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1.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(9): 575-587, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496408

RESUMEN

Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Obesidad/etiología , Agricultura/economía , Agricultura/tendencias , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/patología , Cambio Climático/historia , Comorbilidad , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Ambiente , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/historia , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/toxicidad , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/metabolismo , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 146: 29-39, 2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498608

RESUMEN

One of the major drivers of amphibian population declines is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We sought to identify the major environmental drivers of Bd prevalence in Texas, USA, by drawing results from museum specimens. We sampled one of the largest museum collections in Texas, the Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections at Texas A&M University. Our sampling focused on the 9 amphibian species with the widest geographical distribution within the state, where we sub-sampled 30% of each species per decade from 1930 to present via skin swabs, totaling 1501 independent sampling events, and used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect pathogen presence. We analyzed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Bd using boosted regression trees. Our final model suggests the most influential variables are mean temperature of driest quarter, annual mean temperature, temperature annual range, and mean diurnal range. The most likely suitable range for Bd is currently found in the Blackland Prairie and Cross Timbers ecoregions. Results of our future (to the year 2040) projections suggest that Bd could expand its current distribution. Our model could play an important role when developing an integrated conservation plan through (1) focusing future field work on locations with a high likelihood of presence, (2) assisting in the choice of locations for restoration, and (3) developing future research plans including those necessary for projecting reactions to climate change. Our model also could integrate new presence data of Bd when they become available to enhance prediction precision.


Asunto(s)
Quitridiomicetos , Anfibios , Animales , Batrachochytrium , Cambio Climático , Texas/epidemiología
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 359-364, 2021 Aug 30.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505442

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of environmental and climatic factors on the distribution of suitable habitats of Haemaphysalis longicornis, and to predict the potential distribution of H. longicornis under different climate patterns in China. METHODS: Data pertaining to the distribution of H. longicornis were retrieved from public literatures. The effects of 19 climatic factors (annual mean temperature, annual mean temperature difference between day and night, isothermality, standard deviation of seasonal variation of temperature, maximum temperature of the warmest month, minimum temperature of the coldest month, temperature annual range, mean temperature of the wettest season, mean temperature of the driest season, mean temperature of the warmest season, mean temperature of the coldest season, annual mean precipitation, precipitation of the wettest month, precipitation of the driest month, coefficient of variance of precipitation, precipitation of the wettest season, precipitation of the driest season, precipitation of the warmest season and precipitation of the coldest season) and 4 environmental factors (elevation, slope, slope aspect and vegetation coverage) on the potential distribution of H. longicornis were assessed using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on the H. longicornis distribution data and climatic and environmental data, and the potential distribution of H. longicornis was predicted under the RCP 2.6 and 8.5 emissions scenarios. RESULTS: Among the environmental and climatic factors affecting the geographical distribution of H. longicornis in China, the factors contributing more than 10% to the distribution of H. longicornis mainly included the precipitation of the driest month (26.0%), annual mean temperature (11.2%), annual mean precipitation (10.0%) and elevation (24.2%). Under the current climate pattern, the high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of H. longicornis are 1 231 900, 1 696 200 km2 and 1 854 400 km2 in China, respectively. The distribution of H. longicornis increased by 336 100 km2 and 367 300 km2 in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 2.6 emissions scenario, and increased by 381 000 km2 and 358 000 km2 in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 8.5 emissions scenario in China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Climatic and environmental factors, such as precipitation, temperature and elevation, greatly affect the distribution of H. longicornis in China, and the suitable habitats of H. longicornis may expand in China under different climate patterns in future.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , China , Clima , Predicción , Temperatura
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 365-372, 2021 Aug 19.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505443

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current distribution of ticks and predict the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2017, so as to provide insights into tick control and management of tick-borne diseases in these areas. METHODS: All publications pertaining to tick and pathogen distribution in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration were retrieved, and the geographical location of tick distribution was extracted. The effects of 19 climatic factors on the distribution of ticks were examined using the jackknife method, including the mean temperature of the wettest quarter, precipitation of the coldest quarter, mean temperature of the driest quarter, maximum temperature of the warmest month, precipitation of the driest month, minimal temperature of the coldest month, annual precipitation, mean daily temperature range, precipitation seasonality, annual temperature range, temperature seasonality, annual mean temperature, mean temperature of the warmest quarter, precipitation of the wettest quarter, isothermality, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, precipitation of the wettest month, precipitation of the driest quarter and precipitation of the warmest quarter. The distribution of ticks was analyzed in 2020 using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model, and the potential suitable habitats of ticks were predicted in 2070 using the MaxEnt model based on climatic data. RESULTS: A total of 380 Chinese and English literatures were retrieved, and 148 tick distribution sites were extracted, with 135 sites included in the subsequent analysis. There were 7 genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor, Boophilus, Hyalomma and Amblyomma) and 27 species of ticks detected in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The climatic factors affecting the distribution of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration mainly included the mean temperature of the wettest quarter and the precipitation of the coldest quarter, with 26.1% and 23.6% contributions to tick distributions. The high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of ticks were 20 337.08, 40 017.38 km2 and 74 931.43 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2020, respectively. The climate changes led to south expansion of the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, and the total areas of suitable habitats of ticks was predicted to increase by 18 100 km2. In addition, the high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of ticks were predicted to increase to 24 317.84, 45 283.02 km2 and 83 766.38 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple tick species are widespread in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, and the future climate changes may lead to expansion of tick distribution in these areas.


Asunto(s)
Ixodes , Ríos , Animales , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Temperatura
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1631, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488695

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hot weather leads to increased illness and deaths. The Heatwave Plan for England (HWP) aims to protect the population by raising awareness of the dangers of hot weather, especially for those most vulnerable. Individuals at increased risk to the effects of heat include older adults, particularly 75+, and those with specific chronic conditions, such as diabetes, respiratory and heart conditions. The HWP recommends specific protective actions which relate to five heat-health alert levels (levels 0-4). This study examines the attitudes to hot weather of adults in England, and the protective measures taken during a heatwave. METHODS: As part of a wider evaluation of the implementation and effects of the HWP, a survey (n = 3153) and focus groups, a form of group interview facilitated by a researcher, were carried out after the June 2017 level 3 heat-health alert. Survey respondents were categorised into three groups based on their age and health status: 'vulnerable' (aged 75+), 'potentially vulnerable' (aged 18-74 in poor health) and 'not vulnerable' (rest of the adult population) to hot weather. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors associated with these groups taking protective measures. In-person group discussion, focused on heat-health, were carried out with 25 people, mostly aged 75 + . RESULTS: Most vulnerable and potentially vulnerable adults do not consider themselves at risk of hot weather and are unaware of the effectiveness of important protective behaviours. Only one-quarter of (potentially) vulnerable adults reported changing their behaviour as a result of hearing hot weather-related health advice during the level 3 alert period. Focus group findings showed many vulnerable adults were more concerned about the effects of the sun's ultra-violet radiation on the skin than on the effects of hot temperatures on health. CONCLUSIONS: Current public health messages appear to be insufficient, given the low level of (potentially) vulnerable adults changing their behaviour during hot weather. In the context of increasingly warmer summers in England due to climate change, public health messaging needs to convince (potentially) vulnerable adults of all the risks of hot weather (not just effects of sunlight on the skin) and of the importance of heat protective measures.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Calor , Anciano , Actitud , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Humanos , Estaciones del Año , Tiempo (Meteorología)
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148499, 2021 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465050

RESUMEN

The damaging effects of climate change on agricultural productivity are on the increase. Relevant adaptation strategies are important to cope with climate change risks and sustain agricultural productivity. This study employed descriptive statistics, multivariate probit (MVP) model and endogenous switching regression model (ESRM), to analyze the data collected using a survey questionnaire from four provinces in South Africa. The study estimated the determining factors influencing the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies and credit access among smallholder farmers in the study areas. The empirical results of the multivariate probit model showed that location, access to extension, non-farm income, farming experience, crop and livestock production, susceptibility, agricultural training and access to credit variables influenced the smallholder decision to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. On the other hand, the ESRM showed that location, age, marital status, gender among others, influenced the decision to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. The variables such as location, education, drought experience affected the smallholder farmers' access to credit. Thus, to improve the adaptive capacity of farmers, stakeholders and government must cooperate and collaborate to improve the conditions under which farmers can gain access to climate change information and suitable agricultural credit as well as policy incentives to ensure overall sustainability of the agricultural sector.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Agricultores , Agricultura , Granjas , Humanos , Sudáfrica
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148370, 2021 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465055

RESUMEN

Groundwater contributes to the socioeconomic development of the Thai capital Bangkok and its vicinity. However, groundwater resources are under immense pressure due to population growth, rapid urbanisation, overexploitation, and climate change. Therefore, evaluating the combined impact of climate change and land-use change on groundwater recharge can be useful for developing sound groundwater management systems. In this research, the future climate is projected using three Regional Climate Models (RCMs), namely ACCESS-CSIRO-CCAM, CNRM-CM5-CSIRO-CCAM, and MPI-ESM-LR-CSIRO-CCAM for three future periods: near future (2010-2039), mid future (2040-2069), and far future (2070-2099) under two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 as suggested in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report. All RCMs project the temperature to rise incessantly, although future precipitation is predicted to fluctuate (increase and decrease) among the various RCMs and RCP scenarios. A Dyna-CLUE model is employed to analyse the future land-use change scenarios (low, medium, and high urbanisation), with the aim of expanding the built-up area and creating land-use maps covering the period to 2099. A hydrological model, WetSpass, is used to estimate groundwater recharge under future climate and land-use change. The findings reveal that groundwater recharge is expected to decrease in high and medium urbanisation areas, ranging from 5.84 to 20.91 mm/yr for the RCP 4.5 scenario and 4.07 to 18.72 mm/yr for RCP 8.5. In contrast, for the low urbanisation scenario, the model projects an increase in groundwater recharge ranging from 7.9 to 16.66 mm/yr for the RCP 4.5 scenario and 5.54 to 20.04 mm/yr for RCP 8.5.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Cambio Climático , Hidrología , Tailandia , Urbanización
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-09-10. (PAHO/CDE/CE/21-0004).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54816

RESUMEN

This publication presents the Agenda for the Americas on Health, Environment, and Climate Change 2021–2030 (the Agenda). The Agenda is a call to action to the health sector to lead the charge to address environmental determinants of health in the Americas. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) will work with Member States to achieve its goal and objective to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages using a sustainable and equitable approach that places a priority on reducing health inequity. The Agenda has been developed under the umbrella of the WHO Global Strategy on Health, Environment, and Climate Change, and builds upon the commitments set forth in the Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas 2018–2030 and the PAHO Strategic Plan 2020–2025. The Agenda was developed in consultation with the Technical Advisory Group and through a consensus-driven decision-making process with Member States during the 2019–2020 period. Looking toward the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 3, the Agenda focuses on: improving the performance of environmental public health programs and institutions; fostering environmentally resilient and sustainable health systems; and promoting environmentally healthy and resilient cities and communities. Its implementation will be context-specific, based on the needs and realities of the countries. It will benefit countries and territories by promoting good governance practices, strengthening the leadership and coordination roles of the health sector, fostering cross-sectoral action, focusing on primary prevention, and enhancing evidence and communication. It will facilitate access to human, technical, and financial resources necessary to address environmental determinants of health and ensure that the Region is fully engaged in global health, environment, and climate change processes and agreements. The objective of the Agenda is to strengthen the capacity of health actors in the health and non-health sectors to address and adapt to environmental determinants of health (EDHs), prioritizing populations living in conditions of vulnerability, in order to meet Outcome 18 of the PAHO Strategic Plan 2020–2025 directly and several other outcomes of the Plan indirectly. To address and adapt to the challenges of EDHs in the Region, an integrated and evidence-informed approach within the health sector and across sectors will be needed, one enabled, and supported by good governance practices, adequate management mechanisms, high-level political will, and adequate human, technical, technological, and financial resources.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Sistemas de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Américas
9.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54701

RESUMEN

[Extract]. En septiembre del 2021, la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas reunirá a los países en un momento crucial para orga-nizar la acción colectiva con el propósito de hacer frente a la crisis medioambiental mundial. Se reunirán una vez más en la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Diversidad Bioló-gica, en Kunming (China) y en la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático (CP26), en Glasgow (Escocia). Antes de la celebración de estas reuniones trascendenta-les, nosotros —los editores de revistas sobre salud de todo el mundo— exigimos medidas urgentes para mantener los aumen-tos promedio de la temperatura a nivel mundial por debajo de 1,5 °C, detener la destrucción de la naturaleza y proteger la salud.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Temperatura , Salud Ambiental , Calentamiento Global , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Urgencias Médicas
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 649, 2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523031

RESUMEN

The present study aims to assess the recent changes and trends in the extreme climate indices in the Kashmir basin using the observational records from 1980 to 2016. The extreme climate indices were computed using the ClimPACT2 software and a total of 39 indices were selected for the analysis having particular utility to various sectors like agriculture, water resources, energy consumption, and human health. Besides adopting the station scale analysis, regional averages were computed for each index. In terms of the mean climatology, an increase has been observed in the annual mean temperature with a magnitude of 0.024 °C/year. Further, differential warming patterns have been observed in the mean maximum and minimum temperatures with mean maximum temperature revealing higher increases than mean minimum temperature. On the other hand, the annual precipitation shows a decrease over most of the region, and the decreases are more pronouncing in the higher altitudes. The trend analysis of the extreme indices reveals that in consonance with the rising temperature there has been an increase in the warm temperatures and decrease in the cold temperatures across the Kashmir basin. Furthermore, our analysis suggests a decrease in the extreme precipitation events. The drought indices viz., Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), and Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) manifest decreasing trends with the tendency towards drier regimes implying the need for better water resource management in the region under changing climate.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sequías , Humanos , Meteorología , Temperatura
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 547, 2021 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341861

RESUMEN

Assessing carbon storage and sequestration is key for defining effective conservation actions to mitigate climate change. Forest species changes have direct impacts on carbon stocks and may lead to undesirable climate trade-offs. In this paper, we measure aboveground biomass (AGB) and the impact of forest changes on climate regulation through three land policy scenarios by 2030 in continental Portugal. We found that a High intervention scenario, supported by an important increase in "Other coniferous trees" class, will provide 29.5% more of carbon sequestration, whereas a Low intervention scenario, in which there is a moderate increase in all forest classes, will result in an increase of 5.7%. A business as usual (BAU) scenario, supported by an increase in eucalyptus forests and a decrease in autochthonous species, will decrease carbon sequestration (-2.7%), particularly Lisboa, Algarve and North regions. Economic valuation shows that the High intervention scenario will generate the highest economic outcome for climate regulation by 2030. This study provides a spatial-based methodology for monitoring carbon sequestration and new insights about the impact of policies for Green House Gas (GHG) mitigation, supporting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals achievement.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Biomasa , Carbono/análisis , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Portugal , Árboles
12.
Biol Lett ; 17(8): 20210175, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343435

RESUMEN

The consequences of climate change for biogeographic range dynamics depend on the spatial scales at which climate influences focal species directly and indirectly via biotic interactions. An overlooked question concerns the extent to which microclimates modify specialist biotic interactions, with emergent properties for communities and range dynamics. Here, we use an in-field experiment to assess egg-laying behaviour of a range-expanding herbivore across a range of natural microclimatic conditions. We show that variation in microclimate, resource condition and individual fecundity can generate differences in egg-laying rates of almost two orders of magnitude in an exemplar species, the brown argus butterfly (Aricia agestis). This within-site variation in fecundity dwarfs variation resulting from differences in average ambient temperatures among populations. Although higher temperatures did not reduce female selection for host plants in good condition, the thermal sensitivities of egg-laying behaviours have the potential to accelerate climate-driven range expansion by increasing egg-laying encounters with novel hosts in increasingly suitable microclimates. Understanding the sensitivity of specialist biotic interactions to microclimatic variation is, therefore, critical to predict the outcomes of climate change across species' geographical ranges, and the resilience of ecological communities.


Asunto(s)
Mariposas Diurnas , Microclima , Animales , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Femenino , Herbivoria , Plantas , Temperatura
13.
Nature ; 596(7870): 37-38, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349285
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360256

RESUMEN

The analysis of spatiotemporal variations in drought is important for environmental monitoring and agricultural production. In this study, the spring vegetative drought conditions in China were analyzed by using the vegetation condition index (VCI) as an indicator to reveal the drought characteristics in China from 1981-2015. The results suggest that spring vegetative drought (especially moderate drought) occurs frequently in China, and drought conditions have obvious geographical differences and are highly affected by monsoons. The frequency of spring vegetative drought is relatively high in the southern and northern regions, which are greatly affected by monsoons, and is relatively low in the northwestern and Qinghai-Tibet regions, which are less affected by monsoons. During 1981-2015, the spring VCI in China showed an overall upward trend. In addition, the trend was not a single change but a wave-like increasing trend that can be divided into four stages: (1) a stage of slow growth from 1981-1990, (2) a stage of intense fluctuations from 1991-2000, (3) a stage of steady growth from 2001-2010, and (4) a stage of slow descent after 2010. The Mann-Kendall test confirmed that the spring VCI in China was increasing, and the changes in the southern, northwestern, and Qinghai-Tibet regions reached significant levels. The time point of mutation in the southern region was 2000, and that in the northwestern and Qinghai-Tibet regions was 1992. Wavelet time series analysis showed that spring vegetation drought in China has a short-period oscillation of 5-7 years and a long-period oscillation of approximately 23-28 years. The northwestern and Qinghai-Tibet regions, which are less affected by the monsoons, are dominated by long-period oscillations, while the southern and northern regions, which are more affected by the monsoons, are dominated by short-period oscillations.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Sequías , China , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Estaciones del Año , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Tibet
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360366

RESUMEN

Food systems are at the center of global environmental, social, and economic challenges such as resource scarcity, ecosystem degradation, and climate change [...].


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Agricultura , Cambio Climático , Alimentos , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Humanos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360518

RESUMEN

Global atmospheric warming leads to climate change that results in a cascade of events affecting human mortality directly and indirectly. The factors that influence climate change-related mortality within the peer-reviewed literature were examined using Whittemore and Knafl's framework for an integrative review. Ninety-eight articles were included in the review from three databases-PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus-with literature filtered by date, country, and keywords. Articles included in the review address human mortality related to climate change. The review yielded two broad themes in the literature that addressed the factors that influence climate change-related mortality. The broad themes are environmental changes, and social and demographic factors. The meteorological impacts of climate change yield a complex cascade of environmental and weather events that affect ambient temperatures, air quality, drought, wildfires, precipitation, and vector-, food-, and water-borne pathogens. The identified social and demographic factors were related to the social determinants of health. The environmental changes from climate change amplify the existing health determinants that influence mortality within the United States. Mortality data, national weather and natural disaster data, electronic medical records, and health care provider use of International Classification of Disease (ICD) 10 codes must be linked to identify climate change events to capture the full extent of climate change upon population health.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Desastres Naturales , Animales , Cambio Climático , Vectores de Enfermedades , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Tiempo (Meteorología)
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4694, 2021 08 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349121

RESUMEN

Climate change is a critical factor affecting biodiversity. However, the quantitative relationship between temperature change and extinction is unclear. Here, we analyze magnitudes and rates of temperature change and extinction rates of marine fossils through the past 450 million years (Myr). The results show that both the rate and magnitude of temperature change are significantly positively correlated with the extinction rate of marine animals. Major mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic can be linked to thresholds in climate change (warming or cooling) that equate to magnitudes >5.2 °C and rates >10 °C/Myr. The significant relationship between temperature change and extinction still exists when we exclude the five largest mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic. Our findings predict that a temperature increase of 5.2 °C above the pre-industrial level at present rates of increase would likely result in mass extinction comparable to that of the major Phanerozoic events, even without other, non-climatic anthropogenic impacts.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Extinción Biológica , Temperatura , Animales , Biodiversidad , Fósiles , Modelos Teóricos , Océanos y Mares
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360645

RESUMEN

Environmental adversities, particularly drought and nutrient limitation, are among the major causes of crop losses worldwide. Due to the rapid increase of the world's population, there is an urgent need to combine knowledge of plant science with innovative applications in agriculture to protect plant growth and thus enhance crop yield. In recent decades, engineering strategies have been successfully developed with the aim to improve growth and stress tolerance in plants. Most strategies applied so far have relied on transgenic approaches and/or chemical treatments. However, to cope with rapid climate change and the need to secure sustainable agriculture and biomass production, innovative approaches need to be developed to effectively meet these challenges and demands. In this review, we summarize recent and advanced strategies that involve the use of plant-related cyanobacterial proteins, macro- and micronutrient management, nutrient-coated nanoparticles, and phytopathogenic organisms, all of which offer promise as protective resources to shield plants from climate challenges and to boost stress tolerance in crops.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica , Cambio Climático , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sequías , Desarrollo de la Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/crecimiento & desarrollo , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Ingeniería Genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética
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