these data to identify host traits associated with viral abundance and diversity. We show that lizards carry a large diversity of viruses, identifying more than thirty novel, highly divergent vertebrate-associated viruses. These viruses were from nine viral families, including several that contain well known pathogens, such as the Flaviviridae, Picornaviridae, Bornaviridae, Iridoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae. Members of the Flaviviridae were particularly abundant across species sampled here, largely belonging to the genus Hepacivirus: fourteen novel hepaciviruses were identified, broadening the known diversity of this group and better defining its evolution by uncovering new reptilian clades. The evolutionary histories of the viruses studied here frequently aligned with the biogeographic and phylogenetic histories of the hosts, indicating that exogenous viruses may help infer host evolutionary history if sampling is strategic and sampling density high enough. Notably, analysis of alpha and beta diversity revealed that virome composition and richness in the animals sampled here was shaped by host taxonomy and habitat. In sum, we identified a diverse range of reptile viruses that broadly contributes to our understanding of virus-host ecology and evolution.

20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 129, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854863

RESUMEN

Introduction: syphilis and its outcomes remain a healthcare system burden with adverse consequences such as stillbirths, neonatal deaths and spontaneous abortions among others. The situation might have worsened because the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a major attention drift from other diseases. Additionally, much as testing for syphilis is a routine practice among pregnant mothers, its proportion is not known in urban health care setting. A study to determine the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant mothers in an urban poor setting is warranted. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Kawaala Health Centre IV in Kampala Capital City between December 2019 to March 2020. Informed consent was sought from study participants prior to data collection using structured questionnaires. Whole blood was collected and tested using SD Bioline HIV/syphilis duo rapid test kit (SD Standard Diagnostics, INC, Korea). Data analysis was done using STATA 14.2. Results: one thousand one hundred and sixty-nine pregnant women participated in the study, with a mean age of 25 years. About 27% of them had completed only primary-level education. Approximately 6% of the participants were HIV seropositive. The prevalence of syphilis was 5.9% (69/1169). HIV positivity (aOR: 4.13, 95%CI: 2.05-8.34), elevated blood pressure (aOR: 2.84, 95%CI: 1.42-5.69), and status of previous pregnancy (aOR: 0.21, 95%CI: 0.05-0.89) were significant predictors of the risk of syphilis among pregnant women in this setting. Conclusion: the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women in urban poor settings is not low and so must not be underestimated. The potential drivers of syphilis among pregnant women are HIV, elevated blood pressure, and status of previous pregnancy. There should be increased awareness about routine syphilis testing among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Sífilis , Humanos , Femenino , Sífilis/epidemiología , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Embarazo , Estudios Transversales , Adulto , Uganda/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
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