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1.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119070, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231538

RESUMEN

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to lung cancer incidence and mortality, but limited evidence existed for other cancers. This study aimed to assess the association between PM2.5 on cancer specific mortality. An ecological study based on the cancer mortality data collected from 5,565 Brazilian cities during 2010-2018 using a difference-in-differences approach with quasi-Poisson regression, was applied to examine PM2.5-cancer mortality associations. Globally gridded annual average surface PM2.5 concentration was extracted and linked with the residential municipality of participants in this study. Sex, age stratified and exposure-response estimations were also conducted. Totalling 1,768,668 adult cancer deaths records of about 208 million population living across 5,565 municipalities were included in this study. The average PM2.5 concentration was 7.63 µg/m3 (standard deviation 3.32) with range from 2.95 µg/m3 to 28.5 µg/m3. With each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-year-average (current year and previous two years) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of cancer mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.20) for all-site cancers. The PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with several cancer-specific mortalities including oral, nasopharynx, oesophagus, and stomach, colon rectum, liver, gallbladder, larynx, lung, bone, skin, female breast, cervix, prostate, brain and leukaemia. No safe level of PM2.5 exposure was observed in the exposure-response curve for all types of cancer. In conclusion, with nationwide cancer death records in Brazil, we found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 increased risks of mortality for many cancer types. Even low level PM2.5 concentrations had significant impacts on cancer mortality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Brasil/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Material Particulado/análisis
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156364, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654207

RESUMEN

Beijing's air quality has improved significantly since the implementation of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013, but the local and regional contributions to this improvement have rarely been studied. Here, the vertical profile of the atmospheric backscattering coefficient (ABC) was measured by a ceilometer in Beijing from 2015 to 2020. The results show that the ABC in Beijing decreased the most at ground level from 2015 to 2020, decreasing 51.4%. Interannual variability decreased with height, and no noticeable change was found in the height range above 600 m. The most apparent declines occurred in autumn and winter, with decreases greater than 55.0%, and the minimum decrease occurred in summer, with a reduction of only 20.0%. To analyze the reasons for the autumn and winter declines, we divided the whole day into four periods according to the evolution characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer. The significant decrease in the backscattering coefficient near the ground during the daytime confirms the effect of local emission reductions. In contrast, the considerable decreases in the backscattering coefficient measured at different heights in the midday mixing layer demonstrate the contribution of regional transport reduction. The above research results confirm the importance of regional coordinated air pollution control.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Beijing , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año
3.
Soc Sci Res ; 105: 102691, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659044

RESUMEN

This paper investigates whether associations between birth weights and prenatal ambient environmental conditions-pollution and extreme temperatures-differ by 1) maternal education; 2) children's innate health; and 3) interactions between these two. We link birth records from Guangzhou, China, during a period of high pollution, to ambient air pollution (PM10 and a composite measure) and extreme temperature data. We first use mean regressions to test whether, overall, maternal education is an "effect modifier" in the relationships between ambient air pollution, extreme temperature, and birth weight. We then use conditional quantile regressions to test for effect heterogeneity according to the unobserved innate vulnerability of babies after conditioning on other confounders. Results show that 1) the negative association between ambient exposures and birth weight is twice as large at lower conditional quantiles of birth weights as at the median; 2) the protection associated with college-educated mothers with respect to pollution and extreme heat is heterogeneous and potentially substantial: between 0.02 and 0.34 standard deviations of birth weights, depending on the conditional quantiles; 3) this protection is amplified under more extreme ambient conditions and for infants with greater unobserved innate vulnerabilities.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Peso al Nacer , Niño , China , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Embarazo , Temperatura
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156472, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660605

RESUMEN

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and sleep disturbance have been significantly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, however, the combined effects of these two factors are still unclear. We conducted a multi-center cross-sectional study from November 2018 to May 2019 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China to investigate the potential modifying effects of sleep disturbance on associations between cardiac conduction abnormalities and PM2.5 exposure, as well as the combined effects of sleep disturbance and heavy pollution episodes, which were defined based on the PM2.5 mass concentration (≥75 µg/m3, falling in the 75th/90th percentile) and duration (1 day and ≥2 days). The sleep quality and sleep duration of all participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) test was performed to measure the heart rate (HR), QRS duration (time taken for ventricular depolarization), HR corrected QT interval (time for ventricular depolarization and repolarization) and PR interval (time for atrioventricular conduction). Multivariable linear regression models were performed to evaluate the associations of PM2.5 and heavy pollution events on ECG parameters and the joint effects with sleep disturbance. We found PM2.5 exposure was independently associated with prolonged QRS and QTc intervals. Association between PM2.5 and the QTc interval was significantly stronger in participants with poor sleep quality. For each 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration, the QTc interval in the participants with poor sleep quality increased by 0.41 % (95 % confidence interval: 0.19, 0.64). In addition, heavy PM2.5 pollution episodes, especially extremely heavy pollution of long duration, were found to have synergistic effects with sleep disturbance on ECG parameters. Our findings provide evidence that PM2.5 exposure, especially heavy pollution episodes, may increase abnormal cardiac conduction and have a synergistic effect with sleep disturbance. Improving sleep hygiene is crucial to protect the heart health of the general population.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Sueño , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/inducido químicamente
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156517, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679929

RESUMEN

Long-range transport (LRT) and local accumulation (LA) are key atmospheric physical processes affecting air pollution formation, and their impacts on surface air pollution have been extensively researched. Due to the lack of vertical observations and emphases on model simulations, the characteristics and regional sources of black carbon (BC) aerosol profiles have been relatively understudied. In this study, the chemistry-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with a BC source-tagging method was used to quantify BC source contributions (considering 18 geographical regions over east Asia, including 3 subregions over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD)) during a November 2017 pollution event in the YRD, China. In this event, the YRD mainly experienced a uniform pressure field, stable weather and weak wind fields. During the uniform high-pressure period, the dominant contribution to surface BC in each sub-region was from that region itself (70.6 %-98.2 %), with little intra- and inter-regional transport. During the uniform low-pressure period, highly variable contributions to the surface BC from intra-regional transport within the YRD (0.05 %-65.9 %) and inter-regional transport outside the YRD (mostly from Anhui (AH) to the west of the YRD, 0.37 %-23.9 %) were simulated. In the vertical direction, the dominant contributors were local YRD sources (73.8 %-94.2 %) below the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The inter-transport contributions increased extensively above the ABL. As a westerly trough crossing, a long-range inter-regional transport from South China (SCHN, 3.3 %) and the North China Plain (NCP, 2.7 %) was simulated above the ABL. We found that when the surface experienced similar stable weather conditions, the weather conditions in the upper air may have been quite different, resulting in significant differences in the regional transport of BC in the upper ABL. This study provides a reference for improving air quality from the local scale to the regional scale.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ozono , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Carbono , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Ríos , Estaciones del Año , Hollín , Tiempo (Meteorología)
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156518, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688237

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The literature includes many studies which individually assess the efficacy of protective measures against the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study considers the high infection risk in public buildings and models the quality of the indoor environment, related safety measures, and their efficacy in preventing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: Simulations are created that consider protective factors such as hand hygiene, face covering and engagement with Covid-19 vaccination programs in reducing the risk of infection in a university foyer. Furthermore, a computational fluid dynamics model is developed to simulate and analyse the university foyer under three ventilation regimes. The probability of transmission was measured across different scenarios. FINDINGS: Estimates suggest that the Delta variant requires the air change rate to be increased >1000 times compared to the original strain, which is practically not feasible. Consequently, appropriate hygiene practices, such as wearing masks, are essential to reducing secondary infections. A comparison of different protective factors in simulations found the overall burden of infections resulting from indoor contact depends on (i) face mask adherence, (ii) quality of the ventilation system, and (iii) other hygiene practices. INTERPRETATION: Relying on ventilation, whether natural, mechanical, or mixed, is not sufficient alone to mitigate the risk of aerosol infections. This is due to the internal configuration of the indoor space in terms of (i) size and number of windows, their location and opening frequency, as well as the position of the air extraction and supply inlets, which often induce hotspots with stagnating air, (ii) the excessive required air change rate. Hence, strict reliance on proper hygiene practices, namely adherence to face coverings and hand sanitising, are essential. Consequently, face mask adherence should be emphasized and promoted by policymakers for public health applications. Similar research may need to be conducted using a similar approach on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , COVID-19 , Contaminación del Aire Interior/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilación
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156625, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691344

RESUMEN

Many techniques for estimating exposure to airborne contaminants do not account for building characteristics that can magnify contaminant contributions from indoor and outdoor sources. Building characteristics that influence exposure can be challenging to obtain at scale, but some may be incorporated into exposure assessments using public datasets. We present a methodology for using public datasets to generate housing models for a test cohort, and examined sensitivity of predicted fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures to selected building and source characteristics. We used addresses of a cohort of children with asthma and public tax assessor's data to guide selection of floorplans of US residences from a public database. This in turn guided generation of coupled multi-zone models (CONTAM and EnergyPlus) that estimated indoor PM2.5 exposure profiles. To examine sensitivity to model parameters, we varied building floors and floorplan, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) type, room or floor-level model resolution, and indoor source strength and schedule (for hypothesized gas stove cooking and tobacco smoking). Occupant time-activity and ambient pollutant levels were held constant. Our address matching methodology identified two multi-family house templates and one single-family house template that had similar characteristics to 60 % of test addresses. Exposure to infiltrated ambient PM2.5 was similar across selected building characteristics, HVAC types, and model resolutions (holding all else equal). By comparison, exposures to indoor-sourced PM2.5 were higher in the two multi-family residences than the single family residence (e.g., for cooking PM2.5 exposure, by 26 % and 47 % respectively) and were sensitive to HVAC type and model resolution. We derived the influence of building characteristics and HVAC type on PM2.5 exposure indoors using public data sources and coupled multi-zone models. With the important inclusion of individualized resident behavior data, similar housing modeling can be used to incorporate exposure variability in health studies of the indoor residential environment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Boston , Niño , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Vivienda , Humanos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156614, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691355

RESUMEN

Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a well known carcinogen. While most studies investigate emission from wood-based materials, knowledge about releasing of HCHO by natural gas combustion is quite limited. This study conducted field measurements in 9 households to address this issue. We found that emission factor is mainly in the range of 50-200 mg_HCHO/m3_natural gas (median value is 85 mg/m3). Emission rate mainly falls into a range of 0.1-0.4 mg_HCHO/min (median value is 0.16 mg/min). It is also revealed that as the natural gas flow rate increases, the emission factor decreases with a statistically significant Spearman correlation coefficient of -0.46 (p < 0.05). The emission rate shows an opposite trend with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.48 (p < 0.05). Formaldehyde generated by natural gas combustion in kitchens can quickly disperse to an adjacent living room when kitchen door is open. A range hood can effectively remove formaldehyde in kitchens if kitchen window is open and kitchen door is closed. Its performance would decrease by half otherwise. These results imply a health co-benefit of reducing household usage of carbon-based natural gas in the age of carbon neutrality aiming climate change.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Carbono , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Formaldehído/análisis , Gas Natural , Emisiones de Vehículos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156717, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709989

RESUMEN

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairments and blindness worldwide in the elderly and its incidence strongly increases with ages. The etiology of AMD is complex and attributed to the genetic modifiers, environmental factors and gene-environment interactions. Recently, the impacts of air pollution on the development of eye diseases have become the new area of focus, and disordered air exposure combined with inadequate health management has caused problems for the eye health, such as dry eye, glaucoma, and retinopathy, while its specific role in the occurrence of AMD is still not well understood. In order to summarize the progress of this research field, we performed a critical review to summarize the epidemiological and mechanism evidence on the association between air pollutants exposure and AMD. This review documented that exposure to air pollutants will accelerate or worsen the morbidity and prevalence of AMD. Air pollutants exposure may change the homeostasis, interfere with the inflammatory response, and take direct action on the lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in the macula. More attention should be given to understanding the impact of ambient air pollution on AMD worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Degeneración Macular , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Humanos , Incidencia , Degeneración Macular/inducido químicamente , Degeneración Macular/epidemiología
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156657, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709991

RESUMEN

Understanding the emission characteristics in the evolution of private vehicle fleet composition has become a key issue to be addressed to develop appropriate emission mitigation strategies in transportation sector. In this study, the influence of such evolution on on-road emissions was investigated based on a comprehensive dataset encompassing vehicle fleet composition, demographic, economic, and energy features from a representative small-medium automotive city in North America. The decoupling analysis was carried out to assess the dynamic linkage between environmental pressure exerted by the transportation sector and economic growth at both city level and national level in North America. We also developed an approach that supports the long-term traffic-related air pollutant prediction and investigated the potential influence on urban air quality. A sharp upward trajectory was observed in the quantity of SUVs from 2001 to 2018, gradually replacing the dominance of the quantity of four-door cars. There was a significant shift in the GHG emissions emitted from vehicle types used for passenger transport: emissions from SUVs and trucks rose by 374.0% and 69.3%, respectively, whereas emissions from four-door cars, two-door cars, station wagons, and vans all decreased. The changes in vehicle composition, along with the steady trend in GHG emissions from private fleet and decrease in on-road air pollutant concentrations found in Regina, were a response to the establishment of federal fuel economy standards and improved fuel economy. Relative decoupling was observed in aggregate for Regina and Canada in most of the years while both experienced economic downturns and increases in environmental pressure in the form of emissions from 2014 to 2015. The predicted results also demonstrate the high capability of XGboost machine learning algorithm in predicting on-road air pollutant concentrations of CO, PM2.5, and NOX.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Vehículos a Motor , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129180, 2022 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739713

RESUMEN

Air pollution, especially PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) in China, is severe and related to a variety of diseases while the potential mechanisms have not been clearly clarified yet. This study was conducted using a randomized crossover trial protocol among young and healthy college students. Plasma samples were collected before, during, and post two typical air pollution waves with a washout interval of at least 2 weeks under true and sham air purification treatments, respectively. A total of 144 blood samples from 24 participants were included in the final analysis. Metabolomics analysis for the plasma samples was completed by Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discrimination Analysis (OPLS-DA) and linear mixed-effect models were used to identify the differentially expressed metabolites and their associations with PM2.5 exposure. MetaboAnalyst 5.0 was further used to conduct pathway enrichment analysis and correlation analysis of differentially expressed metabolites. A total of 40 metabolites were identified to be differentially expressed between the true and sham air purification treatments, and eleven metabolites showed consistent significant changes upon outdoor, indoor, and time-weighted personal PM2.5 exposures. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 may cause disturbances in metabolic pathways such as linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Cromatografía Liquida , Estudios Cruzados , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Metaboloma , Material Particulado/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129304, 2022 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739801

RESUMEN

The wide use of hazardous formaldehyde (CH2O) in disinfections, adhesives and wood-based furniture leads to undesirable emissions to indoor environments. This is highly problematic as formaldehyde is a highly hazardous and toxic compound present in both liquid and gaseous form. The majority of gaseous and atmospheric formaldehyde derive from microbial and plant decomposition. However, plants also reversibly absorb formaldehyde released from for example indoor structural materials in such as furniture, thus offering beneficial phytoremediation properties. Here we provide the first comprehensive review of plant formaldehyde metabolism, physiology and remediation focusing on release and absorption including species-specific differences for maintaining indoor environmental air quality standards. Phytoremediation depends on rhizosphere, temperature, humidity and season and future indoor formaldehyde remediation therefore need to take these biological factors into account including the balance between emission and phytoremediation. This would pave the road for remediation of formaldehyde air pollution and improve planetary health through several of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Formaldehído/análisis , Humedad , Plantas , Madera/química
14.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115455, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751259

RESUMEN

City clusters play an important role in air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction in China, primarily due to their high fossil energy consumption levels. The "2 + 26" Cities, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and 26 other perfectures in northern China, has experienced serious air pollution in recent years. We employ the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model adapted to the "2 + 26" Cities (GAINS-JJJ) to evaluate the impacts of structural adjustments in four major sectors, industry, energy, transport and land use, under the Three-Year Action Plan for Blue Skies (Three-Year Action Plan) on the emissions of both the major air pollutants and CO2 in the "2 + 26" Cities. The results indicate that the Three-Year Action Plan applied in the "2 + 26" Cities reduces the total emissions of primary fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), SO2, NOx, NH3 and CO2 by 17%, 25%, 21%, 3% and 1%, respectively, from 2017 to 2020. The emission reduction potentials vary widely across the 28 prefectures, which may be attributed to the differences in energy structure, industrial composition, and policy enforcement rate. Among the four sectors, adjustment of industrial structure attains the highest co-benefits of CO2 reduction and air pollution control due to its high CO2 reduction potential, while structural adjustments in energy and transport attain much lower co-benefits, despite their relatively high air pollutant emissions reductions, primarily resulting from an increase in the coal-electric load and associated carbon emissions caused by electric reform policies..


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Ciudades , Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis
15.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115458, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751262

RESUMEN

Here, we used a novel approach to analyze the trends in the concentrations of six national criteria air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM10, PM2.5, and surface ozone (O3), between 2001 and 2018, and the factors affecting the concentrations of CO and SO2 at the district level in South Korea (Korea) between 2011 and 2016. We considered four factors affecting the concentrations of CO and SO2: (1) concentration-to-emission ratio, (2) air pollutant-to-CO2 emission ratio, (3) carbon intensity, and (4) area-weighted energy supply. We found that the most influencing factors determining the concentrations of CO and SO2 in Korea were the air pollutant-to-CO2 emission ratio and the concentration-to-emission ratio. The annual mean concentrations of CO, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 generally decreased, while O3 levels showed an increasing trend, over the last 18 years in Korea. We also found that NO2 concentration had strong positive and negative correlations with PM2.5 and O3 concentrations, respectively. However, the relationship between O3 and NO2 levels showed an inverted U shape under NO2 super-rich condition (e.g., > 55 ppb in Seoul), and the daily maximum 8-h values (MDA8O3) increased in proportion to the NO2 level under poor NO2 conditions (e.g., < 25 ppb in Seoul).


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ozono , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Dióxido de Azufre
16.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115465, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751266

RESUMEN

In recent years, China has focused its development on technological innovation, trying to achieve a win-win situation between environmental protection and economic growth, and it has formulated a series of policies to promote technological innovation. Taking China's national independent innovation demonstration zone (NIIDZ) policy as an example, this paper empirically investigates the impact of China's innovation policy on haze pollution by using a difference-in-differences (DID) model. The results show that the NIIDZ policy promotes the governance of urban haze pollution and confirms the applicability of the experimentalist governance model in the practice of innovation policy in developing countries. Dynamic analysis shows that the NIIDZ policy has an experience accumulation effect. This policy can continue to promote haze control for at least 6 years, and the policy effect increases year by year. Action mechanism analysis shows that the NIIDZ policy can inhibit urban haze pollution by promoting urban technological innovation and high-tech industrial agglomeration. The estimation results of the spatial DID model show that the NIIDZ policy not only inhibits haze pollution in NIIDZ cities but also has an inhibitory effect on haze pollution in the surrounding non-NIIDZ cities and the NIIDZ cities, which confirms the positive externality characteristics of policy diffusion theory and environmental governance. The conclusions of this paper have important theoretical value for understanding the ecological effect of innovation policy and provide experience for developing countries to implement an experimentalist governance model.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Desarrollo Económico , Política Ambiental , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Políticas
17.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115480, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751277

RESUMEN

Open field burning of crop residue has been intentionally prohibited due to the undesired air pollution in urban regions. To better balance the urban environment and agricultural activity, this paper conducted a feasibility study of prescribed burning for crop residues based on air quality assessment in urban regions. Firstly, emission inventories were established using the top-down approach based on designed sub-regional fire as prescribed burning. Subsequently, the air qualities in urban regions were simulated by the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Model-Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (WRF-CMAQ) covering different sensitivity experiments. Finally, PM2.5 is selected as the main indicator of air quality, and the feasibility was assessed by controlling the factors influencing the diffusion of pollutants from prescribed burning, including burning ratio, meteorological factors (wind speed and direction), distance from burning area and burning duration. It is revealed that prescribed burning would achieve highly efficient disposal of crop residues under the premise of ensuring the air quality in urban regions by controlling the factors. Results in the study can be further exploited for designing burning scheme for crop residue, which is expected to promote a sustainable development of agriculture and urban environment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Material Particulado/análisis
18.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115483, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751280

RESUMEN

How to win the "Blue Sky Protection Campaign" is becoming the focus all over the world, especially in developing economies, while the implementation of the smart cities initiative (SCI) is seen to be a feasible program to address the negative environmental externalities through Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), but it lacks the quantitative evidence so far. This study aims to examine the impacts and potential mechanisms of SCI on air pollution governance from the objective satellite monitoring data within a quasi-natural experiment framework. We find that SCI directly reduces the air pollutants concentration such as PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and smog in urban China and improves the air quality very well, which also has significant and positive spillovers on air pollution governance in adjacent cities. This encouraging phenomenon can also be achieved through contributing to green technological innovation, industrial structure upgrading, and decentralizing urban spatial structure, such that most of can be attributed to the technological effect. Heterogeneity analyses demonstrate that the governance effect of air pollution is more obvious in large smart cities, and increases with the expansion of city size. Additionally, the effect performs better in resource-based smart cities and smart cities with stronger financing capacity and air pollution pressure.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis
19.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115491, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751285

RESUMEN

Chinese officials play an important role in air pollution control. This paper used a sample of 282 prefecture-level cities in China to discuss the impact of promotion incentives of officials on air pollution from the perspectives of heterogeneity, mechanism and spatial effects. We found that the promotion incentives of officials reduced air pollution, and GDP per capita had positive moderating effects. The effects of promotion incentives were more significant in cities with less air pollution, in the central and western regions, for officials with higher education levels, or years after 2007. The promotion incentives could promote the development of green finance and green technology innovation, both of which were conducive to mitigating air pollution. Using the dynamic spatial Durbin model (DSDM), we found that the promotion incentives had negative spatial spillover effects. The promotion incentives in surrounding cities reduced air pollution in the local city; however, it had only short-run effects and no long-run effects.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Motivación
20.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115486, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751296

RESUMEN

Integrated Assessment Model provides a useful framework for evaluating different aspects of air quality policies, spanning from abatement measures to emissions, concentrations, health impacts and costs. These models are then useful to provide a holistic view of the impacts of policies, so that ex-ante one can evaluate how various policies will impact air concentrations, health benefits and implementation costs. Among these Integrated Assessment Models, SHERPA (Screening for High Emission Potentials on Air) has been recently used to evaluate the impact of policies, covering all aspects from measures to health, but without being able to provide the dimension related to abatement measures costs. In this paper we fill this gap, developing a module able to associate to a SHERPA scenario its related implementation costs. This paper describes how this module has been developed and provide a concrete application of this tool. Results of this module can be useful to provide a full cost-benefit analysis of alternative policies based on technological changes, covering both internal costs (costs of abatement measures) and external costs (related to human health impacts of air quality).


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos
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