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2.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(3): 197-204, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473449

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This article provides examples of the application of technology transfer to improve the delivery of addiction prevention, treatment, and recovery. The article describes a case example of two regional Technology Transfer Centers (TTCs) focused on addiction and mental health. It illustrates the importance of cross-regional and network-wide activities as well as meaningful collaborations with other regional networks, professional associations, and state and federal entities. This article describes a model of identifying and delivering meaningful training and technical assistance (T/TA), which also advances interprofessional collaborations and shared ownership. The described model includes collaboration in assessing behavioral health T/TA needs and preference for delivery of T/TA. The case study presents the process of engaging providers and connecting them with content experts on emerging topics in the field of addiction. This work included T/TA around integrated care, co-occurring disorders, cultural humility and inclusion, and use of data to advance system care. The case also outlines the application and use of evidence-based translation models, including Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) and Communities of Practice.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Psiquiatría , Humanos , Salud Mental , Transferencia de Tecnología , Recursos Humanos
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200204, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431869

RESUMEN

In this article, we present the main findings of the first survey conducted in Brazil on the public perception of science and technology (S&T) among youth ages 15 to 24 years old. The study was designed around a survey of 2,206 young people residing in urban areas. Results suggest that young people have a great interest in S&T (67%) and related topics, such as medicine and health (74%), and the environment (80%). They have a positive view of science and scientists and are in favor of investments in scientific research despite the country's current economic crisis (94% said Brazil should not cut its investments in S&T). Most of them believe science affords humanity many (69%) or some (27%) benefits, while it also presents some (53%) or few (30%) risks. The study identified shortcomings in these young people's knowledge: few were able to name a Brazilian scientist (5%) or scientific institution (12%). These young people are not frequent visitors to science museums (6%) or other spaces for communicating science, such as parks or botanical gardens (25%). The respondents voiced their opinions about social and political controversies in the realm of scientific research, such as vaccination, climate change, and the theory of evolution.


Asunto(s)
Museos , Tecnología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Conocimiento , Adulto Joven
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148539, 2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323742

RESUMEN

Digitalization provides access to an integrated network of unexploited big data with potential benefits for society and the environment. The development of smart systems connected to the internet of things can generate unique opportunities to strategically address challenges associated with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to ensure an equitable, environmentally sustainable, and healthy society. This perspective describes the opportunities that digitalization can provide towards building the sustainable society of the future. Smart technologies are envisioned as game-changing tools, whereby their integration will benefit the three essential elements of the food-water-energy nexus: (i) sustainable food production; (ii) access to clean and safe potable water; and (iii) green energy generation and usage. It then discusses the benefits of digitalization to catalyze the transition towards sustainable manufacturing practices and enhance citizens' health wellbeing by providing digital access to care, particularly for the underserved communities. Finally, the perspective englobes digitalization benefits by providing a holistic view on how it can contribute to address the serious challenges of endangered planet biodiversity and climate change.


Asunto(s)
Planetas , Desarrollo Sostenible , Cambio Climático , Objetivos , Tecnología , Naciones Unidas
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(7): 2275-2289, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313044

RESUMEN

The feedback relationship between organisms or ecosystems and environment has been a key issue in ecological research. Manipulative experiments with changing biological or environmental factors and large-scale field experiment networks were regarded as effective approaches to understand and accurately quantify the process and mechanisms underlying ecosystem response and adaptation to environmental changes. In recent years, a few networks have been developed, including large-scale networks of field physics simulation experiment (i.e., ECOTRON), ecosystem analysis and experiment platform (AnaEE), international Drought Network, Nutrient Network, and experiment networks based on regional ecological observation stations (i.e., USA-ILTER) at global scale. The development of continent-scale experiment network platform is attracting more attention from the academic community, and will play a more important role in understanding the process and mechanism underlying ecosystem responses to environmental change. We reviewed the development of method and experiment system of ecosystem manipulative experiments, and clearly pointed out that different experiments should form a joint collaborative system to answer fundamental scientific questions about the response and adaptation of ecosystem to global environment change. Manipulative experiments could be classified into four types: 1) Physiological and ecological experiments in closed laboratory equipment; 2) semi-open experiments with changing environmental factors in the field; 3) near-natural field experiments; 4) experiment networks based on field ecological station. Furthermore, we discussed the trends in network design of manipulative experiments focusing on ecosystem response and adaptation to environmental changes and the advantages of large-scale experiments based on natural environmental gradients. We put forward a proposal of integrating the technical advantages of different types of experiments and developing a new generation of field experiment network system. The study discussed the research system based on field experiment network, demonstrated the possibility to understand the patterns and mechanisms of the ecosystem short-term response and long-term adaptation to environmental changes, and proposed some equations to quantify the environmental response of ecosystems. The application of the design plan of the manipulative experiments network proposed here will greatly promote the scientific research level of ecosystems and environmental changes in China and even over the whole world, which has important scientific significance for the national response to climate change and ecological environmental construction.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Aclimatación , China , Tecnología
6.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e81, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220993

RESUMEN

In order to achieve the Sustainable Development and Health Goals, it is essential to increase the technological capacity of the most disadvantaged populations. In the 21st century, the necessary technologies for this exist. The gap in technological capacity reflects the existence of a technological gradient between large- and small-scale production, due to an absence of incentives for innovation and a lack of technological dissemination in small businesses and communities. Technological change is central to development, but it is a public good that the market economy does not provide efficiently. Providing it requires the implementation of public policies aimed at technological innovation and dissemination. Reducing the technological gradient is therefore a major part of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Pan American Health Organization's 2018-2030 Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas. This also applies to the development of health systems, which function as a redistribution mechanism to break poverty traps. In addition, experiences in these systems are relevant to the implementation of policies that increase technological capacities aimed at reducing poverty, improving social determinants of health, and thereby reducing the scale of the human development trap.

7.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(12): 2947-2962, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185691

RESUMEN

Throughout Europe, there is a considerable need for investment in the upgrade of sewer systems - due to three main factors: ageing infrastructure, climate change and urban population growth. The need for investments is expected to grow significantly in the years ahead. Trenchless rehabilitation (no-dig) of sewer pipelines is a cost-efficient and environmental friendly method for upgrading existing pipelines with sufficient capacity. This study examines the possibility of applying no-dig to combined sewer systems (CS) with insufficient capacity. In this study, a concept assessment methodology that combines the analytical approaches from stormwater and sewer system assessments is presented. The methodology was tested on a case area that was part of an environmental project in Oslo, Norway. Three alternative concepts were examined; A0: no-dig and low impact development (LID), A1: no-dig, LID and green infrastructure (GI), and A2: CS up-sizing using open-cut methods. The study concludes that CS with insufficient capacity can be rehabilitated using no-dig if LID and GI. The combination of no-dig and LID reduces costs considerably but does involve the risk of damages from uncontrolled surface runoff. The main risk-reduction measure is the development of GI as an integrated stormwater management system that requires cross-sector collaboration within municipalities.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Tecnología , Ciudades , Europa (Continente) , Noruega , Lluvia
8.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54424

RESUMEN

[SUMMARY]. In order to achieve the Sustainable Development and Health Goals, it is essential to increase the technological capacity of the most disadvantaged populations. In the 21st century, the necessary technologies for this exist. The gap in technological capacity reflects the existence of a technological gradient between large- and small-scale production, due to an absence of incentives for innovation and a lack of technological dissemination in small businesses and communities. Technological change is central to development, but it is a public good that the market economy does not provide efficiently. Providing it requires the implementation of public policies aimed at technological innovation and dissemination. Reducing the technological gradient is therefore a major part of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Pan American Health Orga-nization’s 2018-2030 Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas. This also applies to the development of health systems, which function as a redistribution mechanism to break poverty traps. In addition, experiences in these systems are relevant to the implementation of policies that increase technological capacities aimed at reducing poverty, improving social determinants of health, and thereby reducing the scale of the human development trap.


[RESUMEN]. Para lograr los objetivos de desarrollo y salud sostenibles, es esencial incrementar las capacidades tecnológicas de las poblaciones más desfavorecidas. Entrado el siglo XXI, existen las tecnologías necesarias para ello. El déficit en capacidades tecnológicas se debe a la existencia de un gradiente tecnológico entre la producción de gran y de pequeña escalas, debido a la falta de incentivos para la innovación y la difusión en empresas y comunidades pequeñas. En estos ámbitos el cambio tecnológico, punto medular del desarrollo, es un bien público que la economía de mercado no provee eficientemente. Su provisión requiere la aplicación de políticas públicas de innovación y difusión tecnológicas. La reducción del gradiente tecnológico constituye, pues, parte medular de la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible, de las Naciones Unidas, y la Agenda de Salud Sostenible para las Américas 2018-2030, de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Esto es aplicable, así mismo, al desarrollo de los sistemas de salud, que funcionan también como mecanismos de redistribución para romper las trampas de pobreza. Asimismo, las experiencias en esos sistemas tienen relevancia para aplicar políticas de incremento de capacidades tecnológicas que disminuyan la pobreza, mejoren los determinantes sociales de la salud y, con ello, reduzcan la magnitud de la trampa de desarrollo humano.


[RESUMO]. Para alcançar os objetivos de desenvolvimento e saúde sustentáveis, é fundamental aumentar a capacidade tecnológica das populações mais desfavorecidas. Com a entrada do século XXI, há tecnologias necessárias para isso. O déficit em capacidade tecnológica decorre de um gradiente tecnológico entre a produção em pequena e larga escala pela falta de incentivos à inovação e difusão em empresas e comunidades pequenas. Nestas esferas, a evolução tecnológica, que é o eixo do desenvolvimento, é um bem público que não é provido de forma eficiente pela economia de mercado. Políticas públicas de inovação e difusão tecnológicas são necessárias. Diminuir o gradiente tecnológico constitui, portanto, a base da Agenda 2030 para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável, da Agenda das Nações Unidas e da Agenda de Saúde Sustentável para as Américas 2018-2030 da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde. Requer também o desenvolvimento dos sistemas de saúde que servem como mecanismos de redistribuição para romper com as armadilhas da pobreza. Ademais, a experiência adquirida nesses sistemas é indispensável para instituir políticas de aumento da capacidade tecnológica que diminuam a pobreza, melhorem os determinantes sociais da saúde e, assim, reduzam a dimensão da armadilha do desenvolvimento humano.


Asunto(s)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad , Desarrollo Sostenible , Equidad , Sistemas de Salud , Política de Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad , Desarrollo Sostenible , Equidad , Sistemas de Salud , Política de Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad , Desarrollo Sostenible , Equidad , Sistemas de Salud , Política de Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud
9.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 180: 153-182, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934836

RESUMEN

CRISPR technology has revolutionized biological research in the last decade and many academic institutions and companies have patented CRISPR systems and applications. Several patents have been filed for various applications of CRISPR in different industries such as agriculture, synthetic biology, bio-nanotechnology and precision medicine. Despite tremendous pressure on the technology transfer teams, several startups and spin-out companies are already using CRISPR technologies for commercial applications. In this chapter, we discuss the different CRISPR nucleases and their applications. Secondly, we detail our current opinion and perspective on the CRISPR patent and technology landscape for non-mammalian systems. We present two case-studies on CRISPR diagnostics companies, SHERLOCK and Mammoth Biosciences, who are currently at the forefront of establishing diagnostics platforms for coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) detection. Finally, our chapter identifies future advancements and possible challenges that CRISPR technology might face in non-mammalian systems.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Técnicas Genéticas , Patentes como Asunto , Transferencia de Tecnología , Animales , Concesión de Licencias , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación
10.
Trends Plant Sci ; 26(6): 575-587, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893048

RESUMEN

Ensuring the sustainability of agriculture under climate change has led to a surge in alternative strategies for crop improvement. Advances in integrated crop breeding, social acceptance, and farm-level adoption are crucial to address future challenges to food security. Societal acceptance can be slow when consumers do not see the need for innovation or immediate benefits. We consider how best to address the issue of social licence and harmonised governance for novel gene technologies in plant breeding. In addition, we highlight optimised breeding strategies that will enable long-term genetic gains to be achieved. Promoted by harmonised global policy change, innovative plant breeding can realise high and sustainable productivity together with enhanced nutritional traits.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Fitomejoramiento , Cambio Climático , Plantas , Tecnología
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 15607-15626, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538968

RESUMEN

One of the main problems facing our planetary bodies is unexpected and sudden climate change due to continuously increasing global energy demand, which currently is being met by fossil fuels. Hydrogen is considered as one of the major energy solutions of the twenty-first century, capable of meeting future energy needs. Being 61a zero-emission fuel, it could reduce environmental impacts and craft novel energy opportunities. Hydrogen through fuel cells can be used in transport and distributed heating, as well as in energy storage systems. The transition from fossil-based fuels to hydrogen requires intensive research to overcome scientific and socio-economic barriers. The purpose of this paper is to reflect the current state, related issues, and projection of hydrogen and fuel elements within the conceptual framework of 61a future sustainable energy vision. An attempt has been made to compile in this paper the past hydrogen-related technologies, present challenges, and role of hydrogen in the future.


Asunto(s)
Combustibles Fósiles , Hidrógeno , Cambio Climático , Energía Renovable , Tecnología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528462

RESUMEN

Conical retention with antirotational features (Acuris abutment) has been recently proposed for restorations of healed single implants. The conometric abutments use the retentive force of the coping-abutment system to retain the prosthetic crown without the use of cement or screws. This retentive force must be overcome to obtain detachment of the relined provisional crown in immediate restorations. The present article describes the use of digital scanning technology to virtually plan computer-guided implant placement and restoration with conical indexed abutments in postextraction sites. Importing the scan data of both matrix and patrix abutments that are seated on the definitive cast into the computer-aided design software provides a workflow to preoperatively mill a crown that perfectly fits the abutment into the postextraction site. This technique simplifies the provisional crown relining onto the conometric indexed abutment and reduces the intraoperative time.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Coronas , Pilares Dentales , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Humanos , Tecnología
14.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-7980

RESUMEN

Com o objetivo de ampliar a divulgação de notícias sobre Covid-19 para pessoas com deficiências auditivas, a Coordenação de Comunicação Social (CCS/Fiocruz) lançou um programa semanal que reúne as principais notícias publicadas na Agência Fiocruz de Notícias (AFN) traduzidas para a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e com áudio em português.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Academias e Institutos , Noticias , Capacitación Profesional , Ensayo Clínico , Hospitales , Vacunas/provisión & distribución , Acuerdos de Cooperación Científica y Tecnológica , Transferencia de Tecnología , e-Accesibilidad
15.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-7964

RESUMEN

Com o objetivo de ampliar a divulgação de notícias sobre Covid-19 para pessoas com deficiências auditivas, a Coordenação de Comunicação Social (CCS/Fiocruz) lançou um programa semanal que reúne as principais notícias publicadas na Agência Fiocruz de Notícias (AFN) traduzidas para a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e com áudio em português.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Transferencia de Tecnología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Ansiedad , Personal de Salud , Clase , e-Accesibilidad
16.
Int J Biometeorol ; 65(6): 779-803, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427946

RESUMEN

Sensing and measuring meteorological and physiological parameters of humans, animals, and plants are necessary to understand the complex interactions that occur between atmospheric processes and the health of the living organisms. Advanced sensing technologies have provided both meteorological and biological data across increasingly vast spatial, spectral, temporal, and thematic scales. Information and communication technologies have reduced barriers to data dissemination, enabling the circulation of information across different jurisdictions and disciplines. Due to the advancement and rapid dissemination of these technologies, a review of the opportunities for sensing the health effects of weather and climate change is necessary. This paper provides such an overview by focusing on existing and emerging technologies and their opportunities and challenges for studying the health effects of weather and climate change on humans, animals, and plants.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Animales , Humanos , Meteorología , Plantas , Tecnología
17.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 032009

RESUMEN

Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.


Difusión y adopción de las invenciones y técnicas de un área geográfica a otra, de una disciplina a otra, o de un sector de la economía a otro. Por ejemplo, las mejoras en los equipos médicos pueden ser transferidos de los países industrializados a los países en desarrollo, los avances derivados de la ingeniería aeroespacial se pueden aplicar a equipos para personas con discapacidad, y las innovaciones en las ciencias que surgen de la investigación del gobierno están a disposición de la empresa privada.


Difusão e adoção de invenções e técnicas de uma área geográfica para outra, de uma disciplina para outra, ou de um setor da economia para outro. Por exemplo, melhorias em equipamentos médicos podem ser transferidas de países industrializados para países em desenvolvimento, os avanços decorrentes da engenharia aeroespacial podem ser aplicadas a equipamentos para pessoas com deficiência, e inovações nas ciências decorrentes de pesquisas governamentais são disponibilizadas para a iniciativa privada.

18.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 035085

RESUMEN

A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.


Un cambio en el equilibrio entre la producción y la destrucción del ozono estratosférico que se traduce en una disminución de la cantidad de ozono en el OZONO ESTRATOSFÉRICO.


A camada de ozônio na estratosfera, que protege a terra de radiação ultravioleta excessiva pode ser esgotada por certos poluentes. Os gases usados em latas de spray (clorofluorcarbonos, clorofluormetanos) ou óxidos de nitrogênio liberados por carros e aeronaves podem prejudicar ou criar "buracos" na camada de ozônio, permitindo que quantidades excessivas de radiação ultravioleta cheguem à terra, com consequências climáticas e ambientais globais, além de danos à saúde. Uma combinação de desastre tecnológico e natural. (Tradução livre do original: Material V - Gunn, S.W.A. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, 1990)

19.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 057453

RESUMEN

A process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development; and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. (http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm#I)


Proceso de cambio en el que la explotación de los recursos, la dirección de las inversiones, la orientación del desarrollo tecnológico; y el cambio institucional están en armonía y mejoran el potencial actual y futuro para satisfacer las necesidades y aspiraciones humanas. (http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm#I)


Processo de mudança em que a exploração de recursos, o direcionamento dos investimentos, a orientação do desenvolvimento tecnológico e as mudanças institucionais estão todas em harmonia e aumentam o potencial atual e o futuro de preencher as necessidades e aspirações humanas. (Tradução livre do original: http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm#I)

20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 597-610, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815016

RESUMEN

Rapid increase in carbon dioxide emission triggers climate change, while climate change poses a threat to food security. On the other hand, emission increase as a result of agricultural production continues. Considering this cycle, it is thought that examining the relationship between agricultural production and carbon dioxide emissions can help countries take emission-reducing measures and develop policies to ensure food safety. With this thought, a common correlated effect estimator was used in this study to explain the relationship between crop and livestock production index and carbon dioxide emission of 184 countries with the use of data for the period of 1998-2014. Countries were classified under four categories: low-income countries, lower middle-income countries, upper middle-income countries and high-income countries. According to DCCE test results, it was reported that a 1% increase in crop production index had effect on CO2 emission only in lower middle-income countries. A 1% increase in livestock production index, on the other hand, was reported to increase CO2 emission rates by 0.28, 0.49, and 0.39 in lower middle-income, upper middle-income, and high-income countries, respectively. When evaluated in general, it could be stated that livestock breeding has a higher effect on CO2 emission in agricultural production. The findings of the present study revealed that countries need to improve agricultural production methods in ways to minimize the positive association between vegetative and livestock production in accordance with their level of development, to adopt more environment-friendly agricultural technologies and to endorse international environmental policies.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Ganado , Agricultura , Animales , Cambio Climático , Tecnología
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