Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.719
Filtrar
1.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 240-245, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460115

RESUMEN

Many countries in the world are experiencing a recent surge in COVID-19 cases. This is mainly attributed to the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Genome sequencing is the only means to detect the evolving virus mutants and emerging variants. Cycle threshold values have an inverse relationship with viral load and lower Ct values are also found to be associated with increased infectivity. In this study, we propose to use Ct values as an early indicator for upcoming COVID-19 waves. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the Ct values of positive samples reported during the first wave and second wave (April 2020-May 2021). Median Ct values of confirmatory genes were taken into consideration for comparison. Ct values below 25, >25-30, and >30 were categorized as high, moderate, and low viral load respectively. Our study found a significantly higher proportion of positive samples with a low Ct value (<25) across age groups and gender during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A higher proportion of positive samples with a low Ct value (high viral load) may act as an early indicator of an upcoming surge.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Carga Viral , Adulto Joven
2.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 49-58, 2022 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence about detrimental impacts of the pandemic on population mental health, but knowledge on risk of groups specifically affected by the pandemic and variations across time is still limited. METHODS: We surveyed approximately n=1,000 Austrian residents in 12 waves between April and December 2020 (n=12,029). Outcomes were suicidal ideation (Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), and domestic violence. We also assessed the perceived burden from the pandemic. Demographic and Covid-19 specific occupational and morbidity-related variables were used to explain outcomes in multivariable regression analyses, controlling for well-established risk factors of mental ill-health, and variations over time were analyzed. RESULTS: Young age, working in healthcare or from home, and own Covid-19 illness were consistent risk factors controlling for a wide range of known mental health risk factors. Time patterns in the perceived burden from Covid-19-related measures were consistent with the time sequence of restrictions and relaxations of governmental measures. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were relatively stable over time, with some increase of depression during the second phase of lockdowns. Domestic violence increased immediately after both hard lockdowns. Suicidal ideation decreased slightly over time, with a low during the second hard lockdown. Mental health indicators for women and young people showed some deterioration over time, whereas those reporting own Covid-19 illness improved. LIMITATIONS: Data from before the pandemic were not available. CONCLUSIONS: Among mental health outcomes, increases in domestic violence and, to some smaller extent, depressive symptoms, appeared most closely related to the timing of hard lockdowns. Healthcare staff, individuals working from home, those with Covid-19, as well as young people and women are non-traditional risk groups who warrant heightened attention in prevention during and in the aftermath of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , ARN Viral , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Austria , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Salud Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Saf Sci ; 145: 105499, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545269

RESUMEN

The aim is to describe the health and psychosocial risk factors of Spanish healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study by means of an online questionnaire (April-May 2020). The data comes from the database resulting from the COTS project "Working conditions, insecurity, and health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic". The sample consisted of 1989 health care workers. RESULTS: Women, young people (doctors and nurses) and the middle-aged (assistants) had poorer health and greater exposure to psychosocial risks. Geriatric assistants were the most-affected occupational group. CONCLUSIONS: gender, occupation, and age are focuses of inequality in the exposure of health care workers to psychosocial risks.

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 366-371, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546584

RESUMEN

Co-epidemics happening simultaneously can generate a burden on healthcare systems. The co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (VBD), such as malaria and dengue in resource-limited settings represents an additional challenge to the healthcare systems. Herein, we assessed the coinfection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD to highlight the need to carry out an accurate diagnosis and promote timely measures for these infections in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 105 subjects tested for the SARS-CoV-2 and VBD with a rapid detection test in April 2021. The participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.80%), malaria (13.3%), and dengue (27.6%). Low odds related to testing positivity to SARS-CoV-2 or VBD were observed in participants above or equal to 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60, p = 0.536), while higher odds were observed in male (OR: 1.44, p = 0.392) and urbanized areas (OR: 3.78, p = 0.223). The overall co-infection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD was 11.4%. Our findings showed a coinfection between SARS-CoV-2 with malaria and dengue, which could indicate the need to integrate the screening for VBD in the SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm and the adjustment of treatment protocols. Further studies are warranted to better elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and VBD in Angola.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Angola/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Prueba de COVID-19 , Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , ARN Viral/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491581

RESUMEN

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Higiene de las Manos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distanciamiento Físico , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 69(1): e29358, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699122

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in young children with sickle cell disease living in a European country. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional evaluation of TNO-AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life questionnaire (TAPQOL, 0-1 year) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL, 2-7 years) data was conducted. Study participants included caregivers of children with sickle cell disease aged 0-7 years attending the sickle cell centre at the Erasmus Medical Center or the Amsterdam University Medical Centers between April 2012 and October 2020. Comparisons were made with normative data on HRQoL in the general paediatric population. RESULTS: The study enrolled 136 caregivers of 136 children. In children aged 0-5 years, no significant differences emerged between children with sickle cell disease and the general population. However, in children aged 5-7 years, children with sickle cell disease scored significantly lower on all subscales except for emotional functioning. Multiple regression models showed a negative association between age and HRQoL. No association was found between HRQoL and disease severity or sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that HRQoL is negatively correlated with age in young children with sickle cell disease with a significantly lower HRQoL in 5- to 7-year-olds when compared to the general population. Our study underlines the importance of measuring HRQoL in young children to identify patients with impaired HRQoL early in life in order to be able to intervene accordingly. Future research should focus on deepening the knowledge of factors influencing HRQoL in children with sickle cell disease.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e045726, 2021 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848506

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The stigma towards mental disorders can limit the use and effectiveness of available mental health interventions for young people. We aim to systematically review effectiveness of interventions to reduce stigma towards mental disorders in young people, as evidence has not been recently and systematically synthesised on this topic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised or controlled clinical trials of interventions to reduce stigma towards mental disorders in people aged 10-24 years. Studies involving a comparison group, post intervention and/or follow-up assessments of knowledge, attitudes and/or behaviours towards mental disorders (including help-seeking behaviours), will be included. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, PubMed and PsycINFO databases will be searched, without time limits, for eligible studies in English or Spanish, and with results available. Databases will be searched from July 2020 to April 2021. The study selection process, the data extraction and the critical evaluation-with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool-of included studies will be performed independently and in duplicate by teams of reviewers, with the assistance of a third party, until reaching a high degree of agreement. In the presence of substantial heterogeneity (I2 >75%), a narrative synthesis of the study results will be used. If feasible, we will also conduct a quality effects model for the statistical synthesis of results. If sufficient data are available, subgroup analyses will be performed to assess potential sources of heterogeneity. Doi plots and the Luis Furuya-Kanamori index will be used to assess publication bias. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach will be used to assess the confidence in the evidence reviewed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Results are expected to be published in a peer-reviewed journal in the field of adolescent and/or youth mental health. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020210901.

8.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850405

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have established a link between the COVID-19 pandemic and poor mental health. They further suggest that young adults may be especially vulnerable to worsened mental health during the pandemic, but few studies have investigated which specific aspects of the COVID-19 experience affect psychological well-being over time. To better understand concrete predictors of poor mental health outcomes in this population, we identified several pandemic-related experiences and evaluated their effects on mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, stress, alcohol, and substance use) in a sample of U.S. college students (N = 176). METHODS: Both mental health symptoms and pandemic-related experiences were evaluated at the start of quarantine (March/April 2020, Time 1) and the end of the Spring 2020 semester (May 2020, Time 2). Given the limited literature on specific predictors of mental health during a pandemic, we used elastic net regression, a novel analytic method that helps with variable selection when theoretical background is limited, to narrow our field of possible predictors. RESULTS: While mental health symptoms were elevated at both timepoints, there were no clinically significant changes from Time 1 to Time 2 and few differences between sociodemographic groups. Both disruption due to the pandemic (ß = .25, p = .021) and limited confidence in the federal government's response (ß = -.14, p = .038) were significant predictors of depression symptoms at the end of the semester, even when controlling for baseline depression. Further, predictions that the pandemic would continue to impact daily life further into the future were linked with pandemic stress response symptoms (ß = .15, p = .032) at Time 2, beyond the effects of baseline symptoms. Alcohol (ß = -.22, p = .024) and substance use (ß = -.26, p = .01) were associated with reduced adherence to COVID-19 guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that specific aspects of the pandemic experience may be influencing internalizing symptoms and alcohol/substance use in college students, pointing to potential avenues for targeted support and intervention. PRACTITIONER POINTS: A range of factors may influence university student mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Students who expect the pandemic will continue to impact daily life further into the future maybe more likely to report stress symptoms. Disruption due to the pandemic and limited confidence in the federal government's response may be associated with depression symptoms. Alcohol and substance use are associated with lower COVID-19 guideline adherence in university students.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850472

RESUMEN

People with disabilities are often subject to intersecting layers of social and economic disadvantage and other barriers that drive health inequity. As a result, they frequently experience worse health than people without disabilities, beyond the direct effects of their health condition or impairment. The aim of this overview of systematic reviews was to summarise the evidence on the impact of socio-environmental factors (i.e. social, physical or attitudinal) on the health outcomes of disabled people. A systematic search of five databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL and Scopus) for English-language articles from January 2000 to April 2021 was conducted. Abstracts were screened by two reviewers and reviews were critically appraised. Key data were extracted by topic, population, disability type, critical appraisal method, socio-environmental themes and health outcomes. There were 23 systematic reviews identified examining adult (60.9%) or child and young (8.7%) disabled people, with 30.4% not specifying an age range. Reviews examined people with neurological or physical (39.1%), intellectual (17.4%), sensory (8.7%) or a range of (34.8%) disabilities. Three key health outcomes (i.e. access to healthcare, health-promoting behaviour and care quality) and several recurring socio-environmental themes related to the health outcomes of disabled people were identified. Disabled people encounter common social, physical and attitudinal factors that hinder their health outcomes in terms of access to services and quality healthcare. Many preventive health services were identified as either inaccessible or not meeting the needs of disabled people. Greater involvement of disabled people in service design and awareness raising is essential.

10.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100824, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751254

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted health care workers in many ways including mental health. This impact is usually underestimated in particular in developing countries. Objectives: The study aims to assess the level of anxiety, depression, risk perception, and coping strategies of Albanian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional online study was conducted from April to May 2020 by recruiting health care personnel through the snowballing method. Data collection was carried out through social media using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) by Google forms. Participants were recruited from all health care sectors including doctors, nurses, etc. working in both the public and private sectors. Results: 410 questionnaires were included in the analysis. Most participants were nurses (59.3%), female (78.5%), and belonged to the age group 26-40 years (46.3%). Mild levels of anxiety were expressed in 26.9% of participants while 7.2% of them expressed moderate levels. 23.1% and 12.1% of participants expressed respectively mild and moderate depression levels. High levels of risk perception were found. A statistical association was found between occupation (p = 0.011), gender (p = 0.031), providing care for COVID-19 patients (p = 0.011), and the availably of mental health support in the workplace. Poor coping strategies were reported among participants. Conclusions: Mental health support should be a priority of the healthcare system in particular for young health care workers caring for COVID-19 patients. It can improve the mental health status of health care workers and their family members, impacting the quality of care provided.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21464, 2021 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728696

RESUMEN

The Sputnik V is a COVID- 19 vaccine developed by the Gamalia institute of epidemiology and microbiology and released on August 11, 2020. We provided independent evidence on side effects and immunogenicity following the administration of the Sputnik V COVID-19 in Iran. In this observational study, the healthcare workers who were vaccinated with the Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine within February and April 2021 were evaluated. Among a total of 13,435 vaccinated healthcare workers, we received 3236 self-declaration reports of Sputnik V associated adverse events with the mean age 39.32 ± 10.19 years old which 38.8% were men and 61.2% were women. Totally 68.8% of females versus 66.2% of males reported side effects after receiving the first dose and 31.2% of females versus 33.8% of males reported side effects after the second dose of vaccine. The most common side effect was a pain in the injection site (56.9%), fatigue (50.9%), body pain (43.9%), headache (35.7%), fever (32.9%), joint pain (30.3%), chilling (29.8%) and drowsiness (20.3%). Side effects of the vaccine were significantly more frequent in females and younger individuals. Among a total of 238 participants, more than 90% after the first and second dose of vaccine had a detectable level of SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibody and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody. Although the overall rate of adverse effects was higher than the interim results from randomized controlled trials, our findings support the manufacturer's reports about the high humoral immunogenicity of vaccine against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Inmunidad Humoral , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Fatiga/etiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor/etiología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(42): e295, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725979

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To minimize nosocomial infection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most hospitals conduct a prescreening process to evaluate the patient or guardian of any symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 or exposure to a COVID-19 patient at entrances of hospital buildings. In our hospital, we have implemented a two-level prescreening process in the outpatient clinic: an initial prescreening process at the entrance of the outpatient clinic (PPEO) and a second prescreening process is repeated in each department. If any symptoms or epidemiological history are identified at the second level, an emergency code is announced through the hospital's address system. The patient is then guided outside through a designated aisle. In this study, we analyze the cases missed in the PPEO that caused the emergency code to be applied. METHODS: All cases reported from March 2020 to April 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. We calculated the incidence of cases missed by the PPEO per 1,000 outpatients and compared the incidence between first-time hospital visitors and those visiting for the second time or more; morning and afternoon office hours; and days of the week. RESULTS: During the study period, the emergency code was applied to 449 cases missed by the PPEO. Among those cases, 20.7% were reported in otorhinolaryngology, followed by 11.6% in gastroenterology, 5.8% in urology, and 5.8% in dermatology. Fever was the most common symptom (59.9%), followed by cough (19.8%). The incidence of cases per 1,000 outpatients was significantly higher among first-time visitors than among those visiting for the second time or more (1.77 [confidence interval (CI), 1.44-2.10] vs. 0.59 [CI, 0.52-0.65], respectively) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Fever was the most common symptom missed by the PPEO, and otorhinolaryngology and gastroenterology most frequently reported missed cases. Cases missed by the PPEO were more likely to occur among first-time visitors than returning visitors. The results obtained from this study can provide insights or recommendations to other healthcare facilities in operating prescreening processes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Tos/etiología , Fiebre/etiología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Atención Ambulatoria , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Control de Infecciones , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
13.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(41): 3399-3403, 2021 Nov 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758543

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the safety and short-term efficacy of domestic magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermotherapy (MRgLITT) in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. Methods: Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy treated with a domestic MRgLITT system in the Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University from October 2020 to April 2021 were prospectively enrolled. The damage volume ratio was assessed immediately after surgery, and perioperative complications were recorded and followed up. The clinical safety and short-term efficacy were evaluated using the Engel classification. Results: A total of 22 patients were included, including 12 males and 10 females, aged from 3 to 45 years old [(24±13) years]. There were 5 cases of medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), 3 cases of hypothalamic hamartoma (HH), 7 cases of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), and 7 cases of other types, respectively. The mean operation time and blood loss was (173±49) min and (3.7±1.6) ml. The postoperative length of hospital stay was (5.5±1.8) days, and the average damage volume ratio was 92.6%. Among them, only 2 patients (FCD of the parietal lobe) showed transient contralateral limb weakness, without any serious complications such as symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. The follow-up time was 14 to 168 days. There were 13 Engel class Ⅰ cases (59.1%), 2 Engel class Ⅱ cases (9.1%), 2 Engel class Ⅲ cases (9.1%) and 5 Engel class Ⅳ cases (22.7%), respectively. Short-term incident-free rates were MTLE 5/5and FCD4/7, respectively. Conclusion: Domestic MRgLITT system is stable, reliable and safe in the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy, and has better short-term efficacy in MTLE and FCD patients.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia Refractaria , Hipertermia Inducida , Terapia por Láser , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Epilepsia Refractaria/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Rayos Láser , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
14.
JMIR Serious Games ; 9(4): e30350, 2021 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747703

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, 3 out of 20 children experience sexual abuse before the age of 18 years. Educating children about sexual abuse and prevention is an evidence-based strategy that is recommended for ending child sexual abuse. Digital games are increasingly being used to influence healthy behaviors in children and could be an efficient and friendly approach to educating children about sexual abuse prevention. However, little is known on the best way to develop a culturally sensitive game that targets children in Africa-where sexual education is still taboo-that would be engaging, effective, and acceptable to parents and caretakers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a socioculturally appropriate, mobile-based game for educating young children (<5 years) and parents and caretakers in Tanzania on sexual abuse prevention. METHODS:  HappyToto children's game was co-designed with 111 parents and caretakers (females: n=58, 52.3%; male: n=53, 47.7%) of children below 18 years of age and 24 child experts in Tanzania through surveys and focus group discussions conducted from March 2020 to April 2020. From these, we derived an overview of topics, sociocultural practices, social environment, and game interface designs that should be considered when designing child sexual abuse prevention (CSAP) education interventions. We also conducted paper prototyping and storyboarding sessions for the game's interface, storylines, and options. To validate the application's prototype, 32 parents (females: n=18, 56%; males: n=14, 44%) of children aged 3-5 years and 5 children (females: n=2, 40%; males: n=3, 60%) of the same age group played the game for half an hour on average. The parents undertook a pre-post intervention assessment on confidence and ability to engage in CSAP education conversations, as well as exit surveys on the usability and sociocultural acceptability of the game, while children were quizzed on the topics covered and their enjoyment of the game. RESULTS: Parents and caregivers showed interest in the developed game during the conducted surveys, and each parent on average navigated through all the parts of the game. The confidence level of parents in talking about CSAP increased from an average of 3.56 (neutral) before using the game to 4.9 (confident) after using the game. The ability scores, calculated based on a range of topics included in CSAP education talks with children, also increased from 5.67 (out of 10) to 8.8 (out of 10) after the game was played. Both confidence level and ability scores were statistically significant (P<.001). All 5 children were interested in the game and enjoyed the game-provided activities. CONCLUSIONS: The HappyToto game can thus be an effective technology-based intervention for improving the knowledge and skills of parents and children in CSAP education.

15.
Acta Inform Med ; 29(3): 224-230, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759464

RESUMEN

Background: In the early 20th century some unfavorable conditions and trends in science and publishing in R. Macedonia and other countries in the South Eastern Europe (SEE) Region were recognized and it became necessary to act to protect the integrity of science and publishing. The increasing number of scientific journals in biomedicine and published papers in them has not always been matched by increased quality in publishing due to lack of information and education of the scientific community, especially of the young scientists, about ethical principles in research and publishing. In addition, some unethical behavior, fraud and attempts by experts for increasing their scientific productivity in research and publishing their results in scientific journals was recognized. Objective: To present the initiatives, chronology of activities and leading role of Academician Momir Polenakovic towards the establishment and initial development of the Macedonian Association of Medical Editors (MAME) which has a mission for advancing the integrity of science and publishing. Method: A retrospective study based on review of the relevant literature, archive materials, minutes from organizational meetings and workshops and other documentation related to activities in the initial process for establishing and defining the mission and objectives of MAME. Results: The expansion of higher education and inappropriate implementation of the Bologna Declaration and the European Credit Transfer System in R. Macedonia from 2004/2005 contributed to a decline of the study criteria for obtaining higher education diplomas and postgraduate education degrees, as well as numerous frauds in scientific research and publishing activities in biomedicine and other fields. The first meeting of the Initiative Board for organizing an SEE Conference on research and publishing integrity and a workshop for editors of scientific journals was held in the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on Nov. 1st, 2013. In April 2014 two preparatory meetings of the Organizational Board were held and the Workshop for editors of scientific journals and the Constitutional meeting for establishing MAME were held on Apr. 25, 2014. The first President of MAME (with a two-year mandate) was Academician Momir Polenakovic and in 2016 he was elected as the first Honorary President of MAME. Conclusion: The establishment of MAME in April 2014 was an important initiative and strategic decision toward raising awareness among editors of scientific journals and other stakeholders for preventing scientific and publishing misconduct and for educating the scientific community for creating an ethical research environment.

16.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 11.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728597

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Drowning is a major problem of public health in Spain, with a high number of deaths. The main strategy to address it is prevention, going through knowledge and education. The aim of this study was to analyze from a public health perspective a) the knowledge of young participants from 14 to 16 years old about drowning prevention, swimming skills and risks on the beach and b) to evaluate a pilot program with educational video for drowning prevention due to rip currents. METHODS: For this purpose, a three-phase study was carried out: (1) application of a questionnaire to identify bath habits, risk perception in relation to rip currents and swimming level, (2) evaluation of a video for the identification of rip current risk and (3) evaluation of the assimilation of the visualized content one month after the intervention. 120 adolescents participated in this study during march, april and may, 2019. A descriptive analysis and comparisons with Chi-Square were performed in SPSS. RESULTS: 120 adolescents participated in this study during March, April and May, 2019. 96.7% knew how to swim, but 44.1% had a basic level. More than half of the participants did not know rip currents or did not identify them in swimming areas. The video achieves the assimilation of concepts related to rip currents and drowning prevention. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that adolescents have a lack of knowledge about rip currents and are not able to identify safe swimming areas. The use of health communication strategies based on the interests and profiles of young people have shown an improvement in the perception of risks at beaches on the sample studied.


Asunto(s)
Ahogamiento , Adolescente , Playas , Ahogamiento/prevención & control , Humanos , Percepción , España , Natación
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770162

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the trends in hospital admissions due to viral infections characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions in England and Wales between 1999 and 2019. METHODS: This is an ecological study using publicly available databases in England and Wales; the Hospital Episode Statistics database in England and the Patient Episode Database for Wales. Hospital admissions data were collected for the period between April 1999 and March 2019. Hospital admissions due to viral infections characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions were identified using the tenth version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases system, diagnostic codes B00-B09. The trend in hospital admissions was assessed using a Poisson model. RESULTS: Hospital admissions for different causes increased by 51.9% (from 25.67 (95% CI 25.23-26.10) in 1999 to 38.98 (95% CI 38.48-39.48) in 2019 per 100,000 persons, trend test, p < 0.01). The most prevalent viral infections characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions hospital admissions causes were zoster (herpes zoster), varicella (chickenpox), herpesviral (herpes simplex) infections, and viral warts, which accounted for 26.9%, 23.4%, 18.7%, and 17.6%, respectively. The age group below 15 years accounted for 43.2% of the total number of admissions. Females contributed to 50.5% of the total number of admissions. Hospital admission rate in males increased by 61.1% (from 25.21 (95% CI 24.59-25.82) in 1999 to 40.60 (95% CI 39.87-41.32) in 2019 per 100,000 persons). The increase in females was 43.2% (from 26.11 (95% CI 25.49-26.72) in 1999 to 37.40 (95% CI 36.70-38.09) in 2019 per 100,000 persons). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates an evident variation in hospital admission of viral infections characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions based on age and gender. Efforts should be directed towards vaccinating high-risk groups, particularly the elderly and females. Moreover, efforts should be focused on vaccinating the young population against varicella, particularly females who are more susceptible to acquiring the infection. Further observational and epidemiological studies are needed to identify other factors associated with increased hospital admission rates.


Asunto(s)
Varicela , Hospitalización , Adolescente , Anciano , Varicela/epidemiología , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa , Admisión del Paciente , Gales/epidemiología
18.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773214

RESUMEN

Prior research has highlighted the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV prevention services within the U.S., but few studies have explored this impact through an exploratory, qualitative lens. In this study, we sought to highlight the voices of young sexual minority men (YSMM) 17-24 years old and explored the perceived impact of the pandemic on HIV prevention among a diverse, nationwide sample of YSMM who participated in synchronous online focus group discussions between April and September 2020. Forty-one YSMM described the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV testing and prevention services, including limited and disrupted access to HIV testing, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. COVID-19-related challenges were compounded by ongoing, pre-COVID-19 barriers experienced by YSMM in the U.S. For instance, many YSMM relocated back home with family, causing men to avoid HIV prevention services for fear of outing themselves to relatives. YSMM also worried about placing their family at increased risk of COVID-19 by attending clinical appointments. YSMM who did seek HIV prevention services, including access to PrEP, experienced significant barriers, including limited appointment availability and services not tailored to YSMM. Further efforts are needed to support YSMM re-engaging in HIV prevention during and after the COVID-19 era.

19.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 226, 2021 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774064

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate the reproductive health literacy questionnaire for Chinese unmarried youth aged 15-24. METHODS: We conducted a validity and reliability study of the questionnaire through a cross-sectional survey and test-retest analysis in four districts in Shanghai between April and June 2017. A total of 1587 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire anonymously on-site and the trained investigators conducted quality check afterwards. Sixty participants among them completed the test-retest assessment with 2 weeks interval. The reliability was determined by internal consistency, spilt-half reliability and test-retest reliability. The construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: The 58-question reproductive health literacy questionnaire for Chinese unmarried youth demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.919), spilt-half reliability (Guttman splitting coefficient = 0.846) and test-retest reliability (correlation coefficient = 0.720). The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the construct of the questionnaire fitted well with the hypothetical model. The reproductive health literacy scores in unmarried girls aged 15-24 were higher than boys (P < 0.05) and college students who lived in rural areas when they were middle and high school obtained lower score than those living in cities and suburbs (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The reproductive health literacy questionnaire for Chinese unmarried youth demonstrated good reliability and validity, which could potentially be used as an effective evaluation instrument to assess reproductive health literacy among Chinese young people.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización en Salud , Salud Reproductiva , Adolescente , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Persona Soltera , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(11): 1411-1416, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779166

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, clinical classification, and treatment of wrist gouty arthritis. Methods: The clinical data of 24 patients with wrist gouty arthritis and complete follow-up between April 2011 and August 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 21 males and 3 females; the first onset age was 21-72 years, with a median age of 50 years. There were 15 cases of simple wrist joint disease, and 9 cases of other joints (hand, knee, ankle, metatarsophalangeal joint) involvement; 19 cases of wrist joint as the first site. Except for 1 patient with a medical history of 21 years, the time from onset to diagnosis in the remaining 23 patients was 7 days to 9 years, with a median time of 2 months. According to the clinical manifestations, imaging manifestations, lesion range, and intraoperative wrist arthroscopy manifestations of wrist gouty arthritis, they were classified into 5 types from mild to severe. Among the 24 patients, 13 were type Ⅰ, 2 were type ⅡA, 3 were type ⅡB, 2 were type ⅢA, 3 were type Ⅳ, and 1 was type Ⅴ. The time from first onset to diagnosis for type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ patients was (12.7±40.1) months, and for type Ⅲ-Ⅴ patients was (152.0± 88.5) months, the difference was significant ( t=-4.355, P=0.001). Thirteen patients with type Ⅰ received conservative treatment (including diet, exercise, lifestyle intervention, and medication), and 11 patients with type Ⅱ-Ⅴ received surgical treatment (including 1 case of arthroscopic synovial membrane and gout crystal clearing, 1 case of ligament repair, 5 cases of lesion debridement/artificial bone grafting and filling, 3 cases of wrist fusion, and 1 case of tophicectomy). Before and after treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to evaluate the improvement of wrist joint pain; and the range of motion of the wrist joint (including palmar flexion, dorsal extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation) was evaluated. Results: Thirteen conservatively treated patients were followed up 10 months to9 years, with an average of 2.2 years. The VAS scores before treatment and at last follow-up were 6.8±0.7 and 2.9±0.9, respectively, and the difference was significant ( t=12.309, P=0.000). During follow-up, there was no wrist bone and wrist joint damage; wrist joint range of motion basically reached normal. At last follow-up, the wrist joint palmar flexion, dorsal extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation significantly improved when compared with the values before treatment ( P<0.05). Eleven surgically treated patients were followed up 5 months to 9 years, with an average of 4.9 years. The swelling and pain of all patients fully relieved, and the VAS scores were 7.3±0.8 before operation, 2.7±0.6 at 1 month after operation, and 2.5±0.6 at last follow-up, which significantly improved after operation ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between 1 month after operation and last follow-up ( P>0.05). Excluded 3 patients who underwent wrist fusion, the other 8 patients had significantly improved wrist joint palmar flexion, dorsal extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation at last follow-up ( P<0.05). The patient's subjective satisfaction with the surgical results reached 100%. Conclusion: A missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis of wrist gouty arthritis will greatly damage the wrist stability and functions. Early and proper interventions can effectively retard the progress of the disease. For the late-stage cases, a staged surgical protocol is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Gotosa , Adulto , Anciano , Artritis Gotosa/diagnóstico , Artritis Gotosa/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Muñeca , Articulación de la Muñeca , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...