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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118358, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653585

RESUMEN

Migratory bird species may serve as vectors of contaminants to Antarctica through the local deposition of guano, egg abandonment, or mortality. To further investigate this chemical input pathway, we examined the contaminant burdens and profiles of the migratory South polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) and compared them to the endemic Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). A range of persistent organic pollutants were targeted in muscle and guano to facilitate differentiation of likely exposure pathways. A total of 56 of 65 targeted analytes were detected in both species, but there were clear profile and magnitude differences between the species. The South polar skua and Adélie penguin muscle tissue burdens were dominated by p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (mean 5600 ng g-1 lw and 330 ng g-1 lw respectively) and hexachlorobenzene (mean 2500 ng g-1 lw and 570 ng g-1 lw respectively), a chemical profile characteristic of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. Species profile differences, indicative of exposure at different latitudes, were observed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with lower chlorinated congeners and deca-chlorinated PCB-209 detected in South polar Skua, but not in Adélie penguins. Notably, the more recently used perfluoroalkyl substances and the brominated flame retardants, hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A, were detected in both species. This finding suggests local exposure, given the predicted slow and limited long-range environmental transport capacity of these compounds to the eastern Antarctic sector.


Asunto(s)
Charadriiformes , Contaminantes Ambientales , Bifenilos Policlorados , Spheniscidae , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis
2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118365, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656678

RESUMEN

Marine ecosystems in the Arctic and Antarctica were once thought pristine and away from important human influence. Today, it is known that global processes as atmospheric transport, local activities related with scientific research bases, military and touristic maritime traffic, among others, are a potential source of pollutants. Macroalgae have been recognized as reliable metal-biomonitoring organisms due to their accumulation capacity and physiological responses. Metal accumulation (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Se, and Hg) and photosynthetic parameters (associated with in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence) were assessed in 77 samples from 13 different macroalgal species (Phaeophyta; Chlorophyta; Rhodophyta) from areas with high human influence, nearby research and sometimes military bases and a control area, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Most metals in macroalgae followed a pattern influenced by rather algal lineage than site, with green seaweeds displaying trends of higher levels of metals as Al, Cu, Cr and Fe. Photosynthesis was also not affected by site, showing healthy organisms, especially in brown macroalgae, likely due to their great dimensions and morphological complexity. Finally, data did not demonstrate a relationship between metal accumulation and photosynthetic performance, evidencing low anthropogenic-derived impacts associated with metal excess in the area. Green macroalgae, especially Monostroma hariotti, are highlighted as reliable for further metal biomonitoring assessments. In the most ambitious to date seaweed biomonitoring effort conducted towards the Austral pole, this study improved by 91% the overall knowledge on metal accumulation in macroalgae from Antarctica, being the first report in species as Sarcopeltis antarctica and Plocamium cartilagineum. These findings may suggest that human short- and long-range metal influence on Antarctic coastal ecosystems still remains under control.


Asunto(s)
Algas Marinas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Regiones Antárticas , Monitoreo Biológico , Clorofila A , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131871, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426291

RESUMEN

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are a global threat, but impacts of these chemicals upon remote areas such as Antarctica remain unclear. Penguins can be useful species to assess the occurrence of POPs in Antarctic food webs. This work's aim was the evaluation of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs of two penguin species, chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarticus) and gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), breeding in the South Shetland Islands. Results showed a common pattern in POP levels regardless of the species, characterized by a major abundance of PCBs (98 %), followed by PBDEs (1-2%) and PCDD/Fs (<1 %). Concentrations of POPs in chinstrap and gentoo penguin eggs were 482 and 3250 pg/g l.w., respectively. PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs were found at higher concentrations in chinstrap penguin eggs, being these differences significant for PBDEs. Interspecies differences in POP levels agree well with potential trophic position differences among species due to changes in prey composition and foraging areas. POP profiles were dominated by congeners with a low degree of halogenation. Our results therefore suggest similar sources of POPs in the food webs exploited by both species and in both cases attributable to the long-range transportation rather than to the presence of local sources of POPs. TEQs were found between 1.38 and 7.33 pg/g l.w. and followed the pattern non-ortho dl-PCBs > PCDFs > PCDDs > mono-ortho dl-PCBs. TEQ values were lower than the threshold level for harmful effects in birds of 210 pg/g WHO-TEQ/g l.w.


Asunto(s)
Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Spheniscidae , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Furanos , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análisis
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150002, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482143

RESUMEN

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) produced by marine algae represents the largest natural emission of sulfur to the atmosphere. The oxidation of DMS is a key process affecting new particle formation that contributes to the radiative forcing of the Earth. In this study, atmospheric DMS and its major oxidation products (methanesulfonic acid, MSA; non-sea-salt sulfate, nss-SO42-) and particle size distributions were measured at King Sejong station located in the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral spring-summer period in 2018-2020. The observatory was surrounded by open ocean and first-year and multi-year sea ice. Importantly, oceanic emissions and atmospheric oxidation of DMS showed distinct differences depending on source regions. A high mixing ratio of atmospheric DMS was observed when air masses were influenced by the open ocean and first-year sea ice due to the abundance of DMS producers such as pelagic phaeocystis and ice algae. However, the concentrations of MSA and nss-SO42- were distinctively increased for air masses originating from first-year sea ice as compared to those originating from the open ocean and multi-year sea ice, suggesting additional influences from the source regions of atmospheric oxidants. Heterogeneous chemical processes that actively occur over first-year sea ice tend to accelerate the release of bromine monoxide (BrO), which is the most efficient DMS oxidant in Antarctica. Model-estimates for surface BrO confirmed that high BrO mixing ratios were closely associated with first-year sea ice, thus enhancing DMS oxidation. Consequently, the concentration of newly formed particles originated from first-year sea ice, which was a strong source area for both DMS and BrO was greater than from open ocean (high DMS but low BrO). These results indicate that first-year sea ice plays an important yet overlooked role in DMS-induced new particle formation in polar environments, where warming-induced sea ice changes are pronounced.


Asunto(s)
Cubierta de Hielo , Agua de Mar , Regiones Antárticas , Sulfuros/análisis
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150388, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818765

RESUMEN

The effects of N deposition on the C and N cycles via altered litter decomposition rates are an important aspect of global environmental change. The Changbai Mountain region experienced a high N deposition (2.7 g·m-2·year-1 in 2015) and corresponding expansion of Deyeuxia purpurea into the alpine tundra, resulting in changes in endogenous nutrients. However, the relative contributions of the N deposition and endogenous litter nutrients to litter decompositions remain unclear. Therefore, a 5-year N addition and 2-year litter decomposition experiments were conducted. Exogenous N reduced the remaining litter mass of Rhododendron aureum at the early stage (30-240 d) by promoting soluble sugar release, and increased it at the late stage (360-720 d) by suppressing lignin release and decreasing soil microbial community and enzyme activity. A higher proportion of D. purpurea litter (representing higher N, lower lignin, and C:N ratio) decreased remaining litter mass and increased net N release. Exogenous N decreased decomposition rate from 0.32 to 0.21 and net N release from 34% to 24%, whereas litter compositions increased decomposition rates from 0.32 to 0.69 and net litter N release from 34% to 69%. Endogenous litter nutrients directly explained 62% and 40% of the litter decomposition and net N release variables, respectively, whereas exogenous N indirectly explained 12% and 9%, respectively. Thus, we infer that the reductions in C and N storage following D. purpurea expansion may offset the increases of C and N storage under N deposition and the expansion of D. purpurea has a potential long-term negative impact on the ability of tundra plants to sequester C and N in the alpine tundra of the Changbai Mountains. These findings highlight how shifting plant expansion, through changes endogenous nutrients, can influence tundra litter decomposition and C and N storage responses to N deposition.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Nitrógeno , Nitrógeno/análisis , Nutrientes , Hojas de la Planta/química , Suelo , Tundra
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150305, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818790

RESUMEN

The increasing temperatures at the West Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctic) could lead to a higher occurrence of snow algal blooms which are ubiquitous events that change the snow coloration, reducing albedo and in turn exacerbating melting. However, there is a limited understanding of snow algae blooms biodiversity, composition, and their functional profiles, especially in one of the world's areas most affected by climate change. In this study we used 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA metabarcoding, and shotgun metagenomics to assess the diversity, composition, and functional potential of the snow algae blooms bacterial and eukaryotic communities at three different sites of Maritime Antarctic, between different colors of the algae blooms and between seasonal and semi-permanent snowfields. We tested the hypothesis that the functional potential of snow algae blooms is conserved despite a changing taxonomic composition. Furthermore, we determined taxonomic co-occurrence patterns of bacteria and eukaryotes and assessed the potential for the exchange of metabolites among bacterial taxa. Here, we tested the prediction that there are co-occurring taxa within snow algae whose biotic interactions are marked by the exchange of metabolites. Our results show that the composition of snow algae blooms vary significantly among sites. For instance, a higher abundance of fungi and protists were detected in Fildes Peninsula compared with Doumer Island and O'Higgins. Likewise, the composition varied between snow colors and snow types. However, the functional potential varied only among sampling sites with a higher abundance of genes involved in tolerance to environmental stress at O'Higgins. Co-occurrence patterns of dominant bacterial genera such as Pedobacter, Polaromonas, Flavobacterium and Hymenobacter were recorded, contrasting the absence of co-occurring patterns displayed by Chlamydomonadales algae with other eukaryotes. Finally, genome-scale metabolic models revealed that bacteria within snow algae blooms likely compete for resources instead of forming cooperative communities.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Regiones Antárticas , Bacterias/genética , Eutrofización , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120452, 2022 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624816

RESUMEN

The non-destructive spectroscopic characterization of airborne particulate matter (PM) was performed to gain better knowledge of the internal structures of atmospheric aerosols at the particle level in the Antarctic region, along with their potential sources. PM and soil samples were collected during the 2016-2017 austral summer season at the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Research Station "Gabriel de Castilla" (Deception Island, South Shetland Islands). PM was deposited in a low-volume sampler air filter. Raman spectroscopy (RS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were used to determine the elemental and molecular composition of the individual aerosol and soil particles. Filter spectra measured by these techniques revealed long-range atmospheric transport of organic compounds (polystyrene and bacteria), local single and cluster particles made of different kinds of black carbon (BC), exotic minerals (polyhalite, arcanite, niter, ammonium nitrate, syngenite and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizer), and natural PM (sea salts, silicates, iron oxides, etc.). In addition to the filter samples, forsterite and plagioclase were discovered in the soil samples together with magnetite. This is the first report of the presence of a microplastic fiber in the Antarctic air. This fact, together with the presence of other pollutants, reflects that even pristine and remote regions are influenced by anthropogenic activities.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Regiones Antárticas , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Plásticos , Espectrometría Raman
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 149926, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543789

RESUMEN

The effect of climate change on phenology and growth is less understood for belowground plant tissues than for aboveground plant tissues, particularly in high-latitude regions. Ecotypes within a species adapted to a locality may display different responses to climate change. We established two common garden plots in the Arctic tundra north of the Brooks Range in northern Alaska. Three ecotypes of Eriophorum vaginatum along a latitudinal gradient were transplanted into common gardens, and half of the transplants were warmed using open-top chambers (OTCs). Minirhizotrons were used to track the root phenology during the growing seasons of 2016 and 2017. Warming with OTCs (approximately +1 °C in air) did not affect the root biomass, root production or root phenology. The southern ecotype (from 67°16'N) of Eriophorum vaginatum transplanted northward experienced delayed startup and root production compared to two northern ecotypes (from 68°38'N and 69°25'N), although significant differences were not observed in the three ecotypes in terms of root production, root biomass and growth duration at the two sites. Our results suggest that as the climate warms, ecotypes of Eriophorum vaginatum may be able to adjust their duration of root growth and root productivity by phenotypic plasticity, although the degree of plasticity controlling the root startup time may vary between southern and northern ecotypes.


Asunto(s)
Cyperaceae , Ecotipo , Regiones Árticas , Cambio Climático , Tundra
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 1): e20190657, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730667

RESUMEN

This study analyzed the effect of thermal stress on erythrocytes of Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps, abundant notothenioids in Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. In both species, the antioxidant defense system enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase were punctually altered (8°C for 1, 3 and 6 days) in erythrocytes, indicating that these markers are not ideal for termal stress. However, under the influence of thermal stress, morphological changes in Notothenia coriiceps erythrocytes were observed at all exposure times (1, 3 and 6 days at 8°C), and in Notothenia rossii occurred in 6 days. These results suggest that Notothenia corriceps presents a lower tolerance to thermal stress at 8°C for up to 6 days, since the cellular and nuclear alterations recorded are pathological and may be deleterious to the cells. Among the morphological markers analyzed in this work, we believe that the shape change and nuclear bubble formation may be good stress biomarkers in erythrocytes of Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Eritrocitos , Peces
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 1): e20200094, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730668

RESUMEN

Maritime Antarctica is one of the major terrestrial ecosystems dominated by lichens and mosses, which represent important ecological indicators. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the changes in associated communities of mosses-lichens diversity and coverage along a pedoenvironmental gradient on Half Moon Island, Maritime Antarctica. We focused on how patterns in associated communities of mosses-lichens species diversity (richness, species composition and beta diversity) and coverage are associated with soil properties using plant inventory data from 174 plots across 14 contrasting pedoenvironments. The results clearly show marked differences in soil properties along the pedoenvironmental gradient, which determine variations in species composition, richness and coverage. We presumed that these variations are common in Maritime Antarctica owing to varying periglacial processes, weathering degree, parent material and biological influence (especially by penguins and other birds). The community species richness and coverage along the pedoenvironmental gradient differ, nevertheless share common species present in most pedoenvironments, despite differences in coverage. We assume that most of the pedoenvironments are habitats to rare species that occur only under specific soil conditions, additionally promotes high ß-diversity between pedoenvironments and low species similarity.


Asunto(s)
Briófitas , Líquenes , Regiones Antárticas , Ecosistema , Suelo
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 822, 2021 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792660

RESUMEN

A comprehensive measurement of concentrations of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K, and 226Ra in the soil and rocks along with natural uranium and tritium activity levels in lake water were carried out during the Indian expedition to Antarctica. The samples were collected from the Larsemann Hills region in Antarctica (latitude 69°20' S to 69°25'S, longitude 76°6' E to 76°23'E). The data on the natural radioactivity for this region is limited. The study was carried out to establish baseline levels of radioactivity in different terrestrial matrices of this region such as soil, rocks, and lake water. A radiation survey mapping for terrestrial radioactivity was conducted in the region before collection of soil and rock samples. The soil and rock samples were analyzed for natural radioactivity concentrations using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy system. The major contributor to elevated gamma radiation background is attributed to the higher concentration of 232Th and 40K radionuclides in both soil and rocks. Terrestrial components of gamma dose rate due to natural radioactivity have been estimated from the measured radioactivity concentrations and dose conversion coefficients. Several "hotspots" and high background areas in the region have been identified having significantly higher concentration of 232Th and 40K. Rocks in Larsemann Hills region showed high reserve of thorium mineralization in monazites and 40K in K-feldspar. The concentrations of 232Th in soil are found to be in the range of 106-603 Bq/kg, whereas in rock it is in the range of 8-4514 Bq/kg. Natural radioactivity U (nat) and 3H contents in the lake water samples in Larsemann Hills region were estimated as 0.4 and 1.3 Bq/L and are well within the prescribed limit of radioactivity in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo de Radiación , Radiactividad , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo , Regiones Antárticas , Radiación de Fondo , Lagos/análisis , Radioisótopos de Potasio/análisis , Suelo , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Espectrometría gamma , Torio/análisis
12.
Zootaxa ; 5067(1): 106-114, 2021 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810758

RESUMEN

Lanceola loveni antarctica and L. sphaerica are rare deep-sea species known from very few specimens. Until recently (Zeidler 2019) L. loveni antarctica was known only from the types, seven specimens (727 mm), from the Indian Ocean Sector of the Antarctic (Vinogradov 1962). Similarly, L. sphaerica, originally described as a variety of L. clausi (Vinogradov, 1957), based on two damaged specimens, a female (8.0 mm) and a male (9 mm), from the Kurile-Kamchatka region of the NW Pacific, later elevated to full species status by Vinogradov (1970) upon the discovery of a well-preserved male (5 mm) from the same general region, was until then known only from these three specimens. The recent discovery of several specimens of both species in the USNM (Zeidler 2019) has now made it possible to provide a more detailed redescription of these rare species, including some new distribution records.


Asunto(s)
Anfípodos , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Femenino , Masculino
13.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 373-385, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596750

RESUMEN

Microhabitats with distinct biotic and abiotic properties exist within landscapes, and this microhabitat variation can have dramatic impacts on the phenology and physiology of the organisms occupying them. The Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica inhabits diverse microhabitats along the Western Antarctic Peninsula that vary in macrophyte composition, hygric qualities, nutrient input, and thermal patterns. Here, we compare seasonal physiological changes in five populations of B. antarctica living in close proximity but in different microhabitats in the vicinity of Palmer Station, Antarctica. Thermal regimes among our sample locations differed in both mean temperature and thermal stability. Between the warmest and coldest sites, seasonal mean temperatures differed by 2.6˚C and degree day accumulations above freezing differed by a factor of 1.7. Larval metabolic and growth rates varied among the sites, and adult emergence occurred at different times. Distinct microhabitats also corresponded with differences in body composition, as lipid and carbohydrate content of larvae differed across sites. Further, seasonal changes in carbohydrate and protein content were dependent on site, indicating fine-scale variation in the biochemical composition of larvae as they prepare for winter. Together, these results demonstrate that variation in microhabitat properties influences the ontogeny, phenology, physiology, and biochemical makeup of midge populations living in close proximity. These results have implications for predicting responses of Antarctic ecosystems to environmental change.


Asunto(s)
Chironomidae , Ecosistema , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Frío , Congelación
14.
Extremophiles ; 25(5-6): 501-512, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643818

RESUMEN

Since the nineteenth century, a ring-forming disease attacking Antarctic mosses has been reported. However, to date, only the effects on the mosses themselves are known. In this study, we used DNA metabarcoding to investigate the effects on the moss epiphytic algal community at different stages of disease progression. As the disease progressed, algal species richness decreased, although overall abundance was not significantly affected. Prasiolales appeared unaffected, whereas Ulotrichales were more sensitive. Trebouxiales dominated the advanced disease stage, suggesting a possible benefit from the disease, either through the elimination of competition or creation of new niches. Infection is responsible for moss death, leading to habitat loss for other organisms, but pathogenic effects on algae cannot be ruled out. Our data indicate that the disease not only impacts mosses but also other groups, potentially resulting in loss of Antarctic biodiversity. This study provides the first report of the disease effects on epiphytic algal communities of Antarctic bryophytes.


Asunto(s)
Briófitas , Chlorophyta , Regiones Antárticas , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema
15.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(12): 2219-2228, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697697

RESUMEN

A novel pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 3D7T, was isolated during an investigation of potential psychrotolerant species from Antarctic soil. Cells of the isolate were observed to be rod-shaped (0.7-0.9 × 1.0-2.2 µm), Gram-stain negative and non-motile. It was able to grow at 4-32  °C, pH 7.0-10.0 and in the presence of 0-3% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 3D7T belongs to the genus Microvirga and was most closely related to 'Microvirga brassicacearum' CDVBN77T (98.3%), Microvirga subterranea DSM 14364 T (96.8%), Microvirga guangxiensis 25BT (96.5%) and Microvirga aerophila DSM 21344 T (96.5%). The predominant quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10), and the major fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c) and C19:0 cyclo ω8c. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain 3D7T was 63.5 mol%. Its genome sequence showed genes encoding phosphatases and lipases. Genetic machinery related to carbohydrate-active enzymes and secondary metabolites were also observed. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values based on whole genome sequences of strain 3D7T and its closely related species were below the threshold range for species determination. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and genomic analyses suggested that strain 3D7T represents a novel species of the genus Microvirga, for which the name Microvirga antarctica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3D7T (= CGMCC 1.13821T = KCTC 72465T).


Asunto(s)
Microbiología del Suelo , Suelo , Regiones Antárticas , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Methylobacteriaceae , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Ubiquinona
16.
Oecologia ; 197(3): 729-742, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626270

RESUMEN

The quantitative use of stable isotopes (SIs) for trophic studies has seen a rapid growth whereas fatty acid (FA) studies remain mostly qualitative. We apply the Bayesian tool MixSIAR to both SI and FA data to estimate the diet of three sympatric predators: the crabeater (Lobodon carcinophaga), Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii) and leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx). We used SI data of their vibrissae and FA data of their outer blubber to produce comparable diet estimates for the same individuals. Both SI and FA models predicted the same main diet components, although the predicted proportions differed. For the crabeater seal, both methods identified krill, Euphausia superba, as the main, and almost exclusive, food item, although the FA model estimated a slightly lower proportion, potentially due to the low lipid content of krill compared to the fish species used in the model. For the Weddell seal the FA model identified the fish Pleuragramma antarcticum as the most important prey, whereas the SI model was not able to distinguish among prey species, identifying a 'fish-squid' group as the main diet component. For the leopard seal, both models identified krill as the main contributor; however, the predicted proportions for the secondary sources differed. Although vibrissae and outer blubber may not represent the same timeframe, the use of MixSIAR with FA data provides diet estimates comparable to those obtained with SI data, thus, both approaches were complimentary. The use of both biotracers offers a feasible option to study diets of wild animals in a quantitative manner.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos , Phocidae , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Teorema de Bayes , Dieta , Humanos , Isótopos
17.
Oecologia ; 197(3): 675-684, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716491

RESUMEN

Plant communities worldwide show varied responses to nutrient enrichment-including shifts in species identity, decreased diversity, and changes in functional trait composition-but the factors determining community recovery after the cessation of nutrient addition remain uncertain. We manipulated nutrient levels in a tundra community for 6 years of nutrient addition followed by 8 years of recovery. We examined how community recovery was mediated by traits related to plant resource-use strategy and plant ability to modify their environment. Overall, we observed persistent effects of fertilization on plant communities. We found that plants with fast-growing traits, including higher specific leaf area, taller stature and lower foliar C:N, were more likely to show a persistent increase in fertilized plots than control plots, maintaining significantly higher cover in fertilized plots 8 years after cessation of fertilization. Additionally, although graminoids responded most strongly to the initial fertilization treatment, forb species were more vulnerable to fertilization effects in the long-term, showing persistent decline and no recovery in 8 years. Finally, these persistent fertilization effects were accompanied by modified environmental conditions, including persistent increases in litter depth and soil phosphorous and lower soil C:N. Our results demonstrate the potential for lasting effects of nutrient enrichment in nutrient-limited systems and identify species traits related to rapid growth and nutrient-use efficiency as the main predictors of the persistence of nutrient enrichment effects. These findings highlight the usefulness of trait-based approach for understanding the persistent feedbacks of nutrient enrichment, plant dynamics, and niche construction via litter and nutrient build-up.


Asunto(s)
Plantas , Tundra , Nutrientes , Hojas de la Planta , Suelo
18.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 31: 131-149, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689945

RESUMEN

The goal of the EDEN ISS project is to research technologies for future greenhouses as a substantial part of planetary surface habitats. In this paper, we investigate crew time and workload needed to operate the space analogue EDEN ISS greenhouse on-site and remotely from the Mission Control Center. Within the almost three years of operation in Antarctica, different vegetable crops were cultivated, which yielded an edible biomass of 646 kg during the experiment phase 2018 and 2019. Operating in such a remote environment, analogue to future planetary missions, both greenhouse systems and remote support capabilities must be carefully developed and assessed to guarantee a reliable and efficient workflow. The investigation of crew time and workload is crucial to optimize processes within the operation of the greenhouse. For the Antarctic winter seasons, 2019 and 2020, as well as the summer season 2019/2020, the workload of the EDEN ISS greenhouse operators was assessed using the NASA Task Load Index. In addition, crew time was measured for the winter season 2019. The participants consisted of on-site operators, who worked inside the EDEN ISS greenhouse in Antarctica and the DLR remote support team, who worked in the Mission Control Center at the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen (Germany). The crew time results show that crew time for the whole experiment phase 2019 required by the on-site operator team 2019 is approximately four times higher than the crew time of the corresponding remote support team without considering planning activities for the next mission. The total crew time for the experiment phase 2019 amounts to 694.5 CM-h or 6.31 CM-h/kg. With the measurements of the experiment phase 2019 it was possible to develop a methodology for crew time categorization for the remote support activities, which facilitates the analysis and increases the comparability of crew time values. In addition, the development of weekly and monthly crew time demand over the experiment phase is presented. The workload investigations indicate that the highest workload is perceived by the remote support team 2019 + 2020, followed by the summer maintenance team 2019/2020. The on-site operator team 2019 and on-site operator team 2020 showed the lowest values. The values presented in this paper indicate the need to minimize crew time as well as workload demands of the operators involved in the operation of future planetary surface greenhouses.


Asunto(s)
Vuelo Espacial , Carga de Trabajo , Regiones Antárticas , Biomasa , Humanos
19.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131082, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470154

RESUMEN

For the first time an eco-friendly method involving microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of the 16 US-EPA priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicators of anthropogenic contamination in snow samples collected in polar regions. MEPS was carried out by using C8 sorbent material packed in a barrel insert and needle (BIN) and integrated in the eVol® semi-automatic device. For optimization purposes a Face Centred Design and the multicriteria method of the desirability functions were performed to investigate the effect of some parameters affecting the MEPS extraction efficiency, i.e. the number of loading cycles and the number of elution cycles. The developed MEPS-GC-MS method proved to be suitable for PAHs analysis at ultra-trace level by extracting small sample volumes achieving detection limits for 16 PAHs in the 0.3-5 ng L-1 range, repeatability and intermediate precision below 11% and 15%, respectively, and good recovery rates in the 77.6 (±0.1)-120.8 (±0.1)% range for spiked blank snow samples. Enrichment factors in the 64 (±7)-129 (±18) range were calculated. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of PAHs in surface snow samples collected in 2020-2021 from four locations of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Local emission sources such as ships and research stations were found to influence PAHs concentrations in the surface snow.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Regiones Antárticas , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Límite de Detección , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Nieve , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5483, 2021 09 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531387

RESUMEN

Eukaryotic phytoplankton are responsible for at least 20% of annual global carbon fixation. Their diversity and activity are shaped by interactions with prokaryotes as part of complex microbiomes. Although differences in their local species diversity have been estimated, we still have a limited understanding of environmental conditions responsible for compositional differences between local species communities on a large scale from pole to pole. Here, we show, based on pole-to-pole phytoplankton metatranscriptomes and microbial rDNA sequencing, that environmental differences between polar and non-polar upper oceans most strongly impact the large-scale spatial pattern of biodiversity and gene activity in algal microbiomes. The geographic differentiation of co-occurring microbes in algal microbiomes can be well explained by the latitudinal temperature gradient and associated break points in their beta diversity, with an average breakpoint at 14 °C ± 4.3, separating cold and warm upper oceans. As global warming impacts upper ocean temperatures, we project that break points of beta diversity move markedly pole-wards. Hence, abrupt regime shifts in algal microbiomes could be caused by anthropogenic climate change.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Microalgas/genética , Microbiota/genética , Fitoplancton/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regiones Antárticas , Regiones Árticas , Biodiversidad , Ciclo del Carbono , Cambio Climático , Ontología de Genes , Geografía , Calentamiento Global , Microalgas/clasificación , Microalgas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Océanos y Mares , Fitoplancton/clasificación , Fitoplancton/crecimiento & desarrollo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos , Especificidad de la Especie , Temperatura
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