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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 596-609, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154501

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Background: Many medical therapies have been tested to deal with urinary stent-related symptoms (USRS). Several preventive and pharmaceutical methods have been already used for better compatibility of stents. However, the existing evidence for pharmacological treatment is still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the effects of pregabalin, solifenacin, and combination therapy on ureteral double-J stent-related symptoms following ureteroscopy and transureteral lithotripsy (TUL). Materials and methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, from November 2017 to March 2019, 256 patients who underwent ureteroscopy were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into four groups including: group A received pregabalin 75mg BID (twice daily), group B received solifenacin 5mg orally once daily, group C received combination of pregabalin and solifenacin and the group D (control) given no drugs. Results: One hundred and fifty-one (58.9%) males and 101 (41.1%) females were enrolled in this study with a mean age of 43.47±7 (p=0.32, p=0.67). USSQ domains score such as urinary symptoms, pain, general condition, work performance, sexual matters and additional problems were significantly differenced during second and fourth week of follow-up among study groups (p <0.0001). In Tukey's multiple comparison test, urinary symptoms (p=0.735), pain (p=0.954) and sexual matters (p=0.080) in second week and work performance in forth week in group B was not significantly better than group D. Only group C in all indexes of USSQ showed significantly beneficial effects over group D (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Combination therapy of pregabalin and solifenacin has a significant effect on stent-related symptoms and is preferred over monotherapy of the respected medications.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820681

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) patients with EGFR/HER2 exon 20 insertion mutation (i-mut) remains an unmet clinical need. Poziotinib, a new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is currently under investigation as a potential targeted therapy. This compassionate study of its use aims to describe the activity/toxicity of poziotinib in mNSCLC with EGFR/HER2-exon-20-i-mut. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NSCLC patients who were treated either with EGFR or HER2 exon 20-i-mut within an expanded access program were included in this study. Poziotinib (16 mg or less) was administrated orally quaque die (QD). The primary end-point was the overall response rate (ORR) assessed by central review using RECIST v1.1, and secondary end-points were median progression free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), median overall survival (OS) and toxicity. RESULTS: The median age of all the 30 patients was 58 years (25-80 years), most of them were females (73%); ECOG 0-1 (83%), EGFR i-mut (73%) and pre-treated (83%). 73% started with poziotinib at a dose of 16 mg. At data cut-off, 22 of 33 patients (73%) experienced a progress in the disease and 12 of 30 (40%) died. Median PFS was 5.6 months (95% CI: 3.6-6.7 months) and the mOS 9.5 months (95% CI: 5.3 - not-reached months). The ORR was 30% (EGFR/HER2: 23/50%) and DCR 80%. G3 AEs were reported in 66% of the patients and were found with skin rash (50%), diarrhoea (17.6%), mucositis (7%) and paronychia (3%). G5, possibly associated with pneumonitis might also have occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Poziotinib exhibited effects in mNSCLC patients with EGFR/HER2-exon 20-i-mut. The toxicity rate was high leading to frequent dose interruption and reduction, thereby reducing mPFS in patients with good ORR/DCR. ZENITH20 trial is now being used to evaluate the low dose and new scheduled dose (e.g. bis in die (BID)).

3.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801889

RESUMEN

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic patterns of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) during methotrexate (MTX) induced intestinal damage in cell culture and in a rat model. Methods: Non-treated and treated with MTX HT 29 and HCT116cells were exposed to increasing doses of n-3 PUFAs and cell viability was evaluated using PrestoBlue® assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR+n-3 PUFA rats that were treated with oral n-3 PUFA, MTX rats were treated with MTX given IP, and MTX+n-3 PUFA rats were treated with oral n-3 PUFA before and following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal parameters and mucosal inflammation, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis, TNF-α in mucosal tissue and plasma (ELISA), NF-κB, COX-2, TNF-α, Fas, FasL, Fadd, Bid, Bax and Bcl-2gene and protein levels were determined 72 h following MTX injection. Results: Exposure of HT 29 and HCT116cells to n-3 PUFA attenuated inhibiting effects of MTX on cell viability. MTX-n-3 PUFA rats demonstrated a lower intestinal injury score and enhanced intestinal repair. A significant decrease in enterocyte apoptosis in MTX+n-3 PUFA rats was accompanied by decreased TNF-α, FAS, FasL, FADD and BID mRNA levels. Decreased NF-κB, COX-2 and TNF-α levels in mucosa was accompanied by a decreased number of IELs and macrophages. Conclusions: n-3 PUFAs inhibit NF-κB/COX-2 induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit cell apoptosis mainly by extrinsic pathway in rats with MTX-induced intestinal damage.

4.
Endocrine ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830437

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects one out of 3 adults in the western world and is associated with preclinical diastolic dysfunction that impairs functional capacity and quality of life (QoL). This randomized trial was designed to evaluate if the addition of metformin to the standard treatment of non-diabetic patients with MetS improves diastolic dysfunction. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. Fifty-four non-diabetic adults with MetS and diastolic dysfunction were randomized to lifestyle counseling or lifestyle counseling plus metformin (target dose 1000 mg bid). The primary endpoint was the change in mean e' velocity (assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months). Secondary endpoints were improvements in insulin resistance, functional capacity and QoL. Linear mixed effects modeling was used for longitudinal data analysis using modified intention-to-treat (mITT) and per-protocol (PP) approaches. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients were included in the mITT analysis (mean age = 51.8 ± 6.4; 55% males). Metformin treatment was associated with a significant decrease in HOMA-IR. There was a significantly different mean change in e' velocity during the study period between trial arms, both in the mITT (at 24 months, change of +0.67 ± 1.90 cm/s in metformin arm vs. -0.33 ± 1.50 cm/s in control arm) and PP populations (+0.80 ± 1.99 cm/s in metformin arm vs. -0.37 ± 1.52 cm/s in control arm), using a random intercept linear mixed model. There were no significant differences in peak oxygen uptake and SF-36 scores between trial arms. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with metformin of non-diabetic MetS patients with diastolic dysfunction, on top of lifestyle counseling, is associated with improved diastolic function.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833507

RESUMEN

Background: Anxiety and depression (A/D) are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are often associated with lower adherence to treatment and worse patient-related outcomes. However, studies on the impact of comorbid A/D on responses to bronchodilators are limited. Methods: This post hoc analysis of pooled data (N=861) from the GOLDEN 3 and 4 studies compared the efficacy and safety of nebulized glycopyrrolate (GLY) 25 µg in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD, grouped by self-reported A/D. Changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and health-related quality of life determined by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores in patients with or without comorbid A/D (A/D [+] or A/D [-]) were examined following 12 weeks of GLY 25 µg twice-daily (BID) or placebo treatment. Results: A/D (+) patients were predominantly female, younger, included a higher proportion of current smokers, and had higher baseline SGRQ scores compared with the A/D (-) group. At 12 weeks, GLY resulted in placebo-adjusted improvements from baseline in FEV1 of 46.9 mL (p=0.19; not significant) and 106.7 mL (p<0.0001), in the A/D (+) and A/D (-) groups, respectively. Improvements were observed with GLY compared to placebo in SGRQ scores, regardless of baseline A/D status; the placebo-adjusted least squares mean change from baseline in SGRQ total scores was -3.16 (p>0.05) and -3.34 (p<0.001), for the A/D (+) and A/D (-) groups, respectively. Despite numerical improvements in SGRQ scores with GLY in the A/D (+) group, a higher response to placebo was observed. GLY was generally well tolerated throughout 12 weeks of treatment; incidence of adverse events was higher in the A/D (+) group compared with the A/D (-) group in both treatment arms. Conclusion: GLY 25 µg BID resulted in numerical improvements in FEV1, SGRQ total scores and SGRQ responder rates in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD, regardless of A/D status at baseline; significant improvements were noted only in the A/D (+) group. The results emphasize the importance of considering underlying comorbidities including A/D when evaluating the efficacy of COPD treatments.

6.
CNS Drugs ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847901

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience relapses and sustained disability progression. Since 2004, the number of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for MS has grown substantially. As a result, patients, healthcare providers, and insurers are increasingly interested in comparative efficacy and safety evaluations to distinguish between treatment options, but head-to-head studies between DMTs are limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to compare efficacy and safety outcomes with the DMTs ozanimod and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) using a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) to adjust for cross-trial differences in study design and population. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed to identify clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of ozanimod compared with DMF. Individual patient-level data (IPD) for ozanimod were obtained from the SUNBEAM and RADIANCE Part B trials, and aggregate-level patient data (APD) for DMF were obtained from CONFIRM and DEFINE. A MAIC is used to weight IPD to APD based on important baseline patient characteristics considered to be effect modifiers or prognostic factors in order to balance the covariate distribution to establish more homogenous trial populations. Once trial populations are determined to be sufficiently homogenous, outcomes of interest are estimated and used to generate treatment effects between the weighted IPD and APD. We used MAIC methodology to compare efficacy and safety outcomes of interest between ozanimod 1.0 mg once daily (OD) and DMF 240 mg twice daily (BID), including confirmed disability progression (CDP) at 3 and 6 months, annualized relapse rate (ARR), proportion of patients relapsed, overall adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs), and discontinuations due to AEs. RESULTS: After matching patient data, baseline patient characteristics were balanced between patients receiving ozanimod and those receiving DMF. Compared with DMF, ozanimod demonstrated significantly improved CDP at 3 months (hazard ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53-0.86), ARR (rate ratio [RR] 0.80; 95% CI 0.67-0.97), proportion of patients relapsed (odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% CI 0.52-0.83), overall AEs (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.08-0.16), SAEs (OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.19-0.39), and discontinuations (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.07-0.17). CDP at 6 months did not differ significantly between the two agents (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.62-1.26). CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment of baseline patient characteristics, the MAIC demonstrated that the efficacy and safety of ozanimod 1.0 mg OD was superior to that of DMF 240 mg BID. Although a MAIC is less likely to produce biased estimates than a naïve or a standard indirect treatment comparison via a common comparator, limitations include potential confounding due to unobserved and thus unaccounted for baseline differences.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840608

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation (LTx) requires a calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimen. A once daily (QD) tacrolimus regimen was developed to increase medication adherence. However, data concerning its safety and efficacy in LTx are lacking. METHODS: In this prospective study, stable LTx patients were consecutively converted from twice daily (BID) tacrolimus to QD tacrolimus on a 1 mg:1 mg basis. Trough level (Cmin), renal function, cholesterol, fasting glucose, potassium and lung function were monitored six months before and up to one year after conversion. Adherence and its barriers were assessed by self-reported questionnaires (Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale (BAASIS) and Identification of Medication Adherence Barriers questionnaire (IMAB)) and blood-based assays (mean Cmin and coefficient of variation (CV)). RESULTS: We included 372 patients, in whom we observed a decrease in tacrolimus Cmin of 18.5% (p < 0.0001) post-conversion, requiring subsequent daily dose adaptations in both cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 72) and non-CF patients (n = 300). We observed a small decrease in eGFR one year post-conversion (p = 0.024). No significant changes in blood creatinine, potassium, fasting glucose, cholesterol or rate of lung function decline were observed. In a subgroup of 166 patients, significantly fewer patients missed doses (8.4% vs. 19.3%, p = 0.016) or had irregular intake post-conversion (19.3% vs. 32.5%, p = 0.019). Mean Cmin and CV, as well as the total number of barriers, also decreased significantly post-conversion. CONCLUSIONS: In LTx, conversion from BID to QD tacrolimus (1 mg:1 mg) requires close monitoring of tacrolimus Cmin. QD tacrolimus after transplantation is safe with respect to renal function, metabolic parameters and allograft function and improves LTx recipient adherence.

8.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843252

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patient support programs (PSPs) improve medication-taking behavior in the first 12 months of treatment for patients with immune-mediated diseases, but it is unknown if these benefits are sustained. As immune-mediated diseases continue to increase in prevalence and economic burden, understanding the potential value of PSPs in helping patients adhere to their long-term treatment plan and avoid costly hospital visits is crucial. Launched nationally in 2015, HUMIRA Complete (a PSP for adalimumab patients) provides an opportunity to study long-term effects of PSP participation, including the impact on medication-taking behavior and hospital visits. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sustained relationship between PSP participation, long-term medication-taking behavior, and hospital visits. METHODS: A longitudinal, retrospective matched-cohort study was conducted of patients initiating adalimumab between January 2015 and February 2016 with or without enrolling in the PSP, using patient-level data from the HUMIRA Complete PSP linked with Symphony Health claims. The sample included adult, commercially insured patients diagnosed with an indicated disease who were biologic-naive and had data available for ≥ 6 months before and ≥ 12 months after initiating adalimumab. Adherence (proportion of days covered) and hospital visits were assessed at 12, 24, and 36 months for patients with sufficient follow-up data. Multivariable generalized models estimated differences between cohorts, controlling for baseline characteristics and hospital visits. Duration of persistence and time to a hospital visit were compared using Kaplan-Meier analyses. Hazard ratios were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The matched cohort included 2,268 patients (1,134 per cohort), and patient attrition was similar across cohorts. The PSP cohort consistently demonstrated higher adalimumab adherence than the non-PSP cohort at 12 (64.8% vs. 50.1%, P < 0.0001; 29% greater), 24 (49.4% vs. 38.4%; P < 0.0001; 29% greater), and 36 (39.4% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.02; 12% greater) months. PSP participation was associated with a 30% lower hazard of discontinuation (P < 0.0001), and median duration of persistence was 4.8 months longer for the PSP cohort (13.2 vs. 8.4 months; P < 0.0001). The PSP cohort had lower rates of hospital visits at 12 (30% vs. 37%; P < 0.001; 19% lower), 24 (44% vs. 53%; P = 0.01; 17% lower), and 36 (55% vs. 65%; P < 0.01; 16% lower) months, and PSP participation was associated with a 25% lower hazard of a hospital visit (P < 0.0001). Median time to a hospital visit was 10.8 months longer for the PSP cohort (32.7 vs. 21.9 months; P < 0.0001). Findings were consistent across therapeutic areas: hazard of a hospital visit was 28%, 27%, and 37% lower for rheumatology, gastroenterology, and dermatology patients participating in the PSP (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with immune-mediated diseases receiving adalimumab and utilizing this PSP had improved long-term medication-taking behavior and lower risk of hospital visits, demonstrating the potential of PSPs to improve patient outcomes and lower the burden to the health care system. DISCLOSURES: Design, study conduct, and financial support for the study were provided by AbbVie Inc., which participated in the interpretation of data, review, and approval of the manuscript. Fendrick has received personal fees from Merck, AstraZeneca, Trizetto, Amgen, Lilly, AbbVie, Johnson & Johnson, and Sanofi; grants from the National Pharmaceutical Council, PhRMA, the Gary and Mary West Health Foundation, the states of New York and Michigan, the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; and equity in Zansors, Sempre Health, Wellth, and V-BID Health. Brixner has received consulting fees from AbbVie, Novartis, Xcenda, Elevar Therapeutics, Sanofi, UCB Pharma, and the Millcreek Outcomes Group. Rubin has received consulting fees from AbbVie, Abgenomics, Allergan Inc., Amgen, Celgene Corporation, Forward Pharma, Genentech/Roche, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Merck & Co., Miraca Life Sciences, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Development America, Napo Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Salix Pharmaceuticals Inc., Samsung Bioepis, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, Shire, Takeda, and Target Pharmaceuticals; and research support from AbbVie, Genentech/Roche, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Prometheus Laboratories, Shire, Takeda, and UCB Pharma. Mease has received grant/research support from AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celgene, Janssen, Lilly, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, SUN Pharma, and UCB; consulting fees from AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Boehringer Ingelheim, Celgene, Galapagos, Genentech, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, SUN Pharma, and UCB; and has served on the speakers bureau for AbbVie, Amgen, Celgene, Janssen, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB. Liu has no financial conflict of interest. Davis is an employee of Medicus Economics, which received payment from AbbVie to participate in this research. Mittal is an employee and stockholder of AbbVie. This study used a cohort of patients previously described in Brixner D, Rubin DT, Mease P, et al. Patient support program increased medication adherence with lower total health care costs despite increased drug spending. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2019 Jul;25(7):770-79 (doi: 10.18553/jmcp.2019.18443). As such, the sample selection and select baseline characteristics and 12-month outcomes have been published previously; however, the hospital visit outcomes and the longer-term medication-taking behavior outcomes have not been previously published or presented.

9.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823560

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with significant risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and mortality particularly among hospitalized patients with critical illness and elevated D-dimer (Dd) levels. Conflicting data have yet to elucidate optimal thromboprophylaxis dosing. HEP-COVID (NCT04401293) is a Phase 3, multicenter, pragmatic, prospective, randomized, pseudo-blinded, active control trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of therapeutic-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) versus prophylactic-/intermediate-dose LMWH or unfractionated heparin (UFH) for prevention of a primary efficacy composite outcome of VTE, ATE, and all-cause mortality (ACM) 30 ± 2 days post-enrollment. Eligible patients have COVID-19 diagnosis by nasal swab or serologic testing, requirement for supplemental oxygen per investigator judgment, and Dd >4x upper limit of normal (ULN) or sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) score ≥4. Subjects are randomized to enoxaparin 1 mg/kg SQ/BID (CrCl ≥ 30 ml/min) or 0.5 mg/kg (CrCl 15-30 ml/min) vs local institutional prophylactic regimens including: a) UFH up to 22,500 IU daily (divided BID or TID), b) enoxaparin 30mg and 40mg SQ QD or BID, or c) dalteparin 2500IU or 5000 IU QD. The principal safety outcome is major bleeding. Events are adjudicated locally. Based on expected 40% relative risk reduction (RRR) with treatment-dose compared with prophylactic-dose prophylaxis, 308 subjects will be enrolled (assuming 20% drop-out) to achieve 80% power. Distinguishing design features include an enriched population for the composite endpoint anchored on Dd >4x ULN, stratification by ICU vs non-ICU, and the ability to capture asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis via screening ultrasonography prior to discharge.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837652

RESUMEN

Increasing evidences have showed that autophagy played a significant role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Purpose of our study was to explore the prognostic value of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) and screen autophagy-related biomarkers for OSCC. RNA-seq and clinical data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database following extracting ATG expression profiles. Then, differentially expressed analysis was performed in R software and a risk score model according to ATGs was established. Moreover, comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were used to screen autophagy-related biomarkers which were later verified in OSCC tissues and cell lines. A total of 232 ATGs were extracted, and 37 genes were differentially expressed in OSCC. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis demonstrated that these genes were mainly located in autophagosome membrane and associated with autophagy. Furthermore, the risk score on basis of ATGs was identified as potential independent prognostic biomarker. Moreover, ATG12 and BID were identified as potential autophagy-related biomarkers of OSCC. This study successfully constructed a risk model, and the risk score could predict the prognosis of OSCC patients accurately. Moreover, ATG12 and BID were identified as two potential independent prognostic autophagy-related biomarkers and might provide new OSCC therapeutic targets.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837871

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Propranolol regulates angiogenesis in pre-clinical models and reduces distant breast cancer (BC) metastases in observational studies. We assessed the feasibility of combining propranolol with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with BC. METHODS: Women with clinical stage II-III BC undergoing NAC [weekly paclitaxel × 12, followed by dose-dense adriamycin/cyclophosphamide (AC) × 4] started propranolol 20 mg PO BID with paclitaxel #1, and increased to 80 mg extended release (ER) PO daily, as tolerated. The primary endpoint was to assess feasibility, defined as at least 75% of patients having at least 80% adherence to propranolol as prescribed. Secondary endpoints included identifying safety, rate of dose holds and modification, and rate of reaching 80 mg ER daily. The proposed sample size was 20 patients. RESULTS: From November 2012 to September 2015, ten patients were enrolled. Median age was 50.5 years (range, 44-67). All patients had hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer. Three women had grade I bradycardia that resulted in a 1-week delay in increasing the propranolol dose. Ninety percent of women reached the target propranolol dosing of 80 mg ER daily, and 70% took the target propranolol dose until the night before surgery. Of the 4 women who dose-reduced propranolol, 1 increased to the target propranolol dose. Mean adherence to propranolol dosing was 96% (range: 91-100%). All patients went to surgery. CONCLUSION: Our results support the feasibility of combining propranolol (up to 80 mg ER) with neoadjuvant taxane/anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

12.
J Glaucoma ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813559

RESUMEN

PRCIS: No significant difference was found between the IOP lowering of omidenepag isopropyl 0.002% QD and BID. However, AEs were higher in the BID arm; thus, QD dosing is the preferred dosing frequency for further investigation. PURPOSE: This phase 2, randomized, double-masked, parallel-arm, multicenter study (NCT03858894) was conducted in the USA to examine whether the efficacy and safety of omidenepag isopropyl 0.002% twice-daily (BID) dosing was superior to once-daily (QD) dosing in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Randomized subjects (1:1) received omidenepag isopropyl 0.002% QD (n=50) or BID (n=48) for 6 weeks (after a ≤ 4-week washout period). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at 8:00 AM, 12:00 PM, and 4:00 PM at baseline and weeks 2 and 6. The primary efficacy endpoint was IOP at each timepoint at weeks 2 and 6. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. RESULTS: Baseline mean diurnal IOP (±SD) post-washout was 25.4±2.9▒mmHg (BID) and 24.6±1.9▒mmHg (QD). At weeks 2 and 6, clinically significant IOP reductions from baseline were observed for omidenepag isopropyl BID and QD treatments. Least-squares mean (±SE) IOP differences (BID versus QD) were not statistically significant (week 2: 0.44±0.68 to 1.08±0.65▒mmHg; week 6: 0.36±0.63 to 0.68±0.68▒mmHg) at any timepoint (all P > 0.05). AEs were threefold greater in the BID arm (41.7%; QD: 14.0%); the most frequently reported AE was conjunctival/ocular hyperemia (BID: 22.9%; QD: 2.0%). Five subjects discontinued omidenepag isopropyl prematurely, four/five owing to AEs (BID: 4; QD: 0). CONCLUSION: In this study, the benefit-risk profile of omidenepag isopropyl 0.002% QD was more favorable than the benefit-risk profile of BID. This difference was driven by a higher incidence of local tolerability issues in the BID arm.

13.
Psychooncology ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797154

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in body image distress (BID) over time, identify factors associated with BID, and explore the mediating role of body image on the longitudinal association between stoma status (permanent stoma, temporary stoma, or non-stoma) and psychological distress in postoperative colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in China. METHODS: Participants (N = 255) 1 to 2 weeks postsurgery completed self-report questionnaires assessing BID (Body Image Scale) and psychosocial distress (Distress Thermometer, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale); 212 (83%) completed 6-month follow-up surveys. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with BID for longitudinal data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 46.7% of participants reported BID at follow-up. Prevalence of BID and BID scores did not significantly change over time in the total sample. Body image scores decreased in patients whose temporary stoma was removed during follow-up (p < .05). Prevalence of BID decreased in non-stoma patients at follow-up (p < .05). There were significant decreases in the prevalence and scores of distress, anxiety, and depression between baseline and follow-up (p < .001). Stoma presence, later clinical stages, greater distress, anxiety and depression were risk factors for poorer body image. Body image had partial mediating effects on the longitudinal association between stoma status and distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that BID remains stable even as psychological distress decreases. BID should be addressed early postoperation to avoid persistent impairment in CRC patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838349

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pediatric functional constipation (PFC) is a common problem in children that causes distress and presents treatment challenges to healthcare professionals. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (Study 1) in patients with PFC (aged 6-17 years) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lubiprostone, followed by an open-label extension for those who completed the placebo-controlled phase (Study 2). METHODS: Study 1 (NCT02042183) was a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week study evaluating the efficacy and safety of lubiprostone 12 mcg twice-daily (BID) and 24 mcg BID. Study 2 (NCT02138136) was a phase 3, long-term, open-label extension of Study 1. In both studies, lubiprostone doses were based on patients' weight. Efficacy was assessed solely based on Study 1, with a primary endpoint of overall spontaneous bowel movement (SBM) response (increase of ≥1 SBM/week vs baseline and ≥3 SBMs/week for ≥9 weeks, including 3 of the final 4 weeks). RESULTS: 606 patients were randomized to treatment (placebo: n=202; lubiprostone: n=404) in Study 1. No statistically significant difference in overall SBM response rate was observed between the lubiprostone and placebo groups (18.5% vs 14.4%; P=.2245). Both the 12-mcg BID and 24-mcg BID doses of lubiprostone were well tolerated in the double-blind and extension phases, with a safety profile consistent with that seen in adult studies. CONCLUSIONS: Lubiprostone did not demonstrate statistically significant effectiveness over placebo in children and adolescents with PFC, but did demonstrate a safety profile similar to that in adults.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806590

RESUMEN

Menstrual hygiene management and health is increasingly gaining policy importance in a bid to promote dignity, gender equality and reproductive health. Effective and adequate menstrual hygiene management requires women and girls to have access to their menstrual health materials and products of choice, but also extends into having private, clean and safe spaces for using these materials. The paper provides empirical evidence of the inequality in menstrual hygiene management in Kinshasa (DRC), Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Rajasthan (India), Indonesia, Nigeria and Uganda using concentration indices and decomposition methods. There is consistent evidence of wealth-related inequality in the conditions of menstrual hygiene management spaces as well as access to sanitary pads across all countries. Wealth, education, the rural-urban divide and infrastructural limitations of the household are major contributors to these inequalities. While wealth is identified as one of the key drivers of unequal access to menstrual hygiene management, other socio-economic, environmental and household factors require urgent policy attention. This specifically includes the lack of safe MHM spaces which threaten the health and dignity of women and girls.

16.
Endocr Pract ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831552

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many type 2 diatetic patients treated with premixed insulin gradually have inadequate glycaemic control and switch to a basal-bolus regimen, which raises some concerns for weight gain and increased hypoglycaemic risk. Switching to combination use of glp-1 agonist and basal insulin may be an alternative option. METHODS: After a 12-week premixed human insulin 70/30 dosage optimization period, 200 patients with HbA1c of 7.0% to 10.0% were randomized into 24-week treatment groups with exenatide BID plus glargine or with aspart 70/30 BID. RESULTS: After 24 weeks, the patients receiving exenatide plus glargine (n = 90) had improved HbA1c control compared with those receiving aspart 70/30 (n = 90) (least squares mean change: -0.59 vs. -0.13%; difference [95% CI]: -0.45 [-0.74 to -0.17]) in the full analysis set population. Weight decreased 3.5 kg with exenatide and decreased 0.4 kg with aspart 70/30 (P < 0.001). The insulin dose was reduced 10.7 units/day (95% CI, -12.2 to -9.2 units; P < 0.001) with exenatide, and increased 9.7 units/day (95% CI, 8.2 to 11.2 units; P < 0.001) with aspart 70/30. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal adverse effects in the exenatide group [nausea (21%), vomiting (16%), diarrhea (13%)]. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was similar in two groups (27% for exenatide and 38% for aspart 70/30, respectively; P = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: In premixed human insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with inadequate glycaemic control, switching to exenatide BID plus glargine was superior to aspart 70/30 BID for glycaemic and weight control.

17.
Adv Ther ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834354

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Lubiprostone capsules are approved for managing three different chronic constipation conditions. A "sprinkle" formulation may facilitate use in individuals with difficulty swallowing capsules. Our objective was to evaluate the bioequivalence, pharmacokinetics (PK), and bioavailability of lubiprostone sprinkles vs lubiprostone capsules, compared with placebo. METHODS: A 1-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, bioequivalence study (study 302) and a single-dose PK and bioavailability crossover study (study 304) were conducted. In study 302, 522 subjects with chronic constipation were randomized to lubiprostone sprinkle 24 µg twice daily (BID), lubiprostone capsule 24 µg BID, or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was observed spontaneous bowel movement (SBM) counts (equivalence defined as showing the 90% confidence interval [CI] of the "between-group SBM ratio" to be contained within 0.8-1.25). Study 304 included two cohorts of healthy volunteers randomized to a single 48-µg lubiprostone dose, sprinkle, or capsule (n = 35) or to a single 48-µg sprinkle dose, in fed or fasted state (n = 14). RESULTS: Both lubiprostone formulations significantly improved SBM count (sprinkle, 4.82 ± 3.66, P = 0.002; capsule, 5.74 ± 3.79, P < 0.0001) vs placebo (3.68 ± 2.16), but equivalent efficacy was not demonstrated, with a 90% CI for the SBM count ratio of 0.69-0.95. Quantifiable PK data on lubiprostone were limited; however, overall exposure to the M3 metabolite was approximately 44% higher with sprinkles vs capsules under fasted conditions (geometric mean ratio 1.441 [90% CI, 1.166, 1.782]), and exposure with the sprinkle formulation was 11% lower in the fed state vs the fasted state (geometric mean ratio 0.888 [90% CI, 0.675, 1.168]). Both formulations were generally well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Despite the significant improvement in SBM counts vs placebo, the sprinkle formulation did not demonstrate bioequivalence to the capsule formulation in either pharmacodynamic or PK key parameters. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study 302: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT03097861; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03097861 ; Study 304: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT03010631; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03010631 .

18.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(3): 3307-3312, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849115

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was broken out in December 2019 and soon became a global health emergency. Effective treatment for COVID-19 is urgently needed. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the antiviral effect of Arbidol vs. Chloroquine in treating COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 62 patients with COVID-19 diagnosed according to the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in China. They were divided into two groups depending on the antiviral drugs that they received. Participants in the Arbidol group (n=42) received 0.2 g Arbidol, tid for 10 days,and those in Chloroquine group (n=20) received 500 mg Chloroquine, bid for 10 days. The coronavirus negative conversion time and the length of hospital stay were analyzed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups. After antiviral treatment, the nasopharyngeal specimen negative conversion time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the length of hospital stay in the Arbidol group were significantly shorter than those in the Chloroquine group (18.50 vs. 25.05 days, P=0.001; 23.52 vs. 28.75 days, P=0.001). Adverse events observed during the antiviral treatment period were comparable between the two groups. Overall, 3 (7.14%) participants in the Arbidol group and 4 (20.0%) in the Chloroquine group experienced adverse events during antiviral treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Arbidol is advantageous over Chloroquine in terms of the SARS-CoV-2 negative conversion and the length of hospital stay in treating COVID-19 patients.

19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(3): 439-446, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849837

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of the combination of multiple proteins in predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) through bioinformatics analysis. OBJECTIVE: The protein expression and clinical data were downloaded from TCPA database. Perl and R were used to screen the prognostic-related proteins, and through Cox analysis, the proteins that served as independent prognostic factors of CRC were identified to build the prediction model. Survival analyses were conducted for each of the proteins included in the prediction model and the risk score of the model, and risk curves was drawn for the risk score and the patients' survival status to verify the performance of the model. Independent prognosis analysis and ROC analysis were used to assess the value and advantages of the model in prognosis prediction. The interactions between the proteins included in the model and the differential expressions of the key genes related with the proteins were analyzed. OBJECTIVE: Six proteins were screened for model construction. Compared with a single gene, the model showed much greater prognostic value for CRC. Independent prognostic analysis showed that the risk score of the prediction model was significantly related with the prognosis (P < 0.001), and the model could be used as an independent risk factor for prognostic assessment of the patients. ROC analysis showed that the model had good specificity and sensitivity for prognostic prediction (AUC=0.734). Protein interactions showed that BID, SLC1A5 and SRC_pY527 were significantly correlated with other proteins (P < 0.001), and SLC1A5 and SRC_pY527 had the most significant interactions with other proteins (P < 0.001). Except for those of INPP4B, the key genes related with the proteins in the prediction model had significant differential expressions at the mRNA level in CRC (P < 0.05). OBJECTIVE: The prediction model constructed based on 6 proteins has good prognostic value for CRC. The proteins SLC1A5 and SRC_pY527 play key roles in the prognosis of CRC, and SRC_pY527 may regulate the occurrence and progression of CRC through the SRC/AKT/MAPK signal axis and thus may serve as a new therapeutic target of CRC.

20.
Oncologist ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851477

RESUMEN

LESSONS LEARNED: Staphylococcus aureus infection in CTCL is thought to contribute to disease progression; thus, adjunctive treatment with antibiotics warrants further investigation. This trial of antibiotic therapy followed by imiquimod in early stage CTCL was not completed due to difficulties with patient accrual. BACKGROUND: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a form of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is a heterogeneous group of malignancies of mature memory T lymphocytes. It has an annual age-adjusted incidence of 7.5 per million persons in the U.S. population [1]. The etiology of CTCL is unknown, but epidemiological studies have reported potential associations with environmental and occupational factors [2]. Both topical and systemic therapies have been identified as effective in CTCL; the choice of treatment is dependent on disease stage with the overall goal of improving symptoms given the chronic and recurrent nature of the disease. Several studies have suggested that CTCL is exacerbated by the presence of S. aureus in the skin and can be ameliorated by treatment with antibiotics [3]. METHODS: Our study was designed to assess the effects of antibiotics and imiquimod on early stage CTCL. Patients between the ages of 30-89 years with Stage I and II CTCL were eligible for enrollment. They could not be receiving concurrent therapy and the study design included a 14-day washout period after discontinuation of CTCL therapy. The washout period was followed by doxycycline 100 mg PO BID for 14 days and then two packets (250 mg per packet) of imiquimod 5% cream topically to the most clinically active lesions three days a week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) for 28 days. Skin lesions were measured using the modified Severity Weighted Assessment Tool (mSWAT). RESULTS: Our study enrolled only two patients with early stage CTCL due to difficulty locating patients with active CTCL able to discontinue all therapy. Patients were managed as shown in Figure 1. The two enrolled patients completed all therapy. One patient had a complete response after imiquimod, while the other patient had stable disease. CONCLUSION: Antibiotics and imiquimod have reported activity as single agents in CTCL; we did not enroll enough patients to assess value in the sequence of antibiotic therapy followed by imiquimod.

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