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1.
Environ Entomol ; 51(1): 94-107, 2022 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864906

RESUMEN

Insects harbor bacterial endosymbionts that provide their hosts with nutritional benefit or with protection against natural enemies, plant defenses, insecticides, or abiotic stresses. We used directed sequencing of 16S rDNA to identify and compare endosymbionts of Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford) and the western, central, and northwestern haplotypes of B. cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae). Both species are native to North America, are known to harbor the plant pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' and develop on shared host plants within the Convolvulaceae. The Old-World species Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter) (Psylloidea: Triozidae), now found in North America, was included as an outgroup. 16S sequencing confirmed that both Bactericera species harbor 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' and revealed that both species harbor unique strains of Wolbachia and Sodalis. However, the presence of Wolbachia and Sodalis varied among haplotypes of B. cockerelli. The central and western haplotypes harbored the same strains of Wolbachia, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing of the wsp and ftsZ genes. Wolbachia was also detected in very low abundance from the northwestern haplotype by high-throughput sequencing of 16S but was not detected from this haplotype by PCR screening. The northwestern and central haplotypes also harbored Sodalis, which was not detected in the western haplotype. Heterotrioza chenopodii harbored an entirely different community of potential endosymbionts compared with the Bactericera spp. that included Rickettsia and an unidentified bacterium in the Enterobacteriaceae. Results of this study provide a foundation for further research on the interactions between psyllids and their bacterial endosymbionts.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Solanum tuberosum , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Haplotipos , Hemípteros/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Solanum tuberosum/microbiología
2.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(1): 211-222, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360489

RESUMEN

Resumen En este artículo se presenta la validación de una versión abreviada de la Escala de Prácticas Espirituales de Parsian y Dunning (2009). Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de personas adultas (n = 251, M = 60.85, DT = 13.40) víctimas de violencia política en Chile durante la dictadura cívico militar (1973-1990). Para valorar la estructura de la escala se realizó un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC), se calculó el índice de fiabilidad (α = .85) y se valoró la validez convergente con una serie de correlaciones bivariadas entre variables. De acuerdo a lo esperado, el AFC informa un adecuado ajuste a la estructura unifactorial y los resultados dan cuenta de la relación significativa entre las prácticas espirituales y el crecimiento postraumático y entre las prácticas espirituales y la religiosidad. La relación entre estas dos últimas es media-baja (r = .29), lo cual permite concluir que, aunque relacionadas, son constructos diferentes. A partir del análisis de los datos, no se puede concluir que exista relación entre las prácticas espirituales con la edad y el nivel de ingresos. En conclusión, la versión abreviada de la Escala de Prácticas Espirituales presenta adecuados niveles de fiabilidad y validez, por lo que resulta recomendable para ser utilizada en la medición de prácticas espirituales, especialmente en aquellas poblaciones que no se adscriben a una fe teísta.


Abstract Spirituality, or what motivates the search for the sacred from particular and free positions, allows us to provide a framework from which to interpret the experience of loss and suffering, contributing in different ways to the resignification and re-authorship of people after the trauma. It is related to resilience, with that ability to overcome adverse events. It favors the mitigation of the negative effects of the traumatic event and fosters healthy and successful psychological development -despite the suffering caused by an external situation- by promoting the construction and redefinition of people's life purpose -one of the central components of human well-being-, being especially relevant in those who have been victims of trauma. Thus, spirituality can contribute to the reconfiguration of the narrative about the survived experience from practices that promote spiritual emotion such as the actions of meditating or praying, the latter considered as one of the mechanisms of self-revelation that is fundamental within the post traumatic growth process. Spirituality and religion maintain a complex interrelation that at times makes difficult the distinction between them. However, this distinction is especially sensitive and necessary when it comes to accounting for spirituality in people who do not profess a theistic faith. This is the case of a significant part of people with left-wing ideologies -who suffered some type of violence during the military dictatorships implanted from the second half of the 20th century in Latin America. Particularly in Chile, the civic-military dictatorship (1973-1990) was especially cruel with people of left-wing ideologies, many of them not ascribed to a belief of a theistic order. In this context, it is relevant to account for spiritual practices -differentiating them from religious beliefs- in relation to post-traumatic growth in people victims of political violence. For this objective we have proposed in this article the validation of the short version of the Parsian and Dunning (2009) Spiritual Practice Scale. For this purpose, we utilized a sample of adult people victims of political violence in Chile during the military dictatorship between 1973 and 1990 (n = 251, M = 60.85, DT = 13.40). To assess the structure of the scale, we estimated a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The reliability index was calculated (α = .85) and the convergent validity was assessed with a series of bivariate correlations between variables. As expected, the CFA reports an adequate adjustment to the unifactorial structure and the results show the significant relationship between spiritual practices and post-traumatic growth (r = .45), and between spiritual practices with religiosity (r = .29). Being the relationship between spiritual practices and religiosity medium-low, it allows us to conclude that although they are related, they are different constructs. From the analysis of the data, it cannot be concluded that there is a relationship between spiritual practices with age and income level. In conclusion, the short version of the Spiritual Practices Scale presents adequate levels of reliability and validity, so it is recommended to be used in the measurement of spiritual practices, especially in those populations that do not adhere to a theistic faith.

3.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(1): 1-20, jun. 2022.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, BNUY | ID: biblio-1369095

RESUMEN

La anemia constituye un problema mayor de salud pública debido a sus múltiples consecuencias biológicas, económicas y sociales. La anemia por deficiencia de hierro es común en niños pequeños, debido a los altos requerimientos de hierro necesarios para su rápido crecimiento y desarrollo, particularmente durante los primeros dos años de vida. Con el objetivo de sintetizar el conocimiento actual sobre los determinantes sociales de la anemia ferropénica en niños, se realizó una revisión sistemática de los artículos originales sobre estudios cuantitativos publicados en las bases de datos PubMed Central (PMC), SCOPUS Elsevier y la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS) en el mes de febrero del año 2021, en la que fueron seleccionados 43 artículos. Se observa que los estudios abordan desde causas estructurales como el nivel socioeconómico, como aquellas subyacentes: saneamiento, condiciones habitacionales, hacinamiento, conocimiento materno, estado nutricional del niño, lactancia materna y alimentación complementaria, entre otras. Se advierte que hay escasez de estudios en América Latina que aborden la problemática desde la perspectiva de los determinantes sociales, resulta fundamental el profundizar en el estudio de la determinación de las causas para contar con información válida que permita tomar acciones tendientes a contribuir en la resolución de la problemática en Uruguay.


Anemia is a major public health problem due to its multiple biological, economic and social con-sequences. Iron deficiency anemia is common in young children, due to the high iron requirements necessary for their rapid growth and development, particularly during the first two years of life. With the aim of synthesizing the current knowledge on the social determinants of iron deficiency anemia in children, a systematic review of the original articles on quantitative studies published in the PubMed Central (PMC), SCOPUS Elsevier and the Virtual Library in Health (VHL) in the month of February of the year 2021, in which 43 articles were selected. It is observed that the studies address from structural causes such as socioeconomic level, as well as those underlying: sanitation, housing conditions, overcrowding, maternal knowledge, nutritional status of the child, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, among others. It is noted that there is a lack of studies in Latin America that address the problem from the perspective of social determinants, it is essential to deepen the study of the determination of the causes to have valid information that allows taking actions aimed at contributing to the resolution of the problem in Uruguay.


A anemia é um importante problema de saúde pública devido às suas múltiplas consequências biológicas, econômicas e sociais. A anemia por deficiência de ferro é comum em crianças pequenas, devido às altas necessidades de ferro necessárias para seu rápido crescimento e desenvolvimento, principalmente durante os dois primeiros anos de vida. Com o objetivo de sintetizar o conhecimento atual sobre os determinantes sociais da anemia ferropriva em crianças, uma revisão sistemática dos artigos originais sobre estudos quantitativos publicados no PubMed Central (PMC), SCOPUS Elsevier e na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) em o mês de fevereiro do ano de 2021, no qual foram selecionados 43 artigos. Observa-se que os estudos abordam desde causas estruturais como nível socioeconômico, como também as subjacentes: saneamento básico, condições de moradia, superlotação, conhecimento materno, estado nutricional da criança, aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar, entre outras. Nota-se que há carência de estudos na América Latina que abordem o problema sob a ótica dos determinantes sociais, é imprescindível aprofundar o estudo da determinação das causas para ter informações válidas que permitam tomar ações que visem contribuir para a resolução do problema no Uruguai.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Niño , Anemia Ferropénica , Nutrición del Niño , Nutrición del Lactante , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Factores Sociales , Lactante
4.
FASEB J ; 36 Suppl 12022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35555404

RESUMEN

Sleeping is one of the main physiological processes of cellular and physiological restoration. Inadequate sleep patterns can impede adequate systemic restoration and can lead to the development of chronic health conditions. In 2014, both World Health Organization (WHO) and the Central Disease Control (CDC) in the United States categorized inadequate sleep patterns as a public health crisis. Both entities majorly agree that, approximately 40% of the general population suffers from sleep disorders, with 60% of these opt for medication to induce sleep. Researchers from Epidemiologist suggest that a series of external factors, have been theorized to contribute to lack in sleep quality. Including high levels of stress, sounds, and light quality. Alternatively, there has been a limitation regarding studying internal factors affecting sleep quality and sleep behavior. Parasomnia is an abnormal sleep behavior in any of the five sleep stages characterized by sleep walking, sleep talking, bedwetting, nightmare disorders, and sleep paralysis principally. To date, little is known about this sleep abnormality and its origins. In this study, we referenced data from the 1000 Genome Project to study the genetic variant (rs2304672) of the PER2 gene in Puerto Rico, whose general population houses the highest percentage of the variant in all the America's. Provided data suggests that this genetic variant is linked to poor sleep quality and parasomnias. In Puerto Rico, modern demographics evidence that the population is comprised of three main ethnic groups. We theorize that a bottleneck effect is an influential factor in the distribution and prevalence of said genetic variant in the island. Our results found that the genetic variant is common in the southwestern and southeastern coastal regions of Puerto Rico. Additionally, we found that the genetic variant frequency in the entire island is of 3.83% in the general population of Puerto Rico.

5.
Plant Dis ; 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536214

RESUMEN

Celtis laevigata (sugarberry, southern hackberry) is an important, shade-tolerant, deciduous hardwood tree species that occurs naturally in flood plains, along streams and rivers, and in urban landscapes of the southeastern USA (Kennedy 1990). In recent years, dieback and mortality of C. laevigata have been commonly observed in some areas of South Carolina (SC) and Georgia (GA) (Poole et al. 2021). In April/May of 2018, the crown conditions and root systems were examined for three C. laevigata trees in North Augusta, SC. The crown of each tree was visually assessed using the method of Poole et al. (2021). Root samples were obtained by excavating two main roots ca. 2 meters away from the stem of each tree. Tree SB474 (N33 29.472, W81 59.082, elev. 55.8 m) exhibited > 66% crown loss and decaying roots with white mycelial fans and dark rhizomorphs characteristic of Armillaria. Tree SB913 (N33 29.830, W81 59.349, elev. 58.8 m) exhibited ca. 34-66% crown loss, while tree SB914 (N33 29.837, W81 59.338, elev. 57 m) appeared healthy with no apparent crown loss. Roots of trees SB913 and SB914 appeared healthy, although rhizomorphs were attached to the root surfaces. Roots and/or attached rhizomorphs were surface disinfested and plated n a basidiomycete-selective medium (Hendrix and Kuhlman 1962). Three Armillaria isolates, one from each corresponding tree, were paired with each other, and two genets were identified (SB474 and SB913 = SB914). The two genets (SB474 and SB913) were used in somatic pairing tests against three known tester isolates for each of the following species: A. solidipes, A. mellea, A. gallica, A. mexicana, and Desarmillaria caespitosa (=A. tabescens). Pairing of isolates SB474 and SB913 showed the highest compatibility with A. gallica (isolates ST22, ST23, and M70) with 100% and 89%, respectively. These isolates were definitively confirmed as A. gallica by translation elongation factor 1α gene sequences (tef1; Klopfenstein et al. 2017) (GenBank accession nos. OM993577 and OM993578 for SB474 and SB913, respectively). GenBank nucleotide BLAST showed tef1 similarity for both SB474 and SB913 isolates was highest for A. gallica (≥98.7%; GenBank accession nos. MT761696, MT761697, and KF156772). This is the first report of A. gallica associated with Armillaria root disease of C. laevigata. Rhizomorphs on the surface of apparently healthy tree roots and root colonization in severely declining trees are a common sign of A. gallica (Baumgartner and Rizzo 2001). Pathogen colonization of root surfaces may provide an opportunity for infection of highly damaged trees, resulting in root disease (Gregory 1985). Primary agents of C. laevigata dieback and mortality in SC and GA remain undefined, but continued study is needed to confirm the role of A. gallica in C. laevigata dieback and mortality. Although pathogenicity tests are impractical for Armillaria, these A. gallica occurrences in SC further adds to our knowledge of this pathogen's distribution in the southeastern USA, where it has also been confirmed in Tennessee in hardwood forests (Bruhn et al. 1997), SC on Hemerocallis sp. (Schnabel et al. 2005), and GA on a Rhododendron/span> sp. and Quercus rubra (Hanna et al. 2020). The distribution and host range of A. gallica is likely more widespread in the southeastern USA than existing records indicate. Documenting Armillaria distribution, including A. gallica, is essential for predicting climate-change impacts on Armillaria root diseases (Kim et al. 2022). Baumgartner, K., and Rizzo, D. M. 2001. Plant Dis. 85:947-951. Bruhn, J. N., et al. 1997. In 11th Central Hardwood Forest Conference, USDA, FS, NC-GTR-188, 49-57. Gregory, S. C. 1985. Plant Path. 34:41-48. Hanna, J. W., et al. 2020. Plant Dis. 105: 1226. Hendrix Jr, F. F., and Kuhlman, E. G. 1962. PI. Dis. Rep. 46:674-676. Kennedy, Jr., H. E. 1990. Silvics of North America: 2. Hardwoods. USDA-FS. Agriculture Handbook 654. Kim, M.-S., et al. 2022. Front. For. Glob. Change 4:740994. Klopfenstein, N. B., et al. 2017. Mycologia 109:75-91. Poole, E. M., et al. 2021. J. For. 119:266-274. Schnabel, G., et al. 2005. Plant Dis. 89:683.

6.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096211066392, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543558

RESUMEN

Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is an endemic fungal disease that is prevalent in the Southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America. The majority of cases are asymptomatic. Symptomatic cases primarily present with pneumonic disease, varying in severity from mild to severe. In a minority, extrapulmonary disease is known to occur. These disseminated cases typically manifest as meningitis, osteomyelitis, synovitis, and integumentary. Coccidioidomycosis has been identified in nearly every part of the body, including the soft tissues and cartilaginous tissues of the oropharynx. Disseminated CM to the larynx specifically in the pediatric populations is rarely documented. This is a case of persistent stridor misdiagnosed as viral croup in a 9-month-old male with protracted disease. Herein, diagnosis and treatment of laryngeal mass found to be CM are defined with a salutatory outcome.

7.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04038, 2022 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569083

RESUMEN

Background: Female-headed households (FHHs) are regarded as disadvantaged. There are multiple social trajectories that can lead to women heading households. It is important to distinguish between these trajectories, as well as societal norms and contextual factors, to understand how and when are FHHs represented as a dimension of gender inequity. Our analysis defines and describes a typology of 16 FHH types (FHH16) based on demographic characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study used national Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) in 103 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to identify a typology of FHHs based on the family composition and additional household members. We performed descriptive analyses at the household level to generate median proportions of the FHH16 types and selected household characteristics. We conducted cluster analyses to explore FHH16 patterns across naturally grouped clusters of countries and described selected social and economic indicators at the ecological level. Results: The most common FHH16 types were those where the women household heads lived with children only, were alone, or lived with men, women, and children, but without a husband. In Africa and South Asia, the most common FHH was one where women heads resided with children only. In East Asia and the Pacific, the highest proportion of FHHs were those with men, women, and children. In MENA and Eastern Europe & Central Asia, households with women heads living alone were the most prevalent. Latin America had more FHHs with husbands, comparatively, and the most common FHHs were those with heads living alone or with children. Our exploratory cluster analysis generated five clusters with unique FHH16 patterns. The clusters had distinct geographic, contextual and economic characteristics. Conclusions: Our typology showed that FHHs are heterogeneous within and between countries. The ecological analysis emphasized further variation created by different societal and cultural factors. Research around their vulnerabilities and strengths needs to consider these factors and their influence on socioeconomic status and health-related outcomes within households headed by women.

8.
Neotrop Entomol ; 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575876

RESUMEN

Among the oldest winged insects, odonates are a monophyletic order that have become important models for ecological studies because of their highly diverse reproductive behaviors and their role as top predators and bioindicators. However, knowledge on evolutionary relationships within the order is still scarce compared to other taxa, and this situation is even more complicated in areas with high biodiversity, such as in the Amazon. Here, we sought to identify knowledge gaps on Amazonian Odonata regarding three main aspects: (i) how the inclusion of Amazonian taxa affects our interpretation of the evolutionary relationships of Zygoptera and Anisoptera; (ii) the position of Amazonian taxa in the existing supertree of the Odonata; (iii) dating evolutionary divergence between nodes using fossil records; (iv) assessing whether more species-rich basins (e.g., Amazon basin) have a larger phylogenetic gap when compared to basins with lower richness in South and Central America; and (v) in the light of our knowledge, we discuss diversification patterns found in the most predominant clades of Amazonian taxa. We built a supertree from currently available phylogenetic information of Odonata. The results show that there is no genetic information for 85% (n: 503) of the Amazonian species and that family level relationships are unknown for 17 genera. After compiling the data, we observed that clades belonging to Neotropical lineages are the most poorly resolved, with large polytomies. This problem was identified in many Anisoptera genera, such as Macrothemis, Dasythemis, Elasmothemis, and Erythrodiplax. Our results also suggest that not always the richest basins have the greatest phylogenetic gaps. As expected, we found important gaps in the existing Odonata phylogenies, especially in clades that include Amazonian representatives, that are also those less known from ecological and conservation perspectives.

9.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-11, 2022 May 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551130

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities are growing globally. Understanding patterns of cerebrovascular disease in CALD communities may improve health outcomes through culturally specific interventions. We compared rates of transient ischaemic attack (TIA)/stroke (ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage) and stroke risk factor prevalence in overseas and Australian-born people in South Western Sydney (SWS) and New South Wales (NSW). METHODS: This was a 10-year retrospective analysis (2011-2020) of SWS and NSW age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years of TIA/stroke. Data were extracted from Health Information Exchange and Secure Analytics for Population Health Research and Intelligence systems. Rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), atrial fibrillation (AF), smoking, and obesity were also calculated. RESULTS: The SWS and NSW age-standardized rate of TIA/stroke for people born in Australia was 100 per 100,000 person-years (100/100,000/year). In SWS, 56.6% of people were overseas-born compared to 29.8% for NSW. The age-standardized rate of TIA/stroke for Polynesian-born people was more than double that of Australian-born people (p < 0.001). Hypertension (33 [SWS] vs. 27/100,000/year [NSW]) and T2DM (36 [SWS] vs. 26/100,000/year [NSW]) were the most common risk factors with rates >50/100,000/year (hypertension) and >80/100,000/year (T2DM) for people born in Polynesia, Melanesia, and Central America. Rates of T2DM, AF, and obesity for Polynesian-born people were over threefold greater than people born in Australia. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Greater rates of TIA/stroke were observed in specific CALD communities, with increased rates of cerebrovascular risk factors. Culturally specific, targeted interventions may bridge health inequalities in cerebrovascular disease.

10.
Genet Mol Biol ; 45(2): e20210247, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499273

RESUMEN

Brachidontes exustus (Mollusca, Mytilidae) is mainly distributed in Central America, where it has been recognized as a _lataforma species. This study aimed to determine whether B. exustus extends beyond the Amazon Barrier and southward along the Brazilian West Atlantic coast. Mitochondrial genes coding for cytochrome-c oxidase, subunit I (COI) and 16S subunit of ribosomal _lataforma__ cid (16S rRNA) were analyzed with _lata parameters on Brazilian populations (Salvador, Arraial do Cabo and Fernando de Noronha) of scorched mussels previously recorded as B. exustus. Multivariate morphometric _latafor showed partial discrimination of species. Molecular _latafor confirmed B. exustus at Salvador, a population highly similar to Cartagena (Colombia), both belonging to the Atlantic Clade of the B. exustus complex. This fact adds evidence to the idea of the Amazon outflow as a semipermeable barrier. In the southeast of Brazil, B. exustus was not found; instead, B. darwinianus is the species represented at Arraial do Cabo (state of Rio de Janeiro), associated with brackish _lataf. Scorched mussels from Fernando de Noronha are most closely related to B. puniceus from Cape Verde with 4.4% differentiation. Demonstrating an independent evolutionary history since at least the beginning of the Pleistocene, its proposed new name is B. noronhensis.

11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8615, 2022 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597807

RESUMEN

Global warming is expected to enhance drought extremes in the United States throughout the twenty-first century. Projecting these changes can be complex in regions with large variability in atmospheric and soil moisture on small spatial scales. Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) is a valuable measure of evaporative demand as moisture moves from the surface into the atmosphere and a dynamic measure of drought. Here, VPD is used to identify short-term drought with the Standardized VPD Drought Index (SVDI); and used to characterize future extreme droughts using grid dependent stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value (GEV) models, and a random sampling technique is developed to quantify multimodel uncertainties. The GEV analysis was performed with projections using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, downscaled from three Global Climate Models based on the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for present, mid-century and late-century. Results show the VPD based index (SVDI) accurately identifies the timing and magnitude short-term droughts, and extreme VPD is increasing across the United States and by the end of the twenty-first century. The number of days VPD is above 9 kPa increases by 10 days along California's coastline, 30-40 days in the northwest and Midwest, and 100 days in California's Central Valley.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Atmósfera , Cambio Climático , Suelo , Estados Unidos , Presión de Vapor
12.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 04 26.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by inhalation of spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. H. capsulatum is not present in the Netherlands but can cause severe disseminated disease in the immunocompromised traveller, with high mortality rate, especially when diagnosis is delayed. Therefore, early recognition is crucial. However, similarities with other infectious diseases, haematological malignancies and auto-immune diseases make timely diagnosis difficult. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of a 39-year-old immunocompromised male traveller who presented with disseminated histoplasmosis after a trip to Central America. The diagnosis was made a few months after the first symptoms occurred. He died despite adequate treatment with liposomal amphotericin B. CONCLUSION: Disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered as a cause of unexplained fever in immunocompromised patients who travelled to endemic regions. Mortality is high, even when properly treated. Early recognition and treatment improve outcome.


Asunto(s)
Histoplasmosis , Sarcoidosis , Adulto , Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis/complicaciones , Histoplasmosis/diagnóstico , Histoplasmosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Masculino , Sarcoidosis/complicaciones , Sarcoidosis/diagnóstico , Viaje
13.
Data Brief ; 42: 108174, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510266

RESUMEN

Guava (Psidium guajava) is a delicious fruit native to Mexico, Central or South America, and the Caribbean region. It's high in vitamin C, Calcium, Pectins and is a good source of fiber. Due to concerns with natural and environmental resources, technical issues, and other impediments, the production level decreases day-to-day. However, we'll concentrate on the most critical challenges, such as infections that affect guava plants, fruits, and disease outbreak prevention through early identification. Besides, the early recognition of guava disease using the expert system will lead to higher yields that will eventually help guava farmers reduce their economic losses. In the recent era, image processing and computer vision have been broadly applied to recognize multiple diseases that are not identified with the naked eyes. This article presents a dataset of guava images containing both leaves and fruit images (diseases affected and disease-free) are classified into six classes: for guava fruits-Phytophthora, Scab, Styler end Rot, and Disease-free fruit, and for guava leaves-Red Rust, and diseases-free leave. All images are basically captured from the guava garden located at Bangladesh Agricultural University in July when the guava fruits are almost ripened, and the infections are found in guava plants. This dataset is mainly for those researchers who work with computer vision, machine learning, and deep learning to develop a system that recognizes the guava disease to assist guava farmers in their cultivation.

14.
J Adv Res ; 37: 185-196, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499053

RESUMEN

Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is the most widely studied disease due to its higher prevalence, heterogeneity and mortality. Objectives: This study aimed to compare female BC trends among 21 world regions and globally over 28 year of data and to assess the association between sociodemographic transitions and female BC risks. Methods: We used Global burden of disease study data and measure the female BC burden according to 21 world regions and sociodemographic indices (SDI). Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis was used to estimate time and cohort trend of BC in different SDI regions. Results: By world regions, age-standardised rate of female BC incidence were high in high-income-North America (ASR, 92.9; (95 %UI, 89.2, 96.6)), Western Europe (84.7; (73.4, 97.2)) and Australia (86; (81.7, 90.2)) in 2017. Whereas this rate was significantly increased by 89.5% between 1990 and 2017 in East Asia. We observed negative association between SDI and death, and DALYs in 25th and below percentiles of death and DALYs for the worldwide regions. Further, there was observed a strong negative correlation between SDI and case fatality percent (r2017 = -0.93; r1990 = -0.92) in both 2017 and 1990 worldwide and highest case fatality percentage was observed in Central Sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, the risk of case-fatality rate tends to decrease most noticeably in high middle SDI countries, and the reduction of the risk of case-fatality rate in the recent cohort was the lowest in the low SDI countries. Conclusions: Remarkable variations exist among various regions in BC burden. There is a need to reduce the health burden from BC in less developed and under developing countries, because under-developed countries are facing higher degree of health-related burden. Public health managers should execute more classified and cost-effective screening and treatment interferences to lessen the deaths caused by BC, predominantly among middle and low SDI countries having inadequate healthcare supplies.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Años de vida Ajustados por la Incapacidad , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida
15.
J Hepatol ; 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533802

RESUMEN

At the beginning of April 2022, 10 cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown origin in children <10 years of age were reported across central Scotland. Since then, case numbers have increased rapidly, with 191 probable cases identified across Europe, the United States of America, Israel and Japan. Until now, 17 children required liver transplantation and 1 died. Accordingly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the European Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control have both issued a warning on a hepatitis of unknown origin in children. This review focuses on the available information concerning this recent outbreak and introduces some of the potential explanations for its development.

16.
JAMA ; 327(18): 1812-1816, 2022 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536261

RESUMEN

Importance: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Objective: To conduct a targeted systematic review to update the evidence on the effectiveness of screening for COPD and the treatment of COPD to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) update of the 2016 recommendation statement on COPD screening. Data Sources: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL for relevant studies published between January 1, 2015, to January 22, 2021; surveillance through March 25, 2022. Study Selection: English-language studies of screening in individuals who do not recognize or report respiratory symptoms; studies of treatment in persons with mild or moderate, or minimally symptomatic, COPD. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently appraised the articles and extracted relevant data from fair- or good-quality studies; no quantitative synthesis was conducted. Main Outcomes and Measures: COPD-related morbidity or mortality, measures of health-related quality of life, and adverse events. Results: The review included no trials on the effectiveness of screening, 3 trials or analyses (n = 20 058) of pharmacologic treatment published since 2015, 13 trials (n = 3657) on nonpharmacologic interventions, and 2 large observational studies (n = 243 517) addressing the harms of pharmacologic treatment published since 2015. The results from the clinical trials of pharmacologic therapy are consistent with the previous review supporting the USPSTF that bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids can reduce COPD exacerbations and tiotropium can improve health-related quality of life in adults with moderate COPD. Overall, there was no consistent benefit observed for any type of nonpharmacologic intervention across a range of patient outcomes. None of the included treatment trials that reported adverse effects found significant harms. Two large observational studies in a screen-relevant population demonstrated an association of the initiation of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist or long-acting beta agonist with the risk of a serious cardiovascular event in treatment-naïve patients and an association of inhaled corticosteroids use with the risk of developing diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this targeted evidence update are generally consistent with the findings of the previous systematic review supporting the 2016 USPSTF recommendation. Evidence of pharmacologic treatment was still largely limited to persons with moderate airflow obstruction, and there was no consistent benefit observed for a range of nonpharmacologic interventions in mild to moderate COPD or in minimally symptomatic persons with COPD.


Asunto(s)
Tamizaje Masivo , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Comités Consultivos , Broncodilatadores/uso terapéutico , Glucocorticoides/administración & dosificación , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/terapia , Calidad de Vida , Bromuro de Tiotropio/uso terapéutico , Estados Unidos
17.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 47(3): 309-318, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545323

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a common comorbidity in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis (AS).As a key item of the American Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score, it has a vital impact on the clinical prognosis of traditional thoracic surgery. T2DM has an adverse effect on the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, studies have shown that T2DM are associated with myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling, decreased left ventricular function, and worsening heart failure symptoms in the AS patients. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) as an interventional method to replace the aortic valve has better safety for middle and high risk patients in surgery, but the impact of T2DM on the clinical outcome of TAVR in AS patients is not clear.By analyzing the clinical and image characteristics of patients with AS and T2DM who received TAVR treatment, so as to explore the effect of T2DM on the perioperative complications and prognosis of TAVR. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive patients with severe AS, who underwent TAVR treatment and were followed up for more than 1 month, were selectedin the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2016 to December 2020.Among them, 5 patients who were treated with TAVR due to simple severe aortic regurgitation were not included, therefore a total of 95 patients with severe aortic stenosis were enrolled in this study.The age of the patients was (72.7±4.8) years old, and there were 58 males (61.1%), and the patients with moderate or above aortic regurgitation had 30 cases (31.6%). The patients were divided into a diabetic group and a non-diabetic group according to whether they were combined with T2DM.There was no statistical difference in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), STS score, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) cardiac function classification between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). The primary end point was defined as a composite event consisting of all-cause death and stroke one month after surgery, and the secondary end point was defined as TAVR-related complications immediately after surgery and one month after surgery.The preoperative clinical data, cardiac ultrasound data, CT data, postoperative medication and the incidence of each endpoint event were compared between the 2 groups.The predictive model of adverse events was constructed by single factor and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared with the non-diabetic group, the diabetic group had high blood pressure and chronic renal insufficiency.There was no significant difference in preoperative ultrasound echocardiography between the 2 groups. Preoperative CT evaluation found that the anatomical structure of the aortic root in the diabetic group was smaller than that in the non-diabetic group, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of bicuspid aortic valve between the 2 groups (all P<0.05). In terms of postoperative medication, the use of statins in the diabetes group was significantly higher than that in the non-diabetic group. In the diabetes group, 6 patients (37.5%) received insulin therapy, and 9 patients (56.3%) received oral medication alone.Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the all-cause death and stroke compound events was increased in the diabetes group in 30 days after TAVR (OR=6.86; 95% CI: 2.14 to 21.79; P<0.01). Heart disease (OR=2.80; 95% CI: 0.99 to 7.88; P<0.05) and chronic renal insufficiency (OR=3.75; 95% CI: 1.24 to 11.34; P<0.05) were also risk factors for all-cause death and stroke compound events.In a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), total calcification score, ejection fraction, and degree of aortic regurgitation, T2DM was still a risk factor for all-cause death and stroke compound events in 30 days after TAVR (OR=12.68; 95% CI: 1.76 to 91.41; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: T2DM is a risk factor for short-term poor prognosis in patients with symptomatic severe AS after TAVR treatment. T2DM should play an important role in the future construction of the TAVR surgical risk assessment system, but the conclusions still need to be further verified by long-term follow-up of large-scale clinical studies.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia de la Válvula Aórtica , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter , Anciano , Válvula Aórtica/cirugía , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Aórtica/etiología , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Aórtica/cirugía , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/cirugía , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter/efectos adversos , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos
18.
Environ Plan A ; 54(4): 693-701, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528225

RESUMEN

In the context of the global financial crisis and the crunch in development financing, remittances have become linked to the financial inclusion agenda in what has been termed as 'financialization of remittances' (FOR). This special issue brings together seven articles that analyze the socioculturally specific histories and the everyday manifestations of the FOR in the Caribbean, Central America, Colombia, Ghana, Mexico, Nepal and Senegal. The contributors engage in a transdisciplinary conversation, mobilizing insights from feminist, postcolonial, poststructural and political geography theories. They propose two majors shifts for financialisation analysis: towards an investigation beyond the global North and towards taking seriously failures, contradictions and contestations of financialisation processes. By doing so, the special issue contributes to financialization research in five major ways: to expose colonial legacies of remittances and their financialization; to challenge the supposedly neutral character of the FOR by revealing the caste, gendered and racialized power relations in financialization processes; to destabilizes the notion of the universal individual financial subject and show how multiple financial subjectivities are constituted in constellations; to document the complexities, ambiguities, contradictions and failures of financialization processes and the (everyday) contestations they face; and to show how remittances and their financialization are implicated in reconfiguring authorities, citizenship and social dynamics. The contributions propose relational understandings of financialization that conceptualize the co-constitution of economic, political and sociocultural dimensions of financialization across and beyond the North-South divide.

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530660

RESUMEN

We present an analysis of the names proposed by Carl Plötz in 1884 for the New World species in the genus Pyrgus Hübner, [1819] facilitated by the genomic sequencing of extant primary type specimens comparatively with a larger sample of more recently collected specimens of these species and their relatives. The changes to nomenclature suggested here are only caused by the identity of primary type specimens as revealed by their phenotypes or through genomic sequencing. All neotypes are designated to stabilize nomenclature in agreement with the current usage of these names, which in unison agrees best with the information available about them. Lectotypes are designated for the following 5 taxa: Pyrgus (Scelothrix [sic]) bellatrix Plötz, 1884 (type locality Argentina: Buenos Aires), Pyrgus (Pyrgus) willi Plötz, 1884 (type locality in Brazil: Minas Gerais), Pyrgus (Pyrgus) albescens Plötz, 1884 (type locality in Mexico), Pyrgus (Syrichthus [sic]) lycurgus Plötz, 1884 (type locality in "Central America", likely southern Mexico), and Pyrgus occidentalis Skinner, 1906 (type locality USA: Texas, San Antonio). Neotypes are designated for the following 4 taxa: Pyrgus (Pyrgus) adepta Plötz, 1884 (Herrich-Schäffer in litt.) (type locality Colombia: Bogota), Pyrgus (Scelothrix [sic]) dion Plötz, 1884 (type locality Colombia: Bogota), Pyrgus (Scelothrix [sic]) adjutrix Plötz, 1884 (Herrich-Schäffer in litt.) (type locality in Mexico: Nuevo Leon), Pyrgus (Pyrgus) insolatrix Plötz, 1884 (Herrich-Schäffer in litt.) (type locality in "Central America", likely southern Mexico). As a result, P. lycurgus and P. insolatrix are objective synonyms. The following are junior subjective synonyms: P. dion of Burnsius adepta (Plötz, 1884), Pyrgus (Syrichthus [sic]) varus Plötz, 1884 of Burnsius orcus (Stoll, 1780) and P. adjutrix of Burnsius oileus (Linnaeus, 1767). Heliopetes (Heliopyrgus) willi (Plötz, 1884) is a species-level taxon and not a subspecies of Heliopetes (Heliopyrgus) domicella (Erichson, [1849])). Genomic analysis of the lectotypes of P. albescens, P. lycurgus, and P. occidentalis establishes them as conspecific with Burnsius communis (Grote, 1872), thus depriving a distinct species currently identified as Burnsius albescens from its name, that becomes a name for Burnsius communis albescens (Plötz, 1884) in accord with its lectotype identity; P. lycurgus and P. insolatrix are its junior subjective synonyms, but P. occidentalis is a junior subjective synonym of B. communis communis. A new name Burnsius albezens Grishin sp. n. (type locality USA: Arizona, Cochise Co., Portal) is proposed for the species misidentified as B. albescens. Furthermore, genomic comparisons reveal two other new species and one new subspecies of Burnsius Grishin, 2019: B. burnsi Grishin sp. n. (type locality Mexico: Veracruz, Huatusco), B. adepta inepta Grishin ssp. n. (type locality Ecuador: Pichincha, Tandapi), and B. orcynus Grishin sp. n. (type locality Curaçao: Hato Field) that are cryptic and can be confidently identified only by their genotype.

20.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534092

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite rapid technological advances and growth, quality in imaging has not received the focus seen elsewhere in cardiovascular medicine, resulting in significant gaps between guidelines and practice. Contemporary echocardiography practice requires comprehensive real-time data collection to allow dynamic auditing and benchmarking of key performance indices. The American College of Cardiology (ACC) proposed additional data standardisation, structured reporting identifying key data elements and imaging registries. In the absence of an Australian echocardiography registry, we developed a national clinical quality registry (GenesisCare Cardiovascular Outcomes Echo Registry). We hypothesised that measurement and local reporting of data would improve compliance of echo studies with quality guidelines and hence their clinical value. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively collected data on 4 099 281 echocardiographic studies entered directly into a central electronic database from 63 laboratories across four Australian states between 2010 and 2021. Real-time auditing of key data elements and introduction of quality improvement pathways were performed to maximise completeness and uniformity of data acquisition and reporting. We compared completeness of key data element acquisition (AV peak velocity, left ventricular ejection fraction, E/e', LA area, rhythm, RVSP) by time and state using de-identified data. Key performance outcomes benchmarked against the aggregated study cohort and international standards were reported to individual sites to drive quality improvement. Between 2010 and 2014 there were significant improvements in data completeness (72.0%+/-26.8% vs 86.8%+/-13.5%, p=0.02), which were maintained to 2020. In addition, interstate variability fell for both EF and E/e' (p<0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale collaboration provides a platform for the development of major quality improvement initiatives in echocardiography. Introduction of local quality assurance programmes via a unified national data set significantly improved the completeness of reporting of key echo quality measures. This in turn significantly improved the quality of, and reduced the interstate variability of, echo data. Developing a centralised database allowed rapid adoption nationally of local quality improvements.


Asunto(s)
Ecocardiografía , Función Ventricular Izquierda , Australia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Volumen Sistólico , Estados Unidos
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