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1.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119070, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231538

RESUMEN

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to lung cancer incidence and mortality, but limited evidence existed for other cancers. This study aimed to assess the association between PM2.5 on cancer specific mortality. An ecological study based on the cancer mortality data collected from 5,565 Brazilian cities during 2010-2018 using a difference-in-differences approach with quasi-Poisson regression, was applied to examine PM2.5-cancer mortality associations. Globally gridded annual average surface PM2.5 concentration was extracted and linked with the residential municipality of participants in this study. Sex, age stratified and exposure-response estimations were also conducted. Totalling 1,768,668 adult cancer deaths records of about 208 million population living across 5,565 municipalities were included in this study. The average PM2.5 concentration was 7.63 µg/m3 (standard deviation 3.32) with range from 2.95 µg/m3 to 28.5 µg/m3. With each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-year-average (current year and previous two years) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of cancer mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.20) for all-site cancers. The PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with several cancer-specific mortalities including oral, nasopharynx, oesophagus, and stomach, colon rectum, liver, gallbladder, larynx, lung, bone, skin, female breast, cervix, prostate, brain and leukaemia. No safe level of PM2.5 exposure was observed in the exposure-response curve for all types of cancer. In conclusion, with nationwide cancer death records in Brazil, we found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 increased risks of mortality for many cancer types. Even low level PM2.5 concentrations had significant impacts on cancer mortality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Brasil/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Material Particulado/análisis
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 885, 2022 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509051

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We hypothesize higher air pollution and fewer greenness exposures jointly contribute to metabolic syndrome (MetS), as mechanisms on cardiometabolic mortality. METHODS: We studied the samples in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. We included 1755 participants in 2012, among which 1073 were followed up in 2014 and 561 in 2017. We used cross-sectional analysis for baseline data and the generalized estimating equations (GEE) model in a longitudinal analysis. We examined the independent and interactive effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) on MetS. Adjustment covariates included biomarker measurement year, baseline age, sex, ethnicity, education, marriage, residence, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, and GDP per capita. RESULTS: At baseline, the average age of participants was 85.6 (SD: 12.2; range: 65-112). Greenness was slightly higher in rural areas than urban areas (NDVI mean: 0.496 vs. 0.444; range: 0.151-0.698 vs. 0.133-0.644). Ambient air pollution was similar between rural and urban areas (PM2.5 mean: 49.0 vs. 49.1; range: 16.2-65.3 vs. 18.3-64.2). Both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis showed positive associations of PM2.5 with prevalent abdominal obesity (AO) and MetS, and a negative association of NDVI with prevalent AO. In the longitudinal data, the odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval-CI) of PM2.5 (per 10 µg/m3 increase) were 1.19 (1.12, 1.27), 1.16 (1.08, 1.24), and 1.14 (1.07, 1.21) for AO, MetS and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), respectively. NDVI (per 0.1 unit increase) was associated with lower AO prevalence [OR (95% CI): 0.79 (0.71, 0.88)], but not significantly associated with MetS [OR (95% CI): 0.93 (0.84, 1.04)]. PM2.5 and NDVI had a statistically significant interaction on AO prevalence (pinteraction: 0.025). The association between PM2.5 and MetS, AO, elevated fasting glucose and reduced HDL-C were only significant in rural areas, not in urban areas. The association between NDVI and AO was only significant in areas with low PM2.5, not under high PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: We found air pollution and greenness had independent and interactive effect on MetS components, which may ultimately manifest in pre-mature mortality. These study findings call for green space planning in urban areas and air pollution mitigation in rural areas.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Síndrome Metabólico , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Biomarcadores/análisis , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis
3.
Technol Cult ; 63(2): 401-426, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531804

RESUMEN

Between 1945 and 1960, Japan had some of the most energy-efficient iron and steel industries in the world. Two technologies-heat management and oxygen steelmaking-were key enablers of significant energy conservation, an industrial success story commonly attributed to Japan's post-World War II development. Contrary to current understanding, both technologies had deep pre-World War II roots. Their development accelerated after the war through institutionalized exchanges of experience and expertise among Japanese companies. However, these energy conservation technologies had unintended and little-known consequences: they were a major source of air pollution. This article provides two correctives. First, energy conservation technologies took longer to develop than previously thought. Second, saving energy can dramatically increase an industry's environmental footprint. Japan's industrial experience provides an example of how the road to air pollution hell was paved with the best energy conservation intentions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Acero , Conservación de los Recursos Energéticos , Industrias , Japón
4.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(2): 318-323, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538769

RESUMEN

Air pollution has severe detrimental effects on public health.A substantial number of studies have demonstrated that air pollution exposure is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and a cause of non-communicable diseases.Both long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution are associated with respiratory diseases,stroke,coronary artery disease,and diabetes.Aiming to better understand the association,we reviewed the latest studies about the association of air pollution with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,especially stroke,coronary heart disease,arrhythmia,hypertension,and heart failure,and summarized the underlying mechanisms of the health damage caused by long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Trastornos Cerebrovasculares , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Trastornos Cerebrovasculares/etiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(19): e29309, 2022 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583542

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Little is known within the medical community about the impact of air pollution on hospital admissions due to rheumatoid arthritis associated with interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Our research aimed to explore whether there is a correlation and to estimate how the association was distributed across various lags in Jinan, China.The relationships between ambient air pollutant concentrations, including PM2.5, PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and monthly hospitalizations for RA-ILD were studied by employing a general linear model with a Poisson distribution. This time-series study was performed from January 1st, 2015 to December 31st, 2019.In the 5-year study, there were 221 hospitalizations for RA-ILD in Jinan city. The levels of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 were significantly related to the number of admissions for RA-ILD. PM2.5, PM10, and SO2 showed the most significant effect on the month (lag 0), and NO2 was most related to RA-ILD at a lag of two months (lag 2). The monthly admissions of RA-ILD increased by 0.875% (95% CI: 0.375-1.377%), 0.548% (95% CI: 0.148-0.949%), 1.968% (95% CI: 0.869-3.080%), and 1.534% (95% CI: 0.305-2.778%) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2, respectively.This study might add more detailed evidence that higher levels of PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2 increase the risk of hospitalizations for RA-ILD. Further study of the role of air pollution in the pathogenesis of RA-ILD is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Artritis Reumatoide , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales , Ozono , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Artritis Reumatoide/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno , Ozono/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 291: 62-87, 2022 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593758

RESUMEN

Chemical, analytical and biological laboratories use a variety of different solvents and gases. Many of these compounds are harmful or even toxic to laboratory personnel. Permanent monitoring of the air quality is therefore of great importance regarding the greatest possible occupational safety and the detection of dangerous situations in the work process. An increasing need exists for the development and application of small and portable sensor solutions that enable personal monitoring and that can be flexibly adapted to different environments and situations. Different sensor principles are available for the detection of gases and solvent vapors, which differ in terms of their selectivity and sensitivity. Besides simple sensing elements, integrated sensors and smart sensors are increasingly available, which, depending on their scope of functions, require a distinct effort in integration. This chapter gives an overview of available sensors and their integration options, and describes ready-to-use sensor systems for personal monitoring in life science laboratories.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Gases/análisis , Laboratorios , Tecnología
7.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 49, 2022 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525977

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Living in greener areas is associated with slower cognitive decline and reduced dementia risk among older adults, but the evidence with neurodegenerative disease mortality is scarce. We studied the association between residential surrounding greenness and neurodegenerative disease mortality in older adults. METHODS: We used data from the 2001 Belgian census linked to mortality register data during 2001-2014. We included individuals aged 60 years or older and residing in the five largest Belgian urban areas at baseline (2001). Exposure to residential surrounding greenness was assessed using the 2006 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 500-m from residence. We considered all neurodegenerative diseases and four specific outcomes: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, unspecified dementia, and Parkinson's disease. We fitted Cox proportional hazard models to obtain hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the associations between one interquartile range (IQR) increment in surrounding greenness and neurodegenerative disease mortality outcomes, adjusted for census-based covariates. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential role of 2010 air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2) concentrations, and we explored effect modification by sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: From 1,134,502 individuals included at baseline, 6.1% died from neurodegenerative diseases during follow-up. After full adjustment, one IQR (0.22) increment of surrounding greenness was associated with a 4-5% reduction in premature mortality from all neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, vascular and unspecified dementia [e.g., for Alzheimer's disease mortality: HR 0.95 (95%CI: 0.93, 0.98)]. No association was found with Parkinson's disease mortality. Main associations remained for all neurodegenerative disease mortality when accounting for air pollution, but not for the majority of specific mortality outcomes. Associations were strongest in the lower educated and residents from most deprived neighbourhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Living near greener spaces may reduce the risk of neurodegenerative disease mortality among older adults, potentially independent from air pollution. Socioeconomically disadvantaged groups may experience the greatest beneficial effect.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Estudios de Cohortes , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis
8.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 11(5): e12222, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536587

RESUMEN

Air pollution, via ambient PM2.5, is a big threat to public health since it associates with increased hospitalisation, incidence rate and  mortality of cardiopulmonary injury. However, the potential mediators of pulmonary injury in PM2.5 -induced cardiovascular disorder are not fully understood. To investigate a potential cross talk between lung and heart upon PM2.5 exposure, intratracheal instillation in vivo, organ culture ex vivo and human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) culture in vitro experiments were performed respectively. The exposed supernatants of Beas-2B were collected to treat primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs). Upon intratracheal instillation, subacute PM2.5 exposure caused cardiac dysfunction, which was time-dependent secondary to lung injury in mice, thereby demonstrating a cross-talk between lungs and heart potentially mediated via small extracellular vesicles (sEV). We isolated sEV from PM2.5 -exposed mice serum and Beas-2B supernatants to analyse the change of sEV subpopulations in response to PM2.5 . Single particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensing analysis (SP-IRIS) demonstrated that PM2.5 increased CD63/CD81/CD9 positive particles. Our results indicated that respiratory system-derived sEV containing miR-421 contributed to cardiac dysfunction post-PM2.5 exposure. Inhibition of miR-421 by AAV9-miR421-sponge could significantly reverse PM2.5 -induced cardiac dysfunction in mice. We identified that cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was a downstream target of sEV-miR421, and induced myocardial cell apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. In addition, we observed that GW4869 (an inhibitor of sEV release) or diminazene aceturate (DIZE, an activator of ACE2) treatment could attenuate PM2.5 -induced cardiac dysfunction in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that PM2.5 exposure promotes sEV-linked miR421 release after lung injury and hereby contributes to PM2.5 -induced cardiac dysfunction via suppressing ACE2.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Vesículas Extracelulares , Cardiopatías , Lesión Pulmonar , MicroARNs , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2 , Animales , Ratones , Miocitos Cardíacos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Ratas
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(5): 2023-2034, 2022 May.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544828

RESUMEN

The scope of this study was to analyze the possible impacts of climate change on respiratory health in the municipalities of Santo André and São Caetano do Sul. Historical meteorological data (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure), air quality data (concentrations of PM10 and O3) and respiratory health data (incidence rates of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases - IRHRD) were related through statistical models of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). Meteorological data from future climate projections (2019-2099) from three different climate models (one global and two regionalized) in two emission scenarios were applied to the MLR models. The results showed that the IRHRD will suffer an increase of up to 10% in relation to the current levels for São Caetano do Sul in the 2070-2099 period. In Santo André, projections indicated a reduction of up to 26% in IRHRD. The most important variable in the MLR models for Santo André was temperature (-2,15x), indicating an inverse relationship between global warming and an increase in IRHRD, while in São Caetano the atmospheric pressure had the greatest weight (2.44x). For future studies, the inclusion of future projections of PM10 concentrations is recommended.


Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar os possíveis impactos das mudanças climáticas na saúde respiratória nos municípios de Santo André e São Caetano do Sul. Foram analisados dados meteorológicos históricos (temperatura, precipitação, umidade relativa e pressão atmosférica), de qualidade do ar (concentrações de MP10 e O3) e de saúde respiratória (taxas de incidência de internações por doenças respiratórias - TIIDR), relacionados através de modelos estatísticos de Regressão Linear Múltipla (RLM). Dados meteorológicos de projeções climáticas futuras (2019-2099) de três modelos climáticos (um global e dois regionalizados) em dois cenários de emissão foram aplicados aos modelos de RLM. Os resultados das projeções mostraram um aumento de até 10% nas TIIDR em relação aos níveis atuais para São Caetano do Sul no período de 2070-2099. Em Santo André as projeções indicaram redução de até 26% nas TIIDR. A variável de maior peso nos modelos de RLM de Santo André foi a temperatura (-2,15x) indicando que o aquecimento é inversamente proporcional ao aumento nas TIIDR, enquanto em São Caetano do Sul a pressão atmosférica teve o maior peso (2,44x). Para próximos trabalhos recomenda-se a inclusão de projeções futuras de concentrações de poluentes atmosféricos.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Cambio Climático , Hospitalización , Humanos
10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545603

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate and monitor the occupational hazards in the Teaching and Research Laboratory (hereinafter referred to as the place) of a university, so as to provide basis for the occupational health work in the university. Methods: November 2014, 46 places in a university were selected by stratified random sampling, and the occupational health risk factors were investigated. Results: Indoor temperature, humidity, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were detected in 21 sites, xylene and hydrofluoric acid were detected in 6 sites, and colony count was detected in 18 sites, the power frequency electric field intensity was measured in 23 places, and the x-ray radiation dose was measured in 4 places. Noise was measured at 21 sites, with 7 sites exceeding the standards accounting for 33.3% (7/21) ; 21 sites were detected for illumination and 10 sites for nonconformity accounting for 47.6% (10/21) ; 10 sites for Microwave Radiation and 3 sites exceeding the standards accounting for 30% (3/10) ; and 25 sites were detected for outdoor air volume and air velocity, the percentage of unqualified was 72% (18/25) in 18 sites, among which the wind velocity was statistically significant in teaching, research and experimental sites (P=0.010) . Conclusion: The occupational hazards in the teaching and research places of a university should be paid attention to, and the engineering protection and personal protection should be strengthened in the experiment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Humanos , Humedad , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Universidades
11.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2075533, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545878

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Little is known about the delegitimation experiences of people who associate their health problems with the indoor air quality of their homes (i.e., indoor air sufferers). From other contexts, it is known that people suffering from contested illnesses frequently report delegitimation from authorities and laypersons. Therefore, we analysed delegitimation experiences among indoor air sufferers, focusing on how they explain why others delegitimize them. METHOD: Two types of qualitative data-semi-structured interviews with eight people and essays written by 28 people-were subjected to a thematic analysis. RESULTS: Thematic analysis revealed three themes: 1) lack of understanding; 2) others' lack of morality; and 3) social discrimination and inequality. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that indoor air sufferers are vulnerable as individuals and as a group, and suggests that authorities working with people suffering from indoor air problems in homes must pay more attention to sufferers' ability/willingness to trust people and the system responsible for their care.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Humanos
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 412, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534593

RESUMEN

This study uses the daily product data of the concentration of ozone in the atmospheric column (ozone column concentration) collected by the Aura satellite's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), to evaluate the ozone pollution status of the Fenwei Plain in east-central China, by employing pixel-based spatial analysis, an θslope trend index, a Hurst index, and grey correlation. The following results were found. (1) The spatial distribution of ozone in the atmosphere of the Fenwei Plain was higher in the north and lower in the south, with high values appearing in Jinzhong, Lvliang, and other cities. (2) The changes in ozone column concentration periodically and seasonally in the Fenwei Plain. Seasonally, the ozone column concentration was highest in spring, followed by summer, winter, and autumn. (3) The pixel-based trend change of the ozone slope (θslope) indicated that the ozone concentration in the region was in a downward trend, while the long-term correlation of the time series trend Hurst index found that the region should expect to see a weak rebound in the ozone column concentration in the future, so that routine monitoring should be strengthened. (4) The present study on the factors influencing the ozone concentration found that the concentration is relatively closely related to temperature, air pressure, humidity, grain sowing area, highway mileage, and secondary industry.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ozono , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Ozono/análisis , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Estaciones del Año
15.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 113, 2022 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509099

RESUMEN

With prevalent global air pollution, individuals with certain genetic predispositions and sensitivities are at of higher risk of developing respiratory symptoms including chronic cough. Studies to date have relied on patient-filled questionnaires in epidemiological studies to evaluate the gene-by-environment interactions. In a controlled human exposure study, we evaluated whether genetic risk score (GRS) based on cough-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with a cough count over 24 h post-exposure to diesel exhaust (DE), a model for traffic-related air pollution. DE is a mixture of several known air pollutants including PM2.5, CO, NO, NO2, and volatile organic compounds. Under closely observed circumstances, we determined that GRS constructed from 7 SNPs related to TRPA1, TRPV1, and NK-2R were correlated with cough count. Selection of channels were based on prior knowledge that SNPs in these channels lead to acute airway inflammation as a result of their increased sensitivity to particulate matter. We performed a linear regression analysis and found a significant, positive correlation between GRS and cough count following DE exposure (p = 0.002, R2 = 0.61) and filtered air (FA) exposure (p = 0.028, R2 = 0.37). Although that correlation was stronger for DE than for FA, we found no significant exposure-by-GRS interaction. In summary, cough-relevant GRS was associated with a higher 24 h cough count in a controlled setting, suggesting that individuals with a high GRS may be more susceptible to developing cough regardless of their exposure. The trend towards this susceptibility being more prominent in the context of traffic-related air pollution remains to be confirmed.Trial registration: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02236039; NCT0223603. Registered on August 11, 2014, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02236039 .


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Tos/inducido químicamente , Tos/diagnóstico , Tos/epidemiología , Humanos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/toxicidad
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 406, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522351

RESUMEN

Industrial pollution in Bangladesh has posed a serious threat to human health, economic activity, and the environment. By emphasizing industries that produce major pollutants, substantial improvements can be made to pollution mitigation measures. In countries where primary pollution data is not readily available, the Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS) could be used to calculate the pollution load utilizing total industrial output or employment data. IPPS data, which was designed for developed countries like the USA, had been used directly for other countries without any normalization in previously reported studies. The main purpose of this study is to modify the current IPPS approach for any other country by incorporating specific correction factor for a specific country. In this study, a specific correction factor for Bangladesh was determined, taking into account the country's major polluting industries, and used to estimate the pollution scenario for the year 2020. The accuracy of the specific pollution intensities was also evaluated by comparing the data obtained using both gross output and employee number. According to this study, the top three air-polluting industries are structural clay products, cement-lime-plaster industry, and iron and steel industry. Similarly, for water pollution, the food industry, paper and paper product industry, and textile industry are the largest pollutant contributors. The detailed pollution load matrix in terms of air and water pollution is also developed, and can be used to predict both short-term and long-term scenarios of industrial pollution in Bangladesh, which eventually will assist the policy makers to adopt appropriate pollution management approach. Moreover, the methods developed in this study will help to tailor the IPPS data for any country and increase the accuracy of the pollution load.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Bangladesh , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Industrias , Acero , Contaminación del Agua
17.
J Environ Manage ; 315: 115154, 2022 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500488

RESUMEN

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are pointed out as the technology that will reshape the concept of mobility, with significant implications for the economy, the environment, and society. This fact will bring new challenge to cities urban planning. Research to anticipate the AVs impacts, maximizing their benefits and reduce trade-offs are currently crucial. This work investigates the potential challenges and benefits of gradually replace internal combustion engine human driven vehicles with different penetration rates of AVs - 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, and 100% - in urban roads of different characteristics, either in terms of traffic singularities or volumes, and its related implications on air quality. For that purpose, two urban areas with distinct features, Porto and Aveiro, were selected as case studies, and a modelling setup composed of a traffic model, an emission model, and a local air quality model was applied. The results revealed that the AVs benefits are directly linked with the urban design and the road characteristics. In the Aveiro case study, the AVs promoted positive changes with average reductions in daily NOx emissions (compared with the baseline scenario, without AVs) ranging between -2.1% (for C10%) and -7.7% (for C100%). In line with the emissions impacts, positive effects were found on air quality, with average reductions of NO2 concentrations up to -4% (for C100%). In Porto urban area, slight differences in NOx emissions were obtained (<2%), which implied no changes in the air quality levels. The distinct impact of AVs in the study areas is mostly explained by the traffic light coordination system and directional split distributions in the main roads. These results provide valuable insights to support decision-makers in the definition of strategies that allow the integration of these new emerging technologies in the road infrastructure, considering the features of the urban design, traffic profile and road characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Entorno Construido , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
18.
Environ Int ; 164: 107285, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576730

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with carotid intima-media thickness test (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between ambient air pollution and CIMT in a younger adolescent population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations beyond standard mean regression by using quantile regression to explore if associations occur at different percentiles of the CIMT distribution. METHODS: We measured CIMT cross-sectionally at the age of 16 years in 363 adolescents participating in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort. We fit separate quantile regressions to examine whether the associations of annual averages of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance (a marker for black carbon), PMcoarse and ultrafine particles up to age 14 assigned at residential addresses with CIMT varied across deciles of CIMT. False discovery rate corrections (FDR, p < 0.05 for statistical significance) were applied for multiple comparisons. We report quantile regression coefficients that correspond to an average change in CIMT (µm) associated with an interquartile range increase in the exposure. RESULTS: PM2.5 absorbance exposure at birth was statistically significantly (FDR < 0.05) associated with a 6.23 µm (95% CI: 0.15, 12.3) higher CIMT per IQR increment in PM2.5 absorbance in the 10th quantile of CIMT but was not significantly related to other deciles within the CIMT distribution. For NO2 exposure we found similar effect sizes to PM2.5 absorbance, but with much wider confidence intervals. PM2.5 exposure was weakly positively associated with CIMT while PMcoarse and ultrafine did not display any consistent patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood exposure to ambient air pollution was suggestively associated with the CIMT distribution during adolescence. Since CIMT increases with age, mitigation strategies to reduce traffic-related air pollution early in life could possibly delay atherosclerosis and subsequently CVD development later in life.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Aterosclerosis , Adolescente , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Aterosclerosis/epidemiología , Aterosclerosis/etiología , Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo , Preescolar , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis
19.
Environ Int ; 164: 107284, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576732

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between short-term exposure to air pollution and cognitive and mental health has not been thoroughly investigated so far. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a panel study co-designed with citizens to assess whether air pollution can affect attention, perceived stress, mood and sleep quality. METHODS: From September 2020 to March 2021, we followed 288 adults (mean age = 37.9 years; standard deviation = 12.1 years) for 14 days in Barcelona, Spain. Two tasks were self-administered daily through a mobile application: the Stroop color-word test to assess attention performance and a set of 0-to-10 rating scale questions to evaluate perceived stress, well-being, energy and sleep quality. From the Stroop test, three outcomes related to selective attention were calculated and z-score-transformed: response time, cognitive throughput and inhibitory control. Air pollution was assessed using the mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations (mean of all Barcelona monitoring stations or using location data) 12 and 24 h before the tasks were completed. We applied linear regression with random effects by participant to estimate intra-individual associations, controlling for day of the week and time-varying factors such as alcohol consumption and physical activity. RESULTS: Based on 2,457 repeated attention test performances, an increase of 30 µg/m3 exposure to NO2 12 h was associated with lower cognitive throughput (beta = -0.08, 95% CI: -0.15, -0.01) and higher response time (beta = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14) (increase inattentiveness). Moreover, an increase of 30 µg/m3 exposure to NO2 12 h was associated with higher self-perceived stress (beta = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.77). We did not find statistically significant associations with inhibitory control and subjective well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that short-term exposure to air pollution could have adverse effects on attention performance and perceived stress in adults.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ciencia Ciudadana , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Cognición , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Salud Mental , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , España
20.
Environ Int ; 164: 107295, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580435

RESUMEN

Liquid crystal monomers (LCMs) are a class of emerging, persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic organic pollutants. They are detected in various environmental matrixes that are associated with electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling. However, their occurrence and distribution in indoor and outdoor dust on a national scale remain unknown. In this study, a dedicated target analysis quantified a broad range of 60 LCMs in dust samples collected across China. The LCMs were frequently detected in indoor (n = 48) and outdoor dust (n = 97; 37 sampled concomitantly with indoors dust) from dwellings, and indoor dust from cybercafés (n = 34) and phone repair stores (n = 22), with median concentrations of 41.6, 94.7, 106, and 171 ng/g, respectively. No significant spatial difference was observed for the concentrations of the total LCMs among distinct geographical regions (p > 0.05). The median daily intake values of the total LCMs via dust ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation were estimated at 1.50 × 10-2, 2.90 × 10-2, and 8.57 × 10-6 ng/kg BW/day for adults and 1.47 × 10-1, 1.22 × 10-1, and 2.18 × 10-5 ng/kg BW/day for children, respectively. These estimates suggested higher exposure risks for children and indicated that dust ingestion and dermal contact significantly contribute to the human intake of LCMs. The microenvironmental pollution levels of LCMs together with the potential exposure risks associated with some of these chemicals are of concern for human health.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Residuos Electrónicos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Cristales Líquidos , Adulto , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Niño , China , Polvo/análisis , Residuos Electrónicos/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Humanos
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