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1.
Int J Retina Vitreous ; 10(1): 14, 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310265

RESUMEN

Diabetes is a prevalent global concern, with an estimated 12% of the global adult population affected by 2045. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a sight-threatening complication, has spurred diverse screening approaches worldwide due to advances in DR knowledge, rapid technological developments in retinal imaging and variations in healthcare resources.Many high income countries have fully implemented or are on the verge of completing a national Diabetic Eye Screening Programme (DESP). Although there have been some improvements in DR screening in Africa, Asia, and American countries further progress is needed. In low-income countries, only one out of 29, partially implemented a DESP, while 21 out of 50 lower-middle-income countries have started the DR policy cycle. Among upper-middle-income countries, a third of 59 nations have advanced in DR agenda-setting, with five having a comprehensive national DESP and 11 in the early stages of implementation.Many nations use 2-4 fields fundus images, proven effective with 80-98% sensitivity and 86-100% specificity compared to the traditional seven-field evaluation for DR. A cell phone based screening with a hand held retinal camera presents a potential low-cost alternative as imaging device. While this method in low-resource settings may not entirely match the sensitivity and specificity of seven-field stereoscopic photography, positive outcomes are observed.Individualized DR screening intervals are the standard in many high-resource nations. In countries that lacks a national DESP and resources, screening are more sporadic, i.e. screening intervals are not evidence-based and often less frequently, which can lead to late recognition of treatment required DR.The rising global prevalence of DR poses an economic challenge to nationwide screening programs AI-algorithms have showed high sensitivity and specificity for detection of DR and could provide a promising solution for the future screening burden.In summary, this narrative review enlightens on the epidemiology of DR and the necessity for effective DR screening programs. Worldwide evolution in existing approaches for DR screening has showed promising results but has also revealed limitations. Technological advancements, such as handheld imaging devices, tele ophthalmology and artificial intelligence enhance cost-effectiveness, but also the accessibility of DR screening in countries with low resources or where distance to or a shortage of ophthalmologists exists.

2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2024 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401556

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although mpox has been detected in paediatric populations in central and west Africa for decades, evidence synthesis on paediatric, maternal, and congenital mpox, and the use of vaccines and therapeutics in these groups, is lacking. A systematic review is therefore indicated to set the research agenda. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, searching articles in Embase, Global Health, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and WHO databases from inception to April 17, 2023. We included studies reporting primary data on at least one case of confirmed, suspected, or probable paediatric, maternal, or congenital mpox in humans or the use of third-generation smallpox or mpox vaccines, targeted antivirals, or immune therapies in at least one case in our population of interest. We included clinical trials and observational studies in humans and excluded reviews, commentaries, and grey literature. A pooled estimate of the paediatric case fatality ratio was obtained using random-effects meta-analysis. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD420223336648). FINDINGS: Of the 61 studies, 53 reported paediatric outcomes (n=2123 cases), seven reported maternal or congenital outcomes (n=32 cases), two reported vaccine safety (n=28 recipients), and three reported transmission during breastfeeding (n=4 cases). While a subset of seven observational studies (21 children and 12 pregnant individuals) reported uneventful treatment with tecovirimat, there were no randomised trials reporting safety or efficacy for any therapeutic agent. Among children, the commonest clinical features included rash (86 [100%] of 86), fever (63 [73%] of 86), and lymphadenopathy (40 [47%] of 86). Among pregnant individuals, rash was reported in 23 (100%) of 23; fever and lymphadenopathy were less common (six [26%] and three [13%] of 23, respectively). Most paediatric complications (12 [60%] of 20) arose from secondary bacterial infections. The pooled paediatric case fatality ratio was 11% (95% CI 4-20), I2=75%. Data from 12 pregnancies showed half resulted in fetal death. Research on vaccine and immune globulin safety remains scarce for children and absent for pregnant individuals. INTERPRETATION: Our review highlights critical knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of mpox in children and pregnant individuals, especially those residing in endemic countries. Increased funding, international collaboration, and equitable research is needed to inform mpox control strategies tailored for at-risk communities in endemic countries. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Spanish and Portuguese translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

3.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0294442, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381753

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine-preventable diseases are the public health problems in Africa, although vaccination is an available, safe, simple, and effective method prevention. Technologies such as mHealth may provide maternal access to health information and support decisions on childhood vaccination. Many studies on the role of mHealth in vaccination decisions have been conducted in Africa, but the evidence needs to provide conclusive information to support mHealth introduction. This study provides essential information to assist planning and policy decisions regarding the use of mHealth for childhood vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for studies applying mHealth in Africa for vaccination decisions following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-Analysis [PRISMA] guideline. Databases such as CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Global Health, HINARI, and Cochrane Library were included. We screened studies in Endnote X20 and performed the analysis using Revman 5.4.1. RESULTS: The database search yielded 1,365 articles [14 RCTs and 4 quasi-experiments] with 21,070 participants satisfied all eligibility criteria. The meta-analysis showed that mHealth has an OR of 2.15 [95% CI: 1.70-2.72; P<0.001; I2 = 90%] on vaccination rates. The subgroup analysis showed that regional differences cause heterogeneity. Funnel plots and Harbord tests showed the absence of publication bias, while the GRADE scale showed a moderate-quality body of evidence. CONCLUSION: Although heterogeneous, this systematic review and meta-analysis showed that the application of mHealth could potentially improve childhood vaccination in Africa. It increased childhood vaccination by more than double [2.15 times] among children whose mothers are motivated by mHealth services. MHealth is more effective in less developed regions and when an additional incentive party with the messaging system. However, it can be provided at a comparably low cost based on the development level of regions and can be established as a routine service in Africa. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42023415956.


Asunto(s)
Telemedicina , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Madres , África , Vacunación , Salud Global
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 224, 2024 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383368

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many hospitals worldwide have set up multidisciplinary Value Improvement (VI) teams that use the Value-Based Health Care (VBHC) theory to improve patient value. However, it remains unclear what the level of VBHC implementation is within these teams. We therefore studied the current level of VBHC implementation in VI teams. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed based on the strategic agenda for value transformation and real-world experiences with VBHC implementation. The questionnaire consisted of 21 questions, mapped to seven domains, and was sent out to 25 multidisciplinary VI teams. Median scores for individual questions (scale = 1-5) and average scores per domain were calculated. RESULTS: One hundred forty VI team members completed the questionnaire. The overall average score is 3.49. The 'culture and responsibility' domain obtained the highest average score (µ = 4.11). The domain 'measure and improve outcomes' and the domain 'multidisciplinary team' obtained average scores that are slightly higher than the overall average (µ = 3.78 and µ = 3.76 respectively), and the domains 'strategy and organizational policy,' 'collaboration and sharing,' and 'IT and data' scored a little below the overall average (µ = 3.41, µ = 3.32, and µ = 3.29 respectively). The domain 'costs and reimbursement' obtained the lowest average score (µ = 2.42) of all domains, indicating that the implementation of this particular aspect of VBHC remains lagging behind. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate activity in each of the questionnaire domains. To bring VBHC implementation to the next level, more attention should be given to the financial aspects. Our questionnaire can be used in future studies to identify improvements or differences within VI teams.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Atención Médica Basada en Valor , Humanos , Países Bajos , Instituciones de Salud , Grupo de Atención al Paciente
5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 150(2): 72, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305910

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify whether E-health interventions effectively improve physical activity (PA) in cancer survivors. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to October 21, 2023. Randomized controlled trials reporting the effect of E-health interventions on PA among cancer survivors were included. Random-effect models were used to calculate standardized mean differences (SMD) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: In total, 15 trials with 2,291 cancer survivors were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that E-health interventions improved moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among cancer survivors (SMD = 0.26, 95% CI 0.08, 0.43, N = 8, p < 0.001, I2 = 37%), as well as moderate physical activity (MPA) (SMD = 0.22, 95% CI 0.05, 0.38, N = 9, p < 0.001, I2 = 28%) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI 0.15, 0.54, N = 6, p < 0.001, I2 = 11%). CONCLUSION: E-health interventions are effective at promoting PA among cancer survivors. As current research primarily focuses on immediate post-intervention measurements with limited follow-up data, further investigation is required to explore the long-term effects of E-health interventions on PA.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer , Neoplasias , Telemedicina , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Ejercicio Físico , Neoplasias/terapia
6.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 11: e48729, 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345837

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Digitally supported self-management tailored to an individual's need, in addition to usual care, may reduce pain-related disability compared to usual care alone, and patients with low back pain (LBP) using mobile health (mHealth) solutions express positive experiences. Hence, implementing mHealth solutions designed to support self-management is desirable from a clinical and patient perspective. Easily accessible mHealth solutions that can support the self-management of patients with LBP are available, but interest may be subgroup specific. Understanding the characteristics and preferences of patients with LBP labeled as interested may help to reach relevant LBP patient groups and inform the development and implementation of effective interventions with mHealth for patients with LBP. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the proportion of patients with LBP labeled as interested in testing an mHealth solution designed to support self-management in addition to usual care and to assess how these patients differ from those who were labeled as not interested. METHODS: This exploratory cross-sectional study analyzed demographic and patient-reported outcomes from the SpineData registry, a Danish registry of patients with LBP in an outpatient setting. Between February and December 2019, the SpineData registry was used to assess the preliminary eligibility of patients for a clinical trial (selfBACK). Patients were labeled as interested or uninterested depending on if they responded to an invitation to be tested for eligibility for the trial Outcomes were selected from the International Classification of Functioning core set of LBP using a clinical approach. Associations were assessed in a backward selection process, and the proportion of variance explained was assessed with pseudo-R2 statistic. RESULTS: This study included 843 patients, with 181 (21%) individuals labeled as interested in participating in the selfBACK trial. Notably, the cohort labeled as interested differed from their uninterested counterparts in two key aspects: age (36-65 years: 116/181, 64.1% vs 347/662, 52.4%; P=.003) and smoking status (smokers: 22/181, 12.5% vs 174/662, 26.6%; P<.001). Those aged 36-65 years had higher odds of being labeled as interested compared to individuals aged 18-35 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.43, 95% CI 0.26-0.71) and those 65 years or older (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.53-1.15). Nevertheless, age accounted for only a modest proportion of variance (R2=0.014). Smokers demonstrated lower odds of being labeled as interested (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24-0.64), with smoking status explaining a similarly small proportion of variance (R2=0.019). Collectively, age and smoking status accounted for 3.3% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation revealed that 181 (21%) individuals with LBP invited to participate in the mHealth solution trial for self-management expressed interest. Generally, the characteristics of those labeled as interested and uninterested were comparable. Of note, patients aged 36-65 years had a higher frequency of being labeled as interested compared to their younger and older counterparts.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Telemedicina , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/diagnóstico , Estudios Transversales , Determinación de la Elegibilidad
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e45817, 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345855

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In recent years, legal and infrastructural conditions have been set to improve the adoption of digital applications in health care in Germany. The impact of these actions was amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. So far, no studies have confirmed this progress in dermatology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure changes in knowledge, interest, expectation, and use of digital applications in health care among dermatologists in Germany in 2019 and 2021. METHODS: We administered a repeated cross-sectional survey among dermatologists in medical practices and clinics in Germany at 2 time points: t1 (2019; before the COVID-19 pandemic) and t2 (2021; during the COVID-19 pandemic). We used a standardized questionnaire, including items on respondents' knowledge, interest, expectation, and use of digital applications, as well as their demographics. The survey was distributed by post and email. The data were analyzed descriptively as well as with multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: At t1, 585 (272/571, 47.6% female; mean age 52.4, SD 8.9 years) dermatologists and at t2, 792 (360/736, 48.9% female; mean age 54.3, SD 8.6 years) dermatologists participated in this survey. Interest in digital medicine was higher at t1 than at t2 (381/585, 65.1% vs 458/792, 57.8%; P≤.001). Nevertheless, 38.6% (306/792) had used digital applications more often since the beginning of the pandemic. For example, real-time telemedicine with patients (12/585, 2.1% vs 160/792, 7.6%; P≤.001) and other specialists did increase (33/385, 5.7% vs 181/792, 22.8%; P≤.001). Almost one-third expressed great concerns about digitalization (272/792, 34.3% vs 294/792, 37.1%; P=.21). Spatial analysis revealed higher interest in, more positive expectations toward, and higher use of digital applications in urban areas in comparison to rural areas. For instance, dermatologists from urban areas assessed future applications as having less risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.51, 95% CI 0.35-0.76) than did dermatologists from rural areas. The situation was similar with the age groups, as, for example, dermatologists aged <50 years also expected lower risks (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.77) than those aged ≥50 years. There were no differences between sexes in use, but there were differences in knowledge and expectation; for example, male participants assessed their confidence in using digital applications as higher (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01-2.04) than did female participants. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, the use of digital applications in dermatology increased but still remained at a moderate level. The regional and age-related disparities identified indicate the need for further action to ensure equal access to digital care.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , Dermatólogos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4, 2024 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172498

RESUMEN

This study aimed to verify whether an eHealth-based self-management program can reduce irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom severity. An open-label simple randomized controlled trial was conducted that compared an intervention group (n = 21) participating in an eHealth self-management program, which involved studying IBS-related information from an established self-help guide followed by in-built quizzes, with a treatment-as-usual group (n = 19) that, except for pharmacotherapy, had no treatment restrictions. Participants were female Japanese university students. The eHealth group received unlimited access to the self-management program for 8 weeks on computers and mobile devices. The primary outcome, participants' severity of IBS symptoms assessed using the IBS-severity index (IBS-SI), and the secondary outcomes of participants' quality of life, gut bacteria, and electroencephalography alpha and beta power percentages were measured at baseline and 8 weeks. A significant difference was found in the net change in IBS-SI scores between the eHealth and treatment-as-usual groups, and the former had significantly lower IBS-SI scores following the 8-week intervention than at baseline. Moreover, there was a significant difference in the net change in phylum Cyanobacteria between the eHealth and treatment-as-usual groups. Thus, the eHealth-based self-management program successfully reduced the severity of IBS symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome del Colon Irritable , Automanejo , Telemedicina , Femenino , Humanos , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/terapia , Calidad de Vida , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191203

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate a guideline for a paediatric telemedicine and medication delivery service (TMDS). METHODS: A clinical guideline for paediatric telemedicine was derived from the World Health (WHO) Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Handbook. The guideline was deployed at a TMDS in Haiti and evaluated through a prospective cohort study; children ≤10 years were enrolled. For non-severe cases, paired virtual and in-person examinations were conducted at the call centre and household; severe cases were referred to the hospital. The performance of virtual examination components were evaluated by comparison with the paired in-person examination findings (reference). RESULTS: A total of 391 cases were enrolled. Among the 320 cases with paired examinations, no general WHO danger signs were identified during in-person examinations; 5 cases (2%) required hospital referral due to problem-specific danger signs or other reasons for escalation. Cohen's kappa for the virtual designation of mild cases was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.87). The sensitivity and specificity of a virtually reported fever were 91% (95% CI: 87% to 96%) and 69% (95% CI: 62% to 76%), respectively; the sensitivity and specificity of virtually reported 'fast breathing' were 47% (95% CI: 21% to 72%) and 89% (95% CI: 85% to 94%), respectively. Kappa for 'no' and 'some' dehydration indicated moderate congruence between virtual and in-person examinations (0.69; 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.98). At 10 days, 273 (95%) of the 287 cases reached by phone were better/recovered. CONCLUSION: Critical components of the virtual examination (triage, danger signs and dehydration assessment) performed well despite varied performance among the problem-specific components. The study and associated resources represents formative steps towards an evidence-based paediatric telemedicine guideline built on WHO clinical principles. In-person examinations for select cases were important to address limitations with virtual examinations and identify cases for escalation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03943654.


Asunto(s)
Centrales de Llamados , Telemedicina , Humanos , Niño , Deshidratación/diagnóstico , Deshidratación/terapia , Estudios Prospectivos , Configuración de Recursos Limitados
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265635

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In an effort to address persistent inequities in maternal and infant health, policymakers and advocates have pushed to expand access to doula care. Several states, including California, now cover doula services through Medicaid. As coverage expands, research on the impact of doula care will likely increase. To develop best practices for research, it is critical to engage community doulas, clients, and other key stakeholders. DESCRIPTION: Our overarching goal was to build capacity for future doula- and client-centered research on community doula care. First, we established a Steering Committee with members from seven relevant stakeholder groups: community doulas, former or potential doula clients, clinicians, payers, advocates, researchers, and public health professionals. Second, we conducted a needs assessment to identify and understand stakeholders' needs and values for research on community doula care. Findings from the needs assessment informed our third step, conducting a research prioritization to develop a shared research agenda related to community doula care with the Steering Committee. We adapted the Research Prioritization by Affected Communities protocol to guide this process, which resulted in a final list of 21 priority research questions. Lastly, we offered a training to increase capacity among community doulas to engage in research on community doula care. ASSESSMENT: Our findings provide direction for those interested in conducting research on doula care, as well as policymakers and funders. CONCLUSION: The findings of our stakeholder-engaged process provide a roadmap that will lead to equity-oriented research centering clients, doulas, and their communities.

11.
JMIR Aging ; 7: e52031, 2024 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198201

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine is a potential option for caring for older adults with multimorbidity. There is a need to explore the perceptions about telemedicine among older adults with multimorbidity to tailor it to the needs of older adults with multiple chronic conditions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the perceptions about telemedicine among older patients with multimorbidity. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted using semistructured interviews. The interview questions examined older adults' perspectives about telemedicine, including their expectations regarding telemedicine services and the factors that affect its use. Thematic analysis was performed using NVivo (version 12; Lumivero). The study was reported using the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. RESULTS: In total, 29 patients with multimorbidity-21 (72%) female patients and 8 (28%) male patients with a mean age of 69 (SD 10.39) years-were included. Overall, 4 themes and 7 subthemes emerged: theme 1-perceived benefit of telemedicine among older adults with multimorbidities, theme 2-appropriate use of telemedicine for multimorbid care, theme 3-telemedicine system catering to the needs of older patients, and theme 4-respect patients' decision to decline to use telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine for older adults with multimorbidity should focus on those with stable conditions. This can help increase access to care for those requiring continuous condition monitoring. A structured telemedicine program and patient-centered services can help increase patient acceptance of telemedicine. However, health care providers must accept the limitations of older patients that may prevent them from receiving telemedicine services.


Asunto(s)
Afecciones Crónicas Múltiples , Telemedicina , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Anciano , Multimorbilidad , Personal de Salud , Afecciones Crónicas Múltiples/epidemiología , Investigación Cualitativa
12.
Behav Ther ; 55(1): 106-121, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216225

RESUMEN

Telehealth treatment for child disruptive behavior has the potential to overcome multiple barriers to access (e.g., transportation, therapist availability). Traditional Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has demonstrated efficacy via telehealth in randomized controlled trials. The current study extends this research by examining community-based effectiveness of time-limited (i.e., 18 week) telehealth PCIT, comparing intake and posttreatment child behavior and caregiver skills for both telehealth and in-person PCIT. Participants included predominantly racially, ethnically, linguistically, and socioeconomically diverse children aged 2 to 8 years, and their caregivers. Dyads (N = 380) received either telehealth (IPCIT) or in-person PCIT.Propensity score analyses were conducted to address potential selection bias due to the nonrandomized sample. Regression analyses revealed no difference between IPCIT and in-person treatment for child disruptive behaviors or compliance outcomes. However, caregivers who received IPCIT demonstrated fewer positive statements and greater corrective/directive statements at posttreatment than caregivers who received in-person treatment.This research demonstrated that time-limited IPCIT can effectively improve child disruptive behavior among a socioeconomically, linguistically, and culturally diverse population, and represents the largest sample to date demonstrating the effectiveness of PCIT via telehealth. Future research is warranted to document intervention sustainability on a more system-wide level, and balance prioritizing caregiver skill acquisition over family-derived treatment goals.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil , Cocaína/análogos & derivados , Telemedicina , Humanos , Niño , Terapia Conductista , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/terapia , Relaciones Padres-Hijo
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 16, 2024 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178108

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The urban population health initiative was designed as a multidisciplinary, multisector programme to address cardiovascular (CV) disease, specifically hypertension and its underlying causes in the cities of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; Dakar, Senegal; and São Paulo, Brazil. This article aims to provide an overview of the history and dynamics of CV disease policy making in the three countries, to present the policy reform contributions of the initiative and its role in the policy agenda-setting framework/process in each country and to identify the enablers and challenges to the initiative for doing so. METHODS: A qualitative case study was conducted for each setting from November 2020 to January 2021, comprised of a document review, semi-structured in-depth interviews and unstructured interviews with stakeholders involved in the initiative. The literature review included documents from the initiative and the peer-reviewed and grey literature with a total of 188 documents screened. Interviews were conducted with 21 stakeholders. Data collection and thematic analysis was guided by (i) the Kingdon multiple streams conceptual framework with the main themes being CV disease problems, policy, politics and the role of policy entrepreneurs; and (ii) the study question inquiring on the role of the urban population health initiative at the CV disease policy level and enabling and challenging factors to advancing CV disease policy. Data were thematically analysed using the Framework Method. RESULTS: Each setting was characterized by a high hypertension and CV disease burden combined with an aware and proactive political environment. Policy outcomes attributed to the initiative were updating the guidelines and/or algorithms of care for hypertension and including revised physical and nutritional education in school curricula, in each city. Overall, the urban health initiative's effects in the policy arena, were most prominent in Mongolia and Senegal, where the team effectively acted as policy entrepreneur, promoting the solutions/policies in alignment with the most pressing local problems and in strong involvement with the political actors. The initiative was also involved in improving access to CV disease drugs at primary health levels. Its success was influenced by the local governance structures, the proximity of the initiative to the policy makers and the local needs. In Brazil, needs were expressed predominantly in the clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-country experience shows that, although the policy and political environment plays its role in shaping initiatives, often the local priority needs are the driving force behind wider change.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Hipertensión , Humanos , Salud Urbana , Mongolia/epidemiología , Senegal/epidemiología , Brasil , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/prevención & control
14.
Aust Health Rev ; 48(1): 28-33, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266308

RESUMEN

Objective Health-related apps on mobile devices (mHealth apps) have become an effective self-management tool and treatment support for patients. There is limited research, however, on how older people (50 and over) perceive the opportunity of using mHealth apps. Our aim was to investigate the perceptions of older people in Australia regarding the opportunity of using prescribed or doctor-recommended mHealth apps and provide insights which can enhance their uptake of mHealth. Methods This was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews involving 21 participants aged 51-82 years. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to categorise the factors that influence the adoption of mHealth apps by older adults. Results We show that beyond the prominent influencing factors from technology adoption research (such as performance and effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions), health-specific factors such as a trusting doctor-patient relationship and strong health self-efficacy positively influence the intended adoption of mHealth apps among older adults. In addition, the IT security and accurate interpretation of participants' input in an mHealth app can present barriers to mHealth app adoption. Conclusion Our analyses provide additional insights complementing existing technology adoption research. Their successful adoption and utilisation require further empirical evidence on its effectiveness along with attention to the voices of those who are meant to use them. To address potential barriers, improve the quality and security of mHealth apps, and thus achieve greater patient safety, the involvement of consumers, regulators and health professionals is necessary.


Asunto(s)
Pueblos de Australasia , Aplicaciones Móviles , Telemedicina , Anciano , Humanos , Australia , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Telemedicina/métodos
15.
J Surg Oncol ; 129(4): 728-733, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38164022

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Following gastric and esophageal cancer surgery, patients often experience significant, prolonged eating-related symptoms. One promising approach to help patients improve their eating-related quality of life (QOL) is through self-management coaching to aid in diet modification. We performed a randomized pilot study of a nutritionist-led telehealth intervention for the self-management of eating after gastroesophageal cancer surgery. METHODS: Patients who were within 30 days of resuming oral intake after undergoing surgery for gastric and/or esophageal cancer were consented and then randomized to the intervention or usual care. The intervention was performed by a nutritionist trained in self-management coaching and delivered in four telehealth sessions over 4 months. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6 months after baseline: QOL (EORTC QLQC30), weight, body mass index, and sarcopenia. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients were enrolled. 22/27 usual care and 21/26 intervention patients completed the study for a retention rate of 81%. Differences between the intervention and control groups were not statistically significant, but the intervention group had indications of greater improvements in overall QOL as measured by EORTC QLQC30 Summary Score (8.7 vs. 2.3, p = 0.17) as well as greater improvements in 4/5 functional domains (p > 0.3). The intervention group also had slightly more weight gain (6 kg vs. 3 kg, p = 0.3) and less sarcopenia (3/16 vs. 9/18, p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth intervention for self-management of eating symptoms after gastroesophageal cancer surgery. There were trends toward improved overall QOL in the intervention group. A larger study is needed to validate the results.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Sarcopenia , Automanejo , Neoplasias Gástricas , Telemedicina , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Proyectos Piloto , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirugía , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirugía
16.
Nurse Educ Today ; 134: 106091, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241962

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Communities of practice could contribute to transformations in health professions education to meet complex and emerging challenges. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of communities of practice in this setting, and how context influences outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To understand when, why and how communities of practice with health professions education faculty work to facilitate higher education change. DESIGN: A realist synthesis according to the RAMESES standards and steps described by Pawson and colleagues. REVIEW METHODS: Early scoping of the literature informed the development of an initial program theory to describe underlying assumptions about how communities of practice in higher education, implemented with health professions education faculty, were likely to work. The theory was tested and further refined through a realist synthesis. A systematic search for evidence using search terms 'faculty', 'communities of practice' and 'higher education' and related terms was supplemented with citation tracking and hand searching of significant authors and journals. Following study appraisal, data were extracted and synthesised from 21 manuscripts describing 16 communities of practice. The realist synthesis focused on identifying patterns in context-mechanism-outcome interactions, and the alignment with substantive theory. RESULTS: From the included manuscripts, ten context-mechanism-outcome configurations were identified that describe a range of individual, interpersonal and institutional outcomes of communities of practice with health professions education faculty and context-mechanism interactions that contribute to achieving these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study expands theoretical understandings of how and why communities of practice work. There is value in communities of practice in the higher education sector, primarily in the field of health professions education. Communities of practice implemented in the context of complex change with participants who have a desire to participate can facilitate change in health professions education, including institutional level changes, through reflection, experiential learning and creating a shared agenda for change. Findings from this study can be used by policy and decision-makers within health education to best apply communities of practice to achieve meaningful outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Docentes , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Humanos , Educación en Salud , Empleos en Salud
17.
J Surg Res ; 293: 511-516, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37827029

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Health-care disparities in rural and underserved areas may be exacerbated by the pandemic, personnel challenges, and supply chain limitations. This study aimed to quantify current variation in rural and urban pediatric renal ultrasound availability. METHODS: We identified all hospitals statewide and contacted radiology departments posing as a parent trying to schedule an appointment for a routine pediatric renal-bladder ultrasound. Intervals between day of contact and first available appointment were compared between rural and urban institutions. RESULTS: We were able to contact 42/48 (87.5%) rural hospitals, and 20/39 (51.3%) urban hospitals. Scheduling could not be completed in 5 rural and 7 urban hospitals. The median wait time for the 37 remaining rural and 13 remaining urban hospitals was similar: 7 (range: 0-21) days in rural hospitals and 6 (range: 0-17) days in urban hospitals (P = 0.81). If contact was made, the likelihood of scheduling within 7 d was similar in rural and urban areas (odds ratio [OR] = 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-1.97; P = 0.18). However, patients were much more likely to have a completed call at a rural hospital (OR = 6.65; 95% CI: 2.3-19.2; P = 0.0005), and so in reality, patients were 2.89 times as likely to be able to schedule an renal-bladder ultrasound within 7 d at a rural compared with an urban institution (95% CI: 1.19-7.03; P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: While access to pediatric renal sonograms was similar within a week at rural and urban institutions once telephone contact was made, it was significantly more difficult to schedule appointments at urban institutions.


Asunto(s)
Citas y Horarios , Vejiga Urinaria , Niño , Humanos
18.
Ambio ; 2023 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070061

RESUMEN

Prompted by the increasing public focus on environmental policy and the continuous inability of States to reach environmental targets agreed upon in the context of the United Nations and the European Union, we explore the development of discourses within the Danish public agenda regarding nature management 2016-2021. This is done through a mixed-methods framework of discourse analysis and structural topic modeling based on documents from the Danish Parliament's Environmental committee 2016-2021, estimating topic prevalence, and analyzing the discourses within each topic, resulting in a qualitative overview of 21 identified topics and their associated discourses and an overview of how the different topic proportions changed over time. A shift in the public agenda was found: a change from discussions about untouched forest focused on trade-offs between timber extraction and biodiversity, to a discussion about different understandings of animal welfare in the context of large grazers in nature national parks in Denmark.

19.
Sante Publique ; 35(HS1): 139-145, 2023 12 01.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38040636

RESUMEN

In October 2010, the decree n°2010­1229 relating to telemedicine, published in the "Journal officiel de la république française" (JORF) n°0245 of October 21, 2010, specified the terms of the application of telemedicine in France. The practice of remote oral medicine is now becoming more widespread in the country. Since 2010, the dental public health team of the University Hospital (CHU) of Montpellier and the University of Montpellier has been working on the subject, with nearly ten thousand telemedicine acts performed as part of the work of the "First consultation and telemedicine" Medical Activity Unit of the Center for Dental Care, Teaching and Research (CSERD) of the CHU of Montpellier. Various studies have been conducted with multiple target populations to evaluate the value of teledentistry in different settings. The practice of teledentistry should help fight against inequalities of access to care and prevention in France. It has shown to be beneficial for patients, health professionals, dentists and health institutions, but improvements are needed to structure and perpetuate this practice. The profession must make major decisions and relaunch discussions so that France remains one of the leaders in this field.


Le décret no 2010-1229 relatif à la télémédecine, paru au Journal officiel de la République française (JORF) no 0245 du 21 octobre 2010, a précisé les modalités d'application de la télémédecine. La pratique de la médecine bucco-dentaire à distance commence à se faire une place en France. Depuis 2010, l'équipe de santé publique orale du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) de Montpellier et de l'université de Montpellier travaille sur le sujet avec près de 10 000 actes de télémédecine réalisés dans le cadre de l'Unité d'activité médicale de « Première consultation et télémédecine ¼ du Centre de soins, d'enseignement et de recherche dentaire (CSERD) du CHU de Montpellier. Différentes études ont été menées auprès de multiples publics pour évaluer l'intérêt de la télémédecine bucco-dentaire dans différents milieux. La pratique de la télémédecine bucco-dentaire doit permettre de lutter contre les inégalités d'accès aux soins et à la prévention pour la population française. Des intérêts se dégagent pour les patients, les professionnels de santé, les chirurgiens-dentistes et les institutions de santé, mais des améliorations sont nécessaires pour cadrer et pérenniser cette pratique. La profession doit prendre des décisions majeures et relancer les discussions pour que la France reste dans le peloton de tête à l'échelle internationale dans cette pratique.


Asunto(s)
Telemedicina , Humanos , Derivación y Consulta , Francia , Personal de Salud
20.
Hum Resour Health ; 21(1): 93, 2023 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38041066

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This review paper offers a policy-tracing trend analysis of national experiences among low- and middle-income countries in strengthening human resources for health information systems (HRHIS). This paper draws on evidence from the last two decades and applies a modified Bardach's policy analysis framework. A timely review of the evidence on HRHIS and underlying data systems is needed now more than ever, given the halfway mark of the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 and the protracted COVID-19 pandemic and other global health emergencies, over and above the increasing need for health and care workers to provide essential health services. MAIN TEXT: Considering World Health Assembly resolutions and HRH-related global developments between 2000 and 2022, we targeted peer-reviewed and gray literature covering the inception, impact, bottlenecks, and gaps of HRHIS. We also considered results from a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation-funded project that assessed HRH data systems in 21 countries and the use of HRH data and information for policy, planning, and management. Aligned with the National Health Workforce Accounts (NHWA), we identify priority themes related to digital priorities for HRHIS and governance/leadership and present case studies of five countries that pursued different pathways to successfully develop their HRHIS. Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been achieved through a scaled-up implementation of HRHIS combined with the skills needed to analyze and use data, sustain systems functionality, and make systematic improvements over time. Global health development aid investments and technical innovations have led to advancements in HRHIS, district health information software (DHIS2), and partner collaborations during the HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and COVID-19 crises. Although the progressive implementation of NHWA continues to steer country-level efforts through standardized indicators and regular reporting, traditional challenges remain, such as data systems fragmentation, lack of interoperability between systems, and underutilization of reported data. Encouragingly, some countries demonstrate strong governance and leadership capacities and others strong HRHIS digital capacities. Both HRH and health service data are needed to inform on-demand decisions during times of emergencies and pandemics as well as during routine essential health services delivery. Evidence-based examples from distinctive countries demonstrate that reliable HRHIS is achievable for better planning and management of the health and care workforce.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información en Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Desarrollo Sostenible , Urgencias Médicas , Recursos Humanos
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