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1.
Scand J Public Health ; : 14034948211048050, 2021 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664529

RESUMEN

Aims: To assess SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence over the first epidemic wave in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, as well as risk factors for infection and symptoms associated with IgG seropositivity. Methods: Between April and June 2020, former participants of a representative survey of the 20-74-year-old population of canton Geneva were invited to participate in the study, along with household members aged over 5 years. Blood samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G. Questionnaires were self-administered. We estimated seroprevalence with a Bayesian model accounting for test performance and sampling design. Results: We included 8344 participants, with an overall adjusted seroprevalence of 7.8% (95% credible interval 6.8-8.9). Seroprevalence was highest among 18-49 year-olds (9.5%), and lowest in 5-9-year-old children (4.3%) and individuals >65 years (4.7-5.4%). Odds of seropositivity were significantly reduced for female retirees and unemployed men compared to employed individuals, and smokers compared to non-smokers. We found no significant association between occupation, level of education, neighborhood income and the risk of being seropositive. The symptom most strongly associated with seropositivity was anosmia/dysgeusia. Conclusions: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 population seroprevalence remained low after the first wave in Geneva. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with seropositivity in this sample. The elderly, young children and smokers were less frequently seropositive, although it is not clear how biology and behaviours shape these differences.

2.
JMIR Form Res ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596568

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In April 2020, as cases of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread across the globe, MTV Staying Alive Foundation created the educational entertainment miniseries MTV Shuga: Alone Together. In 70 short episodes released daily on YouTube, Alone Together aimed to disseminate timely and accurate information to increase young people's knowledge, motivation and actions to prevent COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify Alone Together viewer's perspectives on the global COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdowns by examining the words, conversations, experiences and emotions expressed on social media in response to the Alone Together episodes. We also assessed how viewers used the series and its online community as a source of support during the global pandemic. METHODS: 3,982 comments and 70 live chat conversations were extracted from YouTube between April-October 2020 and analysed through a data-led inductive thematic approach. Aggregated demographic and geographical data were collected using YouTube Analytics. RESULTS: The miniseries had a global reach across five continents, with a total of 7.7 million views across MTV Shuga platforms. The series had over 1 million views over 70 episodes on YouTube and an average of 5,683 unique viewers per episode on YouTube. The dominant audience was adults under the age of 35 and women. Across diverse countries like Nigeria, Ghana, the USA and the UK, Viewers believed that COVID-19 was serious and expressed that it was socially responsible to follow public health measures. The series storylines about the impact of self-isolation on mental health, exposure to violence in lockdowns and restricted employment opportunities due to the pandemic resonated with young viewers. Tuning in to the miniseries provided viewers with reliable information, entertainment, and an online community during an isolating, confusing and worrying time. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of COVID-19, viewers from at least 53 countries connected on social media via the MTV miniseries. The analysis showed how digitally connected people under the age of 35, predominantly women, felt compelled to follow COVID-19 safety measures despite the pandemic's impact on their social, educational and financial needs. Viewers used social media to reach out to fellow viewers for advice, solace, support and resources. Organisations, governments and individuals have been forced to innovate during the pandemic to ensure people can access services safely and remotely. This analysis showed that women under 35 were especially receptive to receiving support from online communities and media services. Peer influence and support online can be a powerful public health tool as people have a great capacity to influence each other and shape norms around public health. However, online services are not accessible to everyone, and COVID-19 has increased disparities between digitally connected and unconnected younger adults.

3.
Trials ; 22(1): 690, 2021 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629091

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Young children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) often have slowed processing speed associated with reduced brain white matter integrity, low oxygen saturation, and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), related in part to enlarged adenoids and tonsils. Common treatments for SDB include adenotonsillectomy and nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but adenotonsillectomy is an invasive surgical procedure, and CPAP is rarely well-tolerated. Further, there is no current consensus on the ability of these treatments to improve cognitive function. Several double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of montelukast, a safe, well-tolerated anti-inflammatory agent, as a treatment for airway obstruction and reducing adenoid size for children who do not have SCA. However, we do not yet know whether montelukast reduces adenoid size and improves cognition function in young children with SCA. METHODS: The Study of Montelukast In Children with Sickle Cell Disease (SMILES) is a 12-week multicentre, double-blind, RCT. SMILES aims to recruit 200 paediatric patients with SCA and SDB aged 3-7.99 years to assess the extent to which montelukast can improve cognitive function (i.e. processing speed) and sleep and reduce adenoidal size and white matter damage compared to placebo. Patients will be randomised to either montelukast or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary objective of the SMILES trial is to assess the effect of montelukast on processing speed in young children with SCA. At baseline and post-treatment, we will administer a cognitive evaluation; caregivers will complete questionnaires (e.g. sleep, pain) and measures of demographics. Laboratory values will be obtained from medical records collected as part of standard care. If a family agrees, patients will undergo brain MRIs for adenoid size and other structural and haemodynamic quantitative measures at baseline and post-treatment, and we will obtain overnight oximetry. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study will increase our understanding of whether montelukast is an effective treatment for young children with SCA. Using cognitive testing and MRI, the SMILES trial hopes to gain critical knowledge to help develop targeted interventions to improve the outcomes of young children with SCA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04351698 . Registered on April 17, 2020. European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT No. 2017-004539-36). Registered on May 19, 2020.


Asunto(s)
Anemia de Células Falciformes , Quinolinas , Acetatos/efectos adversos , Anemia de Células Falciformes/diagnóstico , Anemia de Células Falciformes/tratamiento farmacológico , Antiinflamatorios , Niño , Preescolar , Ciclopropanos , Humanos , Quinolinas/efectos adversos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Sulfuros
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 214, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630826

RESUMEN

Introduction: COVID-19 equation in Cameroon is yet to be resolved. There is an urgent need for a rapid response strategy to the increasing demand of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results for both patients, travelers and competitors to various games. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2 against the classic Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methods: a cross-sectional and comparative study was conducted from April 27th to May 29th, 2021 in the city of Douala, Cameroon. The samples consisted of any nasopharyngeal sample received at the Douala Gynaeco-Obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital molecular biology laboratory, regardless of its origin. Sociodemographic parameters (age, profession (footballers, travelers, other), matrimonial status, nationality), comorbidity and known status of COVID-19, were recorded at collection sites. The main collection sites were the Deido Health District and the Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital. We performed testing using AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2 and the classic RT-PCR (Da An Gene Co.Ltd) on each sample during the one month period. Analytical performance parameters were determined. To determine the sensitivity of both methods, the Bayesian latent class model was performed on the median with 95% confidence interval, with p≤0.05 as significant level, as well as Kappa (κ) agreement between tests. An ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the University of Douala Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: a total of 1813 participants were enrolled, with the predominance of male (68.68%) and the age group 31 to 40 years old (31.33%). Most participants were married (53.46%) with only few with known COVID-19 status (5.47%). One thousand eight hundred and ten (1810) tests were performed by AMPLIQUICK® SARS-CoV-2 while only 1107 could be achieved with the classic RT-PCR. Over the study period, it was noted a drastic reduction in the time necessary to render results with the AMPLIQUICK® SARS-CoV-2 from 24 hours to 3 hours. The AMPLIQUICK® SARS-CoV-2 reduced technician hands-on time and its practicability was noticed based on the prefilled and ready-to-use microplates. A prevalence of 1.93% and 1.45% were obtained for AMPLIQUICK® SARS-CoV-2 and the classic RT-PCR respectively. This difference in the prevalence showed that AMPLIQUICK® SARS-CoV-2 (Sensitivity 83.5% [CI=64.6-95.2]) was more accurate than the classic RT-PCR (67.8% [CI=46.6-84.9]). Conclusion: it is time for a change of attitude to scale up the COVID-19 testing ability in Cameroon and the AMPLIQUICK® SARS-CoV-2 is an alternative diagnosis strategy which should help resolve the situation of timely and reliable results.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 228, 2021.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630840

RESUMEN

Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic causes biological diagnostic problems that remain relevant in low-income countries in general and in Cameroon in particular. Rapids tests that reliably detect SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen present themselves as an important alternative in several contexts. The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two rapid diagnostic tests BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS, compared to each other and to the AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Methods: a cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out from April 27 to May 29, 2021 in the city of Douala in Cameroon. The samples consisted of nasopharyngeal swabs received at the molecular biology laboratory of the Douala Gyneco-obstetric and pediatric hospital, whatever their origin. The socio-demographic parameters (age, profession, football players, travelers, others), marital status, nationality), comorbidity and known status of COVID-19, were recorded on the collection sites. The main collection sites were the Deïdo Health District and the Douala Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital. We performed the diagnosis of COVID-19 using the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS compared to each other and to the AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test on each sample. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 17 software. To determine the sensitivity of the two RDTs, the Bayesian latent class model was performed on the median with a 95% confidence interval with p<0.05 as the significant level. An ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the University of Douala Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: a total of 1813 participants were included in our study, with a predominance of men (1226, 68.68 %) and the most represented age group was that of 31 to 40 years (568, 31.33 %). Most of the participants were married (888, 53.46%) and only a few had a known COVID-19 status (75, 5.47%). The two rapid tests on our study population show much closed COVID-19 prevalence values, respectively 2.03 for BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and 2.17 for BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS. RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS showed higher sensitivity 94.1% vs. 87.5% for RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS with almost identical specificity 98.9% for RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS vs. 98.7% for RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS compared to AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2. BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS RDT showed a negative predictive value of 99.9% compared to BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS RDT. There is a 99.9% agreement between the RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and the RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS. Conclusion: the RDT BIOSYNEX®COVID-19 Ag + BSS and RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS can be used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and can have an important contribution in the context of mass screenings and screening in remote areas.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Virales/análisis , Prueba de COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633153

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized children in Spain and analyze the predictors of the etiology. HYPOTHESIS: The different etiological groups of pediatric CAP are associated with different clinical, radiographic, and analytical data. DESIGN: Observational, multicenter, and prospective study. PATIENT SELECTION: This study included children aged 1 month to 17 years with CAP, who were hospitalized between April 2012 and May 2019. METHODS: An extensive microbiological workup was performed. The clinical, radiographic, and analytical parameters were analyzed for three etiological groups. RESULTS: Among the 495 children included, at least one causative pathogen was identified in 262 (52.9%): pathogenic viruses in 155/262 (59.2%); atypical bacteria (AB), mainly Mycoplasma pneumonia, in 84/262 (32.1%); and typical bacteria (TyB) in 40/262 (15.3%). Consolidation was observed in 89/138 (64.5%) patients with viral CAP, 74/84 (88.1%) with CAP caused by AB, and 40/40 (100%) with CAP caused by TyB. Para-pneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) was observed in 112/495 (22.6%) patients, of which 61/112 (54.5%) presented a likely causative pathogen: viruses in 12/61 (19.7%); AB in 23/61 (37.7%); and TyB in 26/61 (42.6%). Viral etiology was significantly frequent in young patients and in those with low oxygen saturation, wheezing, no consolidation, and high lymphocyte counts. CAP patients with AB as the etiological agent had a significantly longer and less serious course as compared to those with other causative pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Viruses and M. pneumoniae are the main causes of pediatric CAP in Spain. Wheezing, young age, and no consolidation on radiographs are indicative of viral etiology. Viruses and AB can also cause PPE. Since only a few cases can be directly attributed to TyB, the indications for antibiotics must be carefully considered in each patient.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639515

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed radical behavioral and social changes in the general population, significantly impacting the lives of individuals affected by disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on non-institutionalized subjects with sensorineural disabilities during the first COVID-19 wave in Italy. METHODS: A 39-item online national survey was disseminated from 1 April 2020 to 31 June 2020 via social media throughout Italy to communities of individuals with proven severe sensorineural disabilities, affiliated to five national patient associations. The survey collected extensive information on the socio-demographic profile, health, everyday activities, and lifestyle of individuals with hearing and visual disabilities. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-three respondents with hearing (66.9%) and visual (33.1%) disabilities returned a usable questionnaire. The mean age of interviewees was 38.4 ± 20.2 years and 56.3% of them were females. Despite the vast majority of respondents (77.9%) perceiving their health status as unchanged (68.8% of interviewees with hearing deficits vs. 96.3% of those with visual impairments), about half the interviewees reported sleep disorders during lock-down, more likely those with visual deficits. Remote services were seemingly more effective for business than school activities. Furthermore, although just 18.8% of respondents rated remote rehabilitation care unsatisfactory, only 12.8% of interviewees felt supported by health and social services during the COVID-19 emergency. The vast majority of respondents were concerned about the future and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 contagion, particularly individuals with hearing impairments. Among the various risk mitigation measures, facemasks caused the greatest discomfort due to communication barriers, particularly among interviewees affected by hearing disabilities (92.2% vs. 45.7%). The most common request (46.5%) of respondents to reduce the inconveniences of the COVID-19 emergency country lock-down was improving the access to and delivery of health and social services for individuals with sensorineural disabilities (19.3%), followed by the use of transparent masks (17.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Although health protection measures such as face masks and social distancing play a key role in preventing and controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the unmet needs of disabled individuals should be carefully considered, especially those affected by sensory disabilities. Tailored access to health and social services for individuals affected by sensorineural disabilities should be implemented. Additional actions should include the use of to face masks to reduce communication barriers linked to hearing-impairment, as well as the improvement of remote services, especially distance learning at school.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Audición , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
8.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(5): 957-963, 2021 Oct 18.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650302

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) comprises a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders associated with neurodegeneration of motor nerves and neurons, mainly charac-terized by progressive atrophy and weakness of distal muscle without clinical or electrophysiological sensory abnormalities. To improve the recognition and diagnosis of the disease, we summarized the clinical manifestations, electrophysiological, pathological, and genetic characteristics in eight patients with dHMN. METHODS: Eight probands from different families diagnosed with dHMN were recruited in this study between June 2018 and April 2019 at Peking University People's Hospital. Eight patients underwent complete neurological examination and standard electrophysiological examinations. The clinical criteria were consistent with the patients presenting with a pure motor neuropathy with no sensory changes on electrophysiology. The detailed clinical symptoms, neurophysiological examinations, pathological features and gene mutations were analyzed retrospectively. Genetic testing was performed on the eight patients using targeted next-generation sequencing panel for inherited neuromuscular disorder and was combined with segregation analysis. RESULTS: The age of onset ranged between 11 and 64 years (median 39.5 years) in our dHMN patients. All the cases showed a slowly progressive disease course, mainly characterized by distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy. The motor nerve conduction revealed decreased compound muscle action potential amplitude and velocity, while the sensory nerve conduction velocities and action potentials were not affected. Needle electromyography indicated neurogenic chronic denervation in all patients. Muscle biopsy performed in two patients demonstrated neurogenic skeletal muscle damage. Sural nerve biopsy was performed in one patient, Semithin sections shows relatively normal density and structure of large myelinated fibers, except very few fibers with thin myelin sheaths, which suggested very mild sensory nerve involvement. Eight different genes known to be associated with dHMN were identified in the patients by next-generation sequencing, pathogenic dHMN mutations were identified in three genes, and the detection rate of confirmed genetic diagnosis of dHMN was 37.5% (3/8). Whereas five variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were identified, among which two novel variants co-segregated the phenotype. CONCLUSION: dHMN is a group of inherited peripheral neuropathies with great clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Next-generation sequencing is widely used to discover pathogenic genes in patients with dHMN, but more than half of the patients still remain genetically unknown.


Asunto(s)
Neuropatía Hereditaria Motora y Sensorial , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Neuropatía Hereditaria Motora y Sensorial/genética , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Fenotipo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
9.
Transl Behav Med ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662427

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to rising morbidity, mortality, and social and economic disruption, likely impairing mental health. The purpose of this study was to track trends in mental health symptoms, use of services, and unmet need for services among US adults, and to delineate variation across demographic strata. Data were drawn from the 2020 US Household Pulse Survey from repeated cross-sectional online surveys collected between April 23 and November 23, 2020 from 1,302,455 US adults, weighted to represent the US population. Survey respondents self-reported their symptoms of anxiety and depression, use of medication and counseling services, and unmet need for services. Reports of probable anxiety and depression rose significantly through the study period, to prevalence rates of 37% and 29%, respectively, by November, 2020, rates more than four times higher than early 2019 US norms. Use of prescription medication, counseling services, and unmet need for mental health services also rose significantly. Prevalence rates of probable mental health disorders were highest among young, less educated, single parent, female, Black and multi-racial respondents, with some vacillation in such disparities over cohorts. Young, female, and moderately educated respondents also reported higher unmet needs for services. Disparities in estimates of mental health disorders and mental health treatment indicate a striking disequilibrium between the potential need for and the use of mental health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Rising mental health challenges are being borne largely by young, less advantaged people of color and women, with the potential for expanded interruptions to optimal functioning and societal recovery from COVID-19.

10.
Soc Sci Med ; 291: 114488, 2021 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662764

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Although there is some evidence that religious faith may offer protection against sexual risk taking in adolescence and emerging adulthood, no attempts have been made to systematically quantify the association. OBJECTIVE: Using data from studies conducted in the 2000-2020 period, this meta-analysis aimed to estimate the link between religious faith and four sexual risk-taking behaviors in samples of adolescents and emerging adults. METHODS: Five different search systems were used to conduct a systematic literature search in April 2020. Studies that contained quantitative data on religious faith and at least one indicator of sexual risk taking (age at sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use at most recent sexual intercourse, and consistent condom use) were searched for. In total, 35 articles published in peer-reviewed journals, in English, were identified. Random-effects meta-analytic approach was used to assess target associations among 41,758 adolescents and emerging adults (Mage = 18.9 years, 37% male). To estimate the effect across the four risk indicators, we employed robust variance estimation (RVE) method. RESULTS: We found small associations between religious faith on the one hand and age at sexual debut (r = 0.08, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.12) and the number of sexual partners on the other hand (r = -0.15, 95% CI = -0.21, -0.09). No association with condom use was observed. With all studies included, the overall effect size was 0.11 (95% CI = 0.06, 0.16), indicating a small (protective) role of religious faith in young people's sexual risk taking. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the limited role of religious faith in young people's sexual and reproductive health, comprehensive sexuality education remains essential for risk-reduction, even among more religious young people.

11.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 362, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with intestinal Behçet's disease (BD) frequently undergo intestinal resections, which significantly affects postoperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and postoperative outcomes in patients with intestinal BD who underwent surgical bowel resection. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with intestinal BD and underwent intestinal surgery due to BD at Severance Hospital between November 2005 and April 2018 were retrospectively investigated. Clinical relapse was defined as a disease activity index of BD (DAIBD) > 40, existence of newly added medications, re-hospitalization, or re-operation related to intestinal BD. The relationship between CRP level and postoperative outcomes was analyzed, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to specify a cut-off value. RESULTS: Ninety patients with intestinal BD were included. Among them, 44 were male (48.9%), and the median age at diagnosis was 38 years (range, 11-69 years). The median total disease follow-up duration was 130 months (range, 3-460 months). Forty patients (44.4%) underwent laparoscopic surgery. A higher CRP level immediately after surgery was significantly associated with postoperative complications (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.004-1.018, p < 0.01), re-operation (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01, 95% CI 1.005-1.020, p < 0.01), and re-admission (HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.006-1.017 p < 0.01). The ROC curve showed that CRP predicts the risk of postoperative complications (p < 0.01) at a cut-off value of 41.9% with a sensitivity of 60.0% and specificity of 67.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative CRP levels in patients with intestinal BD undergoing surgical resection were associated with postoperative outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Behçet , Proteína C-Reactiva , Enfermedades Intestinales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Síndrome de Behçet/cirugía , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Intestinales/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Periodo Posoperatorio , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
12.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048567, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619994

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a worldwide health threat. Early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients was important for reducing death rate and controlling this disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 301 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan from 8 February to 10 April 2020 were included. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients were investigated. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was used in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. RESULTS: There were difference in blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among mild, severe and critical patients, which were also influenced by comorbidities and duration of disease. The area under the ROC of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were 0.718, 0.721, 0.718, and 0.670, which were higher than that of other hematological parameters. The optimal threshold was 1205, 691, 402, and 177 per µl, respectively. Patients with higher counts of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells were correlated with shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed disease severity, CD3+ T cells counts and time when the nucleic acid turned negative were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets correlated with severity of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/inmunología , Subgrupos Linfocitarios/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/virología , China , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Subgrupos Linfocitarios/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
13.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e53, 2021 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645536

RESUMEN

AIM: To determine the presence of cardiovascular (CV) risk (CVR) factors in university students and evaluate how these factors are affected from the knowledge, attitudes, and habits of the individuals regarding healthy lifestyle. BACKGROUND: Starting from early ages, lifestyle habits such as lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating, and inappropriate drug use increase CV and metabolic risks of individuals. METHODS: In April-May 2018, sociodemographic characteristics of 770 undergraduate students, in addition to their knowledge, attitudes, and habits regarding their nutrition and physical activity status were obtained through face-to-face questionnaires. CVR factors were determined according to blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol levels, and anthropometric measurements. Collected data were compared by CVR factor presence (CV[+] or CV[-]) in students. FINDINGS: The mean age of the participants was 22.3 ± 2.6 years. 59.6% were female and 71.5% were students of non-health sciences. In total, 274 individuals (35.9%) belonged to CV(+) group (mean risk number: 1.3 ± 0.5) with higher frequency in males (42.1% versus 31.6%, P < 0.05). The most common CVR factors were smoking (20.6%), high total cholesterol (7.5%), and hypertension/high blood pressure (6.0%). 15.5% of the participants regularly used at least one drug/non-pharmaceutical product. 11.3% complied the Mediterranean diet well. 21.9% of CV(+) stated consuming fast food at lunch compared to 14.3% of CV(-) (P < 0.05). 44.6% stated exercising below the CV-protective level. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed one-third of university students was at CVR, independent of their sociodemographic characteristics. Furthermore, the students appear to perform below expectations in terms of nutrition and physical activity. Extensive additional measures are needed to encourage young individuals for healthy nutritional and physical activity habits.

14.
Preprint en Inglés | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21264655

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all our lives, not only through the infection itself, but also through the measures taken to control the viruss spread (e.g., lockdown). Here we investigated how the COVID-19 pandemic and unprecedented lockdown affected the mental health of young adults in England and Wales. We compared the mental health symptoms of up to 4,000 twins in their mid-twenties in 2018 prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (T1) to those in a four-wave longitudinal data collection during the pandemic in April, July, and October 2020, and in March 2021 (T2-T5). The average changes in mental health were small-to-medium and mainly occurred from 2018 (T1) to March 2020 (T2, one month following the start of lockdown; average Cohen d=0.14). Despite the expectation of catastrophic effects on the pandemic on mental health of our young adults, we did not observe trends in worsening mental health during the pandemic (T3-T5). Young people with pre-existing mental health problems were adversely affected at the beginning of the pandemic, but their increased problems largely subsided as the pandemic persisted. Twin analyses indicated that the aetiology of individual differences did not change during the lockdown. The average heritability of mental health symptoms was 33% across 5 waves of assessment, and the average genetic correlation between T1 and T2-T5 was .95, indicating that genetic effects before the pandemic (T1) are substantially correlated with genetic effects up to a year later (T2-T5). We conclude that on average the mental health of young adults in England and Wales has been remarkably resilient to the effects of the pandemic and associated lockdown.

15.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30028, 2021 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596372

RESUMEN

AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic caused many disturbances to daily life worldwide and may also have significantly affected people's psychological well-being. The present study aimed to describe the psychological impact of the crisis on our sample of young Swiss men and to examine differences due to their linguistic region, experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and living arrangements. METHODS: Based on an ongoing cohort study, we assessed a general-population sample of young Swiss men (n = 2345; average 29 years old) shortly before (from April 2019) and early on during the COVID-19 crisis (between 13 May and 8 June 2020). This was a unique opportunity to estimate the crisis' psychological impact in the form of depression, perceived stress and sleep quality (assessed before and during COVID-19), and any crisis-induced fears, isolation or psychological trauma. Associations of psychological impact with living arrangements, experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and linguistic region (German-speaking vs French-speaking) were investigated using linear regression models. FINDINGS: By the time participants responded to our questionnaire, less than 1% had been tested positive for COVID-19, 2.6% had been tested negative and 14.7% had had some COVID-19 symptoms but had not been tested. About 8.2% of the sample reported at least some symptoms of psychological trauma (≥24 points on the Impact of Event Scale). On average, participants reported higher levels of fear for others (43.6% at least moderate) and economic fear (12.7% at least moderate) than fear for themselves (5.8% at least moderate). Those living alone and those who reported having COVID-19 symptoms themselves, or knowing someone with symptoms, reported higher overall psychological impact in the form of depression, perceived stress, sleep quality, psychological trauma, fear and isolation. Associations with linguistic region varied by outcome, with higher levels of depression and fear in French-speaking regions and higher levels of perceived stress and isolation in German-speaking regions. INTERPRETATION: The crisis had a considerable impact on the psychological well-being of our sample of young Swiss men, and some groups were more affected than others: those living alone and those who had shown COVID-19 symptoms themselves or had known someone with symptoms may have felt a greater psychological impact from the crisis. Supporting those at a higher risk of psychological consequences in such crises, whether through structural measures or via individual support, should be an important aspect of crisis management and could help reduce the overall impact of the current pandemic on Switzerland's population.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Suiza/epidemiología
16.
Trials ; 22(1): 669, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593015

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Treatment guidelines recommend behaviour therapy (BT) for patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CTD). However, BT is rarely accessible due to limited availability of trained therapists and long travel distances to specialist clinics. Internet-delivered BT has the potential of overcoming these barriers through remote delivery of treatment with minimal therapist support. In the current protocol, we outline the design and methods of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating an internet-delivered BT programme referred to as BIP TIC. The trial's primary objective is to determine the clinical efficacy of BIP TIC for reducing tic severity in young people with TS/CTD, compared with an active control intervention. Secondary objectives are to investigate the 12-month durability of the treatment effects and to perform a health economic evaluation of the intervention. METHODS: In this single-blind superiority RCT, 220 participants (9-17 years) with TS/CTD throughout Sweden will be randomised to 10-12 weeks of either therapist-supported internet-delivered BT based on exposure with response prevention (BIP TIC) or therapist-supported internet-delivered education. Data will be collected at baseline, 3 and 5 weeks into the treatment, at post-treatment, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. The primary endpoint is the 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome is tic severity as measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale - Total Tic Severity Score. Treatment response is operationalised as scores of "Very much improved" or "Much improved" on the Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale, administered at the primary endpoint. Outcome assessors will be blind to treatment condition at all assessment points. A health economic evaluation of BIP TIC will be performed, both in the short term (primary endpoint) and the long term (12-month follow-up). There are no planned interim analyses. DISCUSSION: Participant recruitment started on 26 April 2019 and finished on 9 April 2021. The total number of included participants was 221. The final participant is expected to reach the primary endpoint in September 2021 and the 12-month follow-up in June 2022. Data analysis for the primary objective will commence after the last participant reaches the primary endpoint. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03916055 . Registered on 16 April 2019.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Tourette , Adolescente , Terapia Conductista , Niño , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Internet , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Método Simple Ciego , Síndrome de Tourette/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Tourette/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 943-949, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605460

RESUMEN

A casualty is a loss resulting from an accident or someone who is hurt, wounded, diseased, detained or dead in an accident. The term casualty means a seriously injured patient. It is predominantly a military word, generally used for service for accidents. After a battle or accident the dead, the wounded, the sick are called together as "casualties". Casualty, in respect to personnel, any individual who is lost to his organization by reason of being declared dead, wounded, diseased, detained, captured, or missing. Hospital casualty service is not fully organized all over the Bangladesh. In view of the increasing workload and emerging need, functional casualty services have recently been introduced in our hospital to manage properly the accident patients. This retrospective observational study was carried out in the Casualty department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Patients were enrolled total number of 69740 to investigate the quantity of patients and pattern of casualties. Patients were categorized according to their mode of injury. Total data was collected from hospital records of all patients attended in the Casualty Department of the hospital from November 19, 2017 to November 18, 2019. The modes of Casualties with demographic characteristics of patients were analyzed. Male and female ratio was 3:1. Patient attended in the Casualty department was average 96 per day, maximum was 176 and minimum was 33. According to age sub-division, 11-20 years age group attended in casualty was maximum and it was 48 in number. One day attended Road traffic accident (RTA) maximum was 65 and minimum was 3, maximum Non-RTA was 83 and minimum was 25, maximum physical assaults was 48 and minimum was 1. RTA and Injury due to fall were the common mode of casualty especially in the young population within the study area. We have seen that injury caused by fall from height was 43% among the all patients. Patients due to fall from tree was highest (35%) yearly in between April to June. Second to incidents of all fall was RTA which was 25%. Physical assaults (18%), machinery injury (9%) and others were 5%.


Asunto(s)
Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Accidentes por Caídas , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Niño , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto Joven
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610441

RESUMEN

Most juvenile detention facilities do not screen for Trichomonas Vaginalis (TV) despite being the most common parasitic STI. We aimed to assess TV prevalence and risk factors among young women in a large urban juvenile detention center. We evaluated a retrospective cohort from April to December 2016. Youth submitted an intake urine sample for gonorrhea and chlamydia testing; we tested remnant urine for TV. Outcomes included prevalence of TV and risk factors for infection. A total of 1009 samples were collected, 374 from young women ages 13 - 17 years old. Among females, 8% tested positive for TV with co-infection of either gonorrhea, chlamydia or both occurring in 12/29 (41%) patients. Compared to youth without TV females with TV were more likely to be African American (76%) and report symptoms (41%) (p<0.05). In our study population, prevalence of TV was 8%. As nearly half of those with TV were asymptomatic, we recommend routine screening among this population.

19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 194, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603575

RESUMEN

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) comprise polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The relationship between JAK2 p.(V617F) mutation and MPNs was first described in 2005. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of JAK2 p.(V617F) mutation in Tunisian patients assessed for MPNs and try to set a genotype-phenotype correlation. A retrospective study was conducted between January 2015 and April 2019. We collected the clinical data of all patients with MPNs suspicion or atypical splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). JAK2 p.(V617F) mutation was detected by allele specific real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR (AS-qPCR). We gathered 974 patients who underwent molecular analysis, 55.5% of them were male and 44.5% were female. The median age of all studied patients was 56 years. JAK2 p.(V617F) was found in 349 (35.8%) of total enrolled cases. It was reported in 44%, 37%, 29% and 25% of all patients diagnosed as having respectively ET, PV, PMF and atypical SVT. JAK2 p.(V617F) was negative in 62.2% of patients addressed for suspicion of PV. There was a significant positive correlation between the JAK2 p.(V617F) mutation status, age, gender, white blood cell counts and platelet counts. To our best knowledge, this is the first vast investigation of JAK2 p.(V617F) variant in Tunisia and North Africa with the lowest mutation rate in entire cohort and MPNs subgroups, underlying a specific presentation of this mutation. It is considered as an essential marker of MPNs' diagnosis and prognosis and is associated with differences in the phenotype of these disorders, helpful for the follow-up of these patients.


Asunto(s)
Janus Quinasa 2/genética , Policitemia Vera/genética , Mielofibrosis Primaria/genética , Trombocitemia Esencial/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alelos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Variación Genética , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Túnez , Adulto Joven
20.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; : e13515, 2021 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632662

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cancer can have various psychosocial effects on children and young adults. Technology-based psychosocial interventions are increasingly popular in paediatric oncology for psychosocial health. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of technology-based psychosocial interventions applied to children, adolescent and young adults undergoing cancer treatment. METHODS: Eight electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [CENTRAL]), CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Science Direct and Scopus were searched to identify eligible randomised controlled trials from 1 January 2010 up to 9 April 2021. Search results were limited to 'children, adolescent and young adults' 6-24 years undergoing cancer treatment. Randomised controlled studies in which technology-based psychosocial interventions were applied were examined. Of 4,927 articles, 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. Hedges' g effect size was computed for each study. Effect sizes and moderator variables were tested using random-effects models. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42020177787. RESULTS: The outcomes were anger, anxiety, coping, depression, distress, quality of life and resilience. Compared with standard care, technology-based psychosocial interventions had a large effect and significantly on anger (g = -1.327, 95% CI: [-2.43, 0.22], anxiety (g = -0.89, 95%CI: [-1.34, -0.18], and depression (g = -1.05, 95% CI: [-1.65,-0.46]. Also, it was found that the duration of interventions had a significant moderator and effect size of the distress and resilience outcomes increased as the duration increased. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that technology-based psychosocial interventions served as an effective intervention as it appears to have implications reducing anger, anxiety and depression in paediatric oncology. Nevertheless, randomised controlled studies with larger samples still needed to establish evidence-based psycho-oncological interventions for paediatric oncology. Future research should develop interventions more graduated by duration.

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