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1.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 126: 104241, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433086

RESUMEN

Agnathans possess a convergent adaptive immune system in comparison to that of jawed vertebrates. In lieu of immunoglobulins, agnathans deploy variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), single chain protein effector molecules consisting of leucine rich repeat modules. Foundational work for this discovery utilized the parasitic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. However, for several reasons, it is desirable to employ a local species for further studies of lamprey immunity. A disjunct freshwater species from the Kings River of California, Lampetra hubbsi, was evaluated for this purpose. Validation that its adaptive immune system was analogous to that of P. marinus entailed detailed examination of its immune tissue organization and of its VLRB cDNA transcripts. The VLRB molecules showed high degrees of homology with P. marinus VLRB. Furthermore, hemato-lymphopoietic tissue expression of VLRB protein was confirmed. We conclude that L. hubbsi should be a viable alternative for studying the lamprey adaptive immune system and for generation of monoclonal antibodies.

2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105256, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384946

RESUMEN

Evidence is mixed regarding whether and why bilingual children might be advantaged in the development of executive functions. Five preregistered hypotheses regarding sources of a bilingual advantage were tested with data from 102 Spanish-English bilingual children and 25 English monolingual children who were administered a test of executive attention, the flanker task, at 7, 8, and 9 years of age. Measures of the children's early and concurrent bilingual exposure and their concurrent English and Spanish skill were available from a larger longitudinal study in which these children participated. Tests of the preregistered hypotheses yielded null findings: The bilingual children's executive attention abilities were unrelated to their amount of early exposure to mixed input, to balance in their early dual language exposure, to balance in their concurrent exposure, to their degree of bilingualism, or to their combined Spanish + English vocabulary score. English vocabulary score was a positive significant correlate of executive attention among the bilingual children, but those bilingual children above the group median in English vocabulary did not outperform the monolingual children when the comparison was adjusted for nonverbal IQ. These findings suggest that a language learning ability may explain the association between bilingualism and executive function. Because the best statistical approach to testing for effects on differences is a matter of dispute, all analyses were conducted with both a difference score and a residual gain score as the outcome variable. The central findings, but not all findings, were the same with both approaches.


Asunto(s)
Multilingüismo , Atención , Niño , Humanos , Lenguaje , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Estudios Longitudinales
3.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113849, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619586

RESUMEN

Engine oil consists of hazardous substances that adversely affect the environment and soil quality. Bioremediation (employing organisms) is an appropriate technique to mitigate engine oil pollution. In the present study, the earthworm species, Drawida modesta (epigeic) and Lampito mauritii (anecic) were used to restore the soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from used engine oil. Four treatments were set up in addition to positive and negative controls. A maximum of 68.6% PAHs and 34.3% TPHs removal in the treatment with soil (1 kg), cow dung (50 g), used engine oil (7.5 mL) and earthworms was recorded after 60 days. Undoubtedly, earthworms effectively removed PAHs and TPHs from the oil-contaminated soil. PAHs were more strongly accumulated in D. modesta (16.25 mg kg-1) than in L. mauritii (13.25 mg kg-1). Further, histological analysis revealed the epidermal surface irregularity, cellular disintegration, and cellular debris in earthworms. The pH (6.3%), electrical conductivity (12.7%), and total organic carbon (35.4%) were significantly (at P < 0.05) decreased after 60 days; while, total nitrogen (62%), total potassium (76.2%), and total phosphorus (19.2%) were substantially increased at the end of the experiment. The seed germination assay with fenugreek indicates that germination percentage (95%), and germination index (179), were dramatically increased in earthworm inoculated treatments when compared to the negative control (without earthworms). The results reveal that there is a great scope for utilizing the earthworms, D. modesta and L. mauritii for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with PAHs and TPHs.


Asunto(s)
Oligoquetos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Biodegradación Ambiental , Bovinos , Femenino , Hidrocarburos , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
4.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103876, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579844

RESUMEN

The efficacy of plant-based antimicrobials against Salmonella Newport and Listeria monocytogenes on melon rinds was evaluated. Four cantaloupe and 3 honeydew melon varieties grown in Georgia, Arizona, Texas, North Carolina, Indiana and California were tested. Melon rinds (10 g pieces) were inoculated with 5-6 log CFU/10 g rind of S. Newport or L. monocytogenes. Samples were then immersed in 5 % olive extract or 0.5 % oregano oil antimicrobial solution and gently agitated for 2 min. Samples were stored at 4 °C and surviving populations of both bacteria were enumerated at days 0 and 3. Plant-based antimicrobials reduced S. Newport and L.monocytogenes population on all rind samples, regardless of the melon types, varieties or growing locations. Compared to the control, antimicrobial treatments caused up to 3.6 and 4.0 log reductions in populations of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, respectively. In most cases, plant-based antimicrobial treatments reduced pathogen populations to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g) at day 3. In general, oregano oil had better antimicrobial activity than olive extract and the antimicrobial treatments were more effective on Salmonella than on L. monocytogenes. The plant-based antimicrobial treatments exhibited better microbial reductions on honeydews than on cantaloupes. These antimicrobials could potentially be used as sanitizers for decontaminating melons.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118396, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688723

RESUMEN

A growing number of studies report associations between air pollution and COVID-19 mortality. Most were ecological studies at the county or regional level which disregard important local variability and relied on data from only the first few months of the pandemic. Using COVID-19 deaths identified from death certificates in California, we evaluated whether long-term ambient air pollution was related to weekly COVID-19 mortality at the census tract-level during the first ∼12 months of the pandemic. Weekly COVID-19 mortality for each census tract was calculated based on geocoded death certificate data. Annual average concentrations of ambient particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) over 2014-2019 were assessed for all census tracts using inverse distance-squared weighting based on data from the ambient air quality monitoring system. Negative binomial mixed models related weekly census tract COVID-19 mortality counts to a natural cubic spline for calendar week. We included adjustments for potential confounders (census tract demographic and socioeconomic factors), random effects for census tract and county, and an offset for census tract population. Data were analyzed as two study periods: Spring/Summer (March 16-October 18, 2020) and Winter (October 19, 2020-March 7, 2021). Mean (standard deviation) concentrations were 10.3 (2.1) µg/m3 for PM2.5, 25.5 (7.1) µg/m3 for PM10, 11.3 (4.0) ppb for NO2, and 42.8 (6.9) ppb for O3. For Spring/Summer, adjusted rate ratios per standard deviation increase were 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.17) for PM2.5, 1.16 (1.11, 1.21) for PM10, 1.06 (1.02, 1.10) for NO2, and 1.09 (1.04, 1.14) for O3. Associations were replicated in Winter, although they were attenuated for PM2.5 and PM10. Study findings support a relation between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and COVID-19 mortality. Communities with historically high pollution levels might be at higher risk of COVID-19 mortality.

6.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132079, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523453

RESUMEN

The presence of microcystins (MCs) in waterbodies requires a simple and reliable monitoring technique to characterize better their spatiotemporal distribution and ecological risks. An organic-diffusive gradients in thin films (o-DGT) passive sampler based on polyacrylamide diffusive gel and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) binding gel was developed for MCs in water. The mass accumulation of three MCs (MC-LR, -RR, and -YR) was linear over 10 days (R2 ≥ 0.98). Sampling rates (2.68-3.22 mL d-1) and diffusion coefficients (0.90-1.08 × 10-6 cm2 s-1) of three MCs were obtained at 20 °C. Two different passive samplers, o-DGT and the Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking device (SPATT), were co-deployed to estimate MC levels at three lakes in California, USA. Measured total MC concentrations were up to 10.9 µg L-1, with MC-LR the primary variant at a measured maximum concentration of 2.74 µg L-1. Time-weighted average MC concentrations by o-DGT were lower than grab water samples, probably because grab sampling measures both dissolved and particulate phases (i.e., MCs in cyanobacteria). Passive water samplers by design can only measure dissolved-phase MCs, which are considerably less during the cyanobacteria-laden periods observed. Both o-DGT and grab samples gave comparable results for three MC variants at low levels of MCs, e.g., <0.1 µg L-1. o-DGT showed a higher correlation with grab sampling than SPATT did. This study demonstrates that o-DGT can be effectively used for monitoring and evaluation of dissolved MCs in waters.

7.
Environ Res ; 203: 111907, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419469

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy has been shown to increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes and childhood disorders. High-resolution metabolomics (HRM) has previously been employed to identify metabolic responses to traffic-related air pollution in adults, including pregnant women. Thus far, no studies have examined metabolic effects of air pollution exposure in utero on neonates. METHODS: We retrieved stored neonatal blood spots for 241 children born in California between 1998 and 2007. These children were randomly selected from all California birth rolls to serve as birth-year matched controls for children with retinoblastoma identified from the California cancer registry for a case control study of childhood cancer. We estimated prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure (particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) during the third-trimester using the California Line Source Dispersion Model, version 4 (CALINE4) based on residential addresses recorded at birth. We employed untargeted HRM to obtain metabolic profiles, and metabolites associated with air pollution exposure were identified using partial least squares (PLS) regression and linear regressions. Biological effects were characterized using pathway enrichment analyses adjusting for potential confounders including maternal age, race/ethnicity, and education. RESULTS: In total we extracted 4038 and 4957 metabolite features from neonatal blood spots in hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) chromatography (positive ion mode) and C18 reverse phase columns (negative ion mode), respectively. After controlling for confounding factors, partial least square regression (Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) ≥ 2) selected 402 HILIC positive and 182 C18 negative features as statistically significantly associated with increasing third trimester PM2.5 exposure. Using pathway enrichment analysis, we identified metabolites in oxidative stress and inflammation pathways as being altered, primarily involving lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: The metabolite features and pathways associated with air pollution exposure in neonates suggest that maternal exposure during late pregnancy contributes to oxidative stress and inflammation in newborn children.

8.
Eval Program Plann ; 90: 101988, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452743

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the application of a formative evaluation conducted concurrently with implementation of a public health social marketing campaign to allow for substantive changes to the campaign messaging to subsequently improve acceptability. METHOD: A serial cross-sectional survey was used to evaluate the acceptability of two campaign messages among Black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons (TGP) in Los Angeles County from 2016 to 2018 through an online survey. Theinitial message, which presented the PrEP Protectors, a trio of superheroes embodying the power, knowledge, and protection pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can provide, was revised based on respondent feedback collected in the survey to increase specificity and clarity. An adjusted regression model tested whether the revised campaign message, (the initial campaign plus revised imagery and streamlined language) was predictive of increased campaign acceptability compared to the initial message alone. RESULTS: A total of 911 eligible respondents were surveyed, most were MSM (83 %),

9.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 50-59, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797241

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence rates are 2- to 5-fold higher among persons incarcerated in the United States than in the general population. PROGRAM OR POLICY: We describe an outbreak investigation of COVID-19 at a jail (jail A) in Alameda County during March 2020-March 2021. IMPLEMENTATION: To prevent COVID-19 cases among incarcerated persons and employees, staff at jail A and the county public health department worked to develop and recommend infection control measures implemented by jail A including, but not limited to, face covering use among incarcerated persons and staff; cohorting incarcerated persons at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 in dedicated housing units; quarantining all newly detained individuals for 14 days; and offering testing for all symptomatic incarcerated persons, newly incarcerated persons at day 2 and day 10, and all persons who resided in a housing unit where a COVID-19 case was detected. EVALUATION: A total of 571 COVID-19 cases were detected among incarcerated persons at jail A during March 2020-March 2021, which represented a total incidence of 280 per 1000 population, 5 times higher than the rate in Alameda County. Of the 571 cases among incarcerated persons, 557 (98%) were male; 415 (73%) were aged 18 to 40 years; 249 (44%) were Latino; and 180 (32%) were African American; 354 (62%) were not symptomatic; and 220 (39%) had no comorbidities. Less than 2% of infected incarcerated persons were hospitalized, and no deaths were reported. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 disproportionately impacted persons incarcerated at jail A, with higher numbers among Latinos and African Americans. Implementation of COVID-19 infection control and testing measures, and collaboration between public health, law enforcement, and health care providers may have, in part, led to reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 at jail A.

10.
Eval Program Plann ; 90: 101998, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544606

RESUMEN

Strategies to reduce new HIV infections include pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Of the estimated over 221,000 Californians with an indication for PrEP, only 31,280 (14 %) were currently taking the medication as of 2019. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Project PrIDE funds were used to support and develop California PrEP navigation programs designed to increase PrEP uptake among trans persons and men who have sex with men (MSM). An analysis of PrIDE-funded PrEP navigation service outcomes was conducted to highlight where continuum drop-off occurred and how it varied among priority populations. Quantitative service delivery data for PrEP navigation program activities conducted from October 1, 2015 to September 30, 2018 were collected across three county-level local health jurisdictions (LHJs) via standardized, agency-completed service delivery data collection tools. Analyses included frequencies and crosstabs. These variations were not tested statistically but highlight group-specific needs to be addressed before implementing PrEP navigation within California. Continued systematic collection and analyses of PrEP continuum outcomes will allow programs to dynamically identify and address barriers to PrEP uptake in priority populations.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118254, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610412

RESUMEN

The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California has suffered persistent particulate matter (PM) pollution despite many years of control efforts. To further understand the chemical drivers of this problem and to support the development of State Implementation Plan for PM, a time-of-flight aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ToF-ACSM) outfitted with a PM2.5 lens and a capture vaporizer has been deployed at the Fresno-Garland air monitoring site of the California Air Resource Board (CARB) since Oct. 2018. The instrument measured non-refractory species in PM2.5 continuously at 10-min resolution. In this study, the data acquired from Oct. 2018 to May 2019 were analyzed to investigate the chemical characteristics, sources and atmospheric processes of PM2.5 in the SJV. Comparisons of the ToF-ACSM measurement with various co-located aerosol instruments show good agreements. The inter-comparisons indicated that PM2.5 in Fresno was dominated by submicron particles during the winter whereas refractory species accounted for a major fraction of PM2.5 mass during the autumn associated with elevated PM10 loadings. A rolling window positive matrix factorization analysis was applied to the organic aerosol (OA) mass spectra using the Multilinear Engine (ME-2) algorithm. Three distinct OA sources were identified, including vehicle emissions, local and regional biomass burning, and formation of oxygenated species. There were significant seasonal variations in PM2.5 composition and sources. During the winter, residential wood burning and oxidation of nitrogen oxides were major contributors to the occurrence of haze episodes with PM2.5 dominated by biomass burning OA and nitrate. In autumn, agricultural activities and wildfires were found to be the main cause of PM pollution. PM2.5 concentrations decreased significantly after spring and were dominated by oxygenated OA during March to May. Our results highlight the importance of using seasonally dependent control strategies to mitigate PM pollution in the SJV.

12.
Environ Res ; 203: 111872, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403668

RESUMEN

There is limited population-scale evidence on the burden of exposure to wildfire smoke during pregnancy and its impacts on birth outcomes. In order to investigate this relationship, data on every singleton birth in California 2006-2012 were combined with satellite-based estimates of wildfire smoke plume boundaries and high-resolution gridded estimates of surface PM2.5 concentrations and a regression model was used to estimate associations with preterm birth risk. Results suggest that each additional day of exposure to any wildfire smoke during pregnancy was associated with an 0.49 % (95 % CI: 0.41-0.59 %) increase in risk of preterm birth (<37 weeks). At sample median smoke exposure (7 days) this translated to a 3.4 % increase in risk, relative to an unexposed mother. Estimates by trimester suggest stronger associations with exposure later in pregnancy and estimates by smoke intensity indicate that observed associations were driven by higher intensity smoke-days. Exposure to low intensity smoke-days had no association with preterm birth while an additional medium (smoke PM2.5 5-10 µg/m3) or high (smoke PM2.5 > 10 µg/m3) intensity smoke-day was associated with an 0.95 % (95 % CI: 0.47-1.42 %) and 0.82 % (95 % CI: 0.41-1.24 %) increase in preterm risk, respectively. In contrast to previous findings for other pollution types, neither exposure to smoke nor the relative impact of smoke on preterm birth differed by race/ethnicity or income in our sample. However, impacts differed greatly by baseline smoke exposure, with mothers in regions with infrequent smoke exposure experiencing substantially larger impacts from an additional smoke-day than mothers in regions where smoke is more common. We estimate 6,974 (95 % CI: 5,513-8,437) excess preterm births attributable to wildfire smoke exposure 2007-2012, accounting for 3.7 % of observed preterm births during this period. Our findings have important implications for understanding the costs of growing wildfire smoke exposure, and for understanding the benefits of smoke mitigation measures.

13.
Gene ; 807: 145950, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481003

RESUMEN

This population-based longitudinal study is the first investigation that assesses the association of common MC4R SNPs with the obesity-related parameters over time and determines the effect of risk alleles during the three adulthood life periods (early, middle, and late) in a large Iranian cohort, a population with a unique genetic make-up that has been understudied and relatively unexplored. We obtained the genotype of 5370 unrelated adults who participated in the ongoing Tehran Cardiometabolic Genetic Study (TCGS) cohort project for the common MC4R SNPs. Linear regression and linear mixed model analyses were performed to examine the effect of MC4R polymorphisms on maximum BMI and other obesity-related factors over time. We recognized that several SNPs associated with the maximum BMI and the increased BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio across Iranian adults over a lifetime. Interestingly, we found that rs9954571-A has a yet unreported protective role against obesity-related factors, including BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and triglyceride level. Additionally, a survey of the impact of the MC4R risk score throughout the adulthood life periods indicated that the MC4R risk score is influenced both the elevated BMI and waist circumference only during the early adulthood period. Our findings can expand our knowledge about the MC4R genetic variant's contributions to adulthood obesity and highlight the importance of evaluating the genetic components affecting obesity over a lifetime, which could be considered for obesity clinical screening and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/genética , Receptor de Melanocortina Tipo 4/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/metabolismo , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Receptor de Melanocortina Tipo 4/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo , Circunferencia de la Cintura/genética , Relación Cintura-Cadera/métodos
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2391: 191-205, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686987

RESUMEN

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov), is an important disease of cotton. More than 14 different genotypes as determined by VCG and sequence analyses are known to occur in the United States. Fov4 (race 4, VCG0114), originally found in India, was first detected in the United States in 2001 in California and recently in 2017 and 2019 in Texas and New Mexico, respectively. Four sub-genotypes of Fov4 have been identified, with Fov4 N, T, and MiT genotypes occurring in California, and Fov4 T and MT genotypes occurring in Texas. Unlike other genotypes of Fov in the United States, Fov4 does not require the presence of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) to cause severe wilt in cotton and is a major concern to US cotton growers. Fov4 can be spread through a variety of mechanisms including through infected seed. Once a field is infested, the fungus becomes endemic since there are no economically viable means to eradicate the pathogen from infested fields. Therefore, a rapid and accurate detection method is essential for early identification of infested fields and seed lots to prevent further spread of Fov4. This chapter describes multiplex and singleplex PCR diagnostics for detection of Fov4, and for detection and genotyping N, T, MiT, and MT genotypes of Fov4 from wilted cotton plants.

15.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E137-E145, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797249

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes offer a promising public health strategy to decrease consumption of sugary beverages. To date, 7 US cities have successfully implemented SSB taxes; however, only a few studies have examined adoption and implementation processes. OBJECTIVES: To describe public health and policy lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementation of the Oakland, California, penny-per-ounce SSB tax, Measure HH. DESIGN: A mixed-methods, longitudinal, qualitative case study was conducted using a combination of key informant interviews with implementation stakeholders as well as analyses of archival documents and media documents from 2016 to 2019. Interviews were digitally recorded and professionally transcribed. Interview transcripts, archival documents, and media documents were analyzed by 3 coders using Atlas.ti v8. Analyses employed principles of constant comparative analysis to identify themes related to lessons learned. SETTING: Oakland, California. PARTICIPANTS: Key informants (n = 15), archival documents (n = 43), and media documents (n = 90). INTERVENTION: Oakland, California's SSB tax (Measure HH). RESULTS: Implementation lessons included both success stories and challenges. Successes included contracting a third-party tax administrator to support tax collection and education; leveraging a pro-tax coalition to counteract industry attacks and to protect tax revenue; and offering "quick win" funding to support local needs. Challenges were associated with implementing a "general" tax versus a "special" tax; the lack of explicit revenue allocation in the ordinance to support city-level implementation and oversight; and, the original ordinance language for tax application to distributors. CONCLUSIONS: The study offers a range of recommendations-derived from lessons learned over several years of implementation-to policy makers and advocates engaged in SSB tax adoption and implementation efforts in their jurisdictions. SSB tax implementation requires sufficient agency administrative capacity and a strong pro-tax coalition that engages local community organizations to respond to public health needs.

16.
Theriogenology ; 177: 157-164, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710647

RESUMEN

Long-term studies of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Southern California have documented persistent small population sizes and the lowest genetic variation of any mountain lion population, except for the Federally endangered mountain lion subspecies, the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi). There is overwhelming molecular evidence supporting inbreeding and low genetic diversity in these Southern California populations but there is a lack of phenotypical evidence of inbreeding depression. The primary goal of this study was to assess male mountain lions, in Southern California, for teratospermia (>60% abnormal sperm production), one of the first signs of inbreeding depression in mountain lions that are associated with decreased reproduction and population decline. From December 2019 to December 2020, we surveyed mountain lions during live captures, after mortality events, and in images collected from camera traps in the following populations: Santa Monica Mountains, Santa Susana Mountains, Santa Ana Mountains, and the Eastern Peninsular Range. Mountain lions were sampled for known physical abnormalities associated with inbreeding depression such as teratospermia, cryptorchidism, and distal tail kinks. For teratospermia, we extracted testes from five males post-mortem to assess sperm morphology. Epididymal sperm evaluations revealed all males were teratospermic. Across all samples, on average, 93% of observed spermatozoa were abnormal. We physically examined 32 mountain lions (males and females) for distal tail kinks, and we observed one individual affected. We examined 15 male mountain lions for cryptorchidism, and we observed one unilaterally cryptorchid male and one male with testes that differed significantly in size, likely reflecting asynchronous migration of the testes during puberty. Further, we identified three other animals in camera-trap images that had distal tail kinks, for a total of four. In conclusion, from December 2019 to December 2020, we identified nine individuals exhibiting physical signs of inbreeding depression. These reproductive and physical signs of inbreeding depression in Southern California mountain lions increase the urgency of conservation efforts in the region.


Asunto(s)
Depresión Endogámica , Leones , Puma , Animales , California , Femenino , Endogamia , Masculino , Reproducción
17.
Cytokine ; 149: 155726, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666235

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that exposure to low-grade inflammation may be associated with adverse health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study within the California Teachers Study prospective cohort, among female participants who had completed a questionnaire that asked about their health behaviors (e.g., diabetes, physical activity, body mass index, medication use) and who had donated blood within a year of their questionnaire. 822 women with stored serum were evaluated for 16 immune biomarkers. In addition, four immune pathways were constructed: Th1, pro-inflammatory/macrophage activation, B-cell activation, and T-cell activation. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between host characteristics and immune biomarkers were assessed using logistic regression models. RESULT: Compared to women of a normal BMI, obese women (>30 kg/m2) were positively associated with sTNFR2, CD27, IL6, CXCL13, sIL-2Rα, and IL6Ra levels above the median, with odds ratios ranging from 1.5 to 6.0. The pro-inflammatory/macrophage activation pathway was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.95), fueled by individual associations between diabetes and sTNF-R2, TNFα and sCD27. Physical activity was inversely associated with sTNF-R2, TNFα, CXCL13, IL6, IL10, and IFN-γ levels, particularly for the highest category of activity (5.88+ hours/week) (ORs = 0.32-0.69). In pathway-based analyses, the Th1 pathway which includes decreased levels of IL4 and IL10 was positively associated with elevated physical activity (OR = 1.5). In contrast, the pro-inflammatory, B- and T-cell activation pathways were positively associated with higher BMI (OR ranging from 1.6 to 3) and inversely associated with increasing levels of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Several host characteristics were associated with circulating levels of immune biomarkers, including markers of inflammation. Further understanding of associations between immune marker profiles with human disease are warranted.

18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131634, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325266

RESUMEN

One contemporary issue is how environmental pollution and climate can affect the dissemination and severity of COVID-19 in humans. We documented the first case of association between particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and COVID-19 mortality rates that involved rural and medium-sized municipalities in northwestern Mexico, where direct air quality monitoring is absent. Alternatively, anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions were used to estimate the PM2.5 exposure in each municipality using two scenarios: 1) considering the fraction derived from combustion of vehicle fuel; and 2) the one derived from modeled anthropogenic sources. This study provides insights to better understand and face future pandemics by examining the relation between PM2.5 pollution and COVID-19 mortality considering the population density and the wind speed. The main findings are: (i) municipalities with high PM2.5 emissions and high population density have a higher COVID-19 mortality rate; (ii) the exceptionally high COVID-19 mortality rates of the rural municipalities could be associated to dust events, which are common in these regions where soils without vegetation are dominant; and (iii) the influence of wind speed on COVID-19 mortality rate was evidenced only in municipalities with <100 inhabitants per km2. These results confirm the suggestion that high levels of air pollutants associated with high population density and an elevated frequency of dust events may promote an extended prevalence and severity of viral particles in the polluted air of urban, suburban, and rural communities. This supports an additional means of dissemination of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, in addition to the direct human-to-human transmission.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ciudades , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Densidad de Población , Población Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Viento
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131567, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343920

RESUMEN

Soil bacterial community (SBC) and fertility are pivotal for the evaluation of phytoremediation performance. Although affected by earthworms (E) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), little is known about the impacts of the E-AMF interaction on the variation of SBC and fertility in cadmium (Cd)-spiked soil. We elucidated these impacts in rhizosphere soil of Solanum nigrum L. Loss of nutrient availability, and SBC diversity was observed in Cd-polluted soil. AMF increased available phosphorous (AP), whereas E increased available potassium (AK). In soils with 60 and 120 mg/kg Cd, the contents of AK, AP, and soil organic matter (SOM) increased by 7.0-19.7%, 23.7-25.5%, and 11.5-17.4%, respectively; and the residual Cd after remediation decreased by 7.9-8.5% in soils treated with EAM compared to untreated soil. EAM-treated soil had higher alpha diversity estimators compared to uninoculated soil. The predominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 72.5-84.0%. Redundancy analysis showed that total carbon (TC), SOM, pH, and C/N ratio were key factors determining SBC at the phylum level, explaining 26.9, 24.1, 15.1, and 14.8% of the total variance, respectively. These results suggested that EAM affected SBC composition by altering SOM, TC, and C/N ratio. The E-AMF cooperation ameliorates soil nutrients, SBC diversity, and composition, facilitating phytoextraction processes.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Oligoquetos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Cadmio/análisis , Fertilidad , Hongos , Raíces de Plantas/química , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
20.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131707, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365170

RESUMEN

2-Pentanone is an excellent organic solvent and extractant, which is widely used in industrial production. 2-Pentanone is harmful to soil organisms when it enters the soil. However, current studies have not clarified the response of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) to 2-Pentanone and its mechanism. In this study, the response of earthworm antioxidant enzyme SOD to 2-Pentanone and its molecular mechanism was investigated at organism molecular levels. The results showed that the SOD activity of earthworms under 2-Pentanone stress was significantly inhibited, and the inability of superoxide anion radicals (·O2-) to be scavenged in time might be one of the reasons for the increase of lipid peroxidation. Under 2-Pentanone exposure conditions, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme closely related to SOD, and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of earthworms were activated to resist oxidative damage. On the other hand, the observation of earthworm microstructure provided evidence of a direct risk of 2-Pentanone on earthworm body wall tissues. Molecular-level assays have shown that 2-pentanone altered the secondary structure of SOD, which further led to the loosening of the SOD backbone structure and the extension of the polypeptide chain. On the other hand, 2-pentanone quenched the endogenous fluorescence of SOD in the form of static quenching and formed the 2-pentanone/SOD complex. Molecular simulation results suggested that 2-pentanone tended to bind on the surface of SOD rather than close to the active site, and it is speculated that the alteration of SOD structure is the key reason for the change in its activity. This study enriches the toxicological data of 2-Pentanone on soil organisms, thus responding to the current concerns about its ecological risk.


Asunto(s)
Oligoquetos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Catalasa/metabolismo , Malondialdehído , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Pentanonas , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
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