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1.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112857, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365295

RESUMEN

α-Pinene represents a member of the monoterpene class and is highly distributed in higher plants like conifers, Juniper ssp. and Cannabis ssp. α-Pinene has been used to treat respiratory tract infections for centuries. Furthermore, it plays a crucial role in the fragrance and flavor industry. In vitro assays have shown an enantioselective profile of (+)- and (-)-α-pinene for antibacterial and insecticidal activity, respectively. Recent research has used pre-validated biological structures to synthesize new chemical entities with pharmacological and herbicidal activities. In summary, this review focuses on recent literature covering synthetic pathways of flavor compounds and scaffold hopping based on the α-pinene core domaine, as well as the (enantioselective) activities of α-pinene. Recent approaches for authenticity control of essential oils based on their enantiomeric profile are also presented.


Asunto(s)
Juniperus , Aceites Volátiles , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos/farmacología
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148952, 2021 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274661

RESUMEN

Poor reforestation outcomes imply failure to fulfill program goals and tend to erode institutional willpower and political momentum towards reforestation efforts, affecting both public and private support. However, program improvement in real reforestation projects is challenging, due to the conjunction of many different variables that mutually interact and feed back on each other inextricably. This study develops a comprehensive assessment framework for reforestation programs, for which technical and environmental information is gathered and related to indicators of performance in both the short- and mid-term. This assessment, tested on a case study, aimed to provide reliable end-results for survival and growth, revealed pitfalls in successful plantation establishment and taught us how to improve plantation performance and what the margin for this improvement was. The selected project was carried out on harsh site conditions, with different species, cultivation treatments and contractors, and was affected by the driest year on record. Plantation mortality was high and increased progressively over time, particularly in the short-term when the rate was 53% (rising to 83% after ten years), showing high variation between sites and species (Pinus pinaster and Quercus faginea died more than 94% after ten years while Junipus phoenicea only 40%). All the hardwoods and the juniper showed lower growth rate after ten years (average stem volume < 40 cm3) than pines (stem volume > 470 cm3). Technical variables (project planning and execution) had a relatively important impact on plantation performance in the first two years (11-29%), but decreased with time, whilst environmental variables (site and meteorological) were more important ten years after planting (>50%). In the short-term, soil moisture and meteorology during the planting season were identified as key factors that triggered the effects of both technical decisions (planting date and planting technique) and other environmental variables on performance. In the design phase, some decisions related to zoning, species selection and cultural treatments were related to poor performance. The results provide practical information and guidelines about all potential drivers of plantation performance and contribute to identify those aspects more related to success of forest restoration in Mediterranean drylands.


Asunto(s)
Juniperus , Pinus , Ecosistema , Bosques , Suelo , Árboles
3.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299543

RESUMEN

The essential oils of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) leaves have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and relaxation properties that are likely associated with the major components such as sabinene, α-terpinyl acetate, limonene, elemol, myrcene, and hibaene. The present study describes the use of a cellulose-dissolving ionic liquid (IL) [C2mim][(MeO)(H)PO2] and low-toxicity solvents called betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for the efficient extraction of hinoki essential oils. As a control method, organic solvent extraction was performed using either hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), or acetone at 30 °C for 1 h. Both the experimental and control methods were conducted under the same conditions, which relied on partial dissolution of the leaves using the IL and DESs before partitioning the hinoki oils into the organic solvent for analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The results indicated that extraction using the [C2mim][(MeO)(H)PO2]/acetone bilayer system improved the yields of limonene and hibaene, 1.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively, when compared with the control method. In addition, extraction using betaine/l-lactic acid (molar ratio 1:1) gave the greatest yields for both limonene and hibaene, 1.3-fold and 1.5-fold greater, respectively, than when using an organic solvent. These results demonstrate the effective extraction of essential oils from plant leaves under conditions milder than those needed for the conventional method. The less toxic and environmentally begin DESs for the extraction are also applicable to the food and cosmetic industries.


Asunto(s)
Chamaecyparis/química , Líquidos Iónicos/química , Limoneno/química , Solventes/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Aceites Volátiles/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Sesquiterpenos/química
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298866

RESUMEN

MicroRNA (miRNA) expression analysis is very important for investigating its functions. To date, no research on reference genes (RGs) for miRNAs in gymnosperms, including Cryptomeria fortunei, has been reported. Here, ten miRNAs (i.e., pab-miR159a, cln-miR162, cas-miR166d, pab-miR395b, ppt-miR894, cln-miR6725, novel1, novel6, novel14 and novel16) and three common RGs (U6, 5S and 18S) were selected as candidate RGs. qRT-PCR was used to analyse their expressions in C. fortunei under various experimental conditions, including multiple stresses (cold, heat, drought, salt, abscisic acid and gibberellin) and in various tissues (roots, stems, tender needles, cones and seeds). Four algorithms (delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were employed to assess the stability of candidate RG expression; the geometric mean and RefFinder program were used to comprehensively evaluate RG stability. According to the results, novel16, cln-miR6725, novel1 and U6 were the most stable RGs for studying C. fortunei miRNA expression. In addition, the expression of three target miRNAs (aly-miR164c-5p, aly-miR168a-5p and smo-miR396) was examined to verify that the selected RGs are suitable for miRNA expression normalisation. This study may aid further investigations of miRNA expression/function in the response of C. fortunei to abiotic stress and provides an important basis for the standardisation of miRNA expression in other gymnosperm species.


Asunto(s)
Cryptomeria/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/genética , MicroARNs/genética , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , China , Sequías , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Genes de Plantas/genética , ARN de Planta/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Estándares de Referencia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos
5.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203980

RESUMEN

Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb and J. sabina L. contain essential oil (EO), while J. sabina also contains podophyllotoxin, which is used as a precursor for anti-cancer drugs. Two studies were conducted. The first assessed the variability in the EO profile and podophyllotoxin concentration of the two junipers, depending on the location and tree gender. The main EO constituents of J. excelsa were α-cedrol, α-limonene and α-pinene, while the constituents in J. sabina were sabinene, terpinen-4-ol, myrtenyl acetate and α-cadinol. The podophyllotoxin yield of 18 J. sabina accessions was 0.07-0.32% (w/w), but this was not found in any of the J. excelsa accessions. The second study assessed the effect of hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus) and steam distillation (in a semi-commercial apparatus) on the EO profile and bioactivity. The extraction type did not significantly alter the EO composition. The EO profiles of the two junipers and their accessions were different and may be of interest to the industry utilizing juniper leaf EO. Breeding and selection programs could be developed with the two junipers (protected species) in order to identify chemotypes with (1) a high EO content and desirable composition, and (2) a high concentration of podophyllotoxin in J. sabina. Such chemotypes could be established as agricultural crops for the commercial production of podophyllotoxin and EO.


Asunto(s)
Juniperus/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Podofilotoxina/química , Bulgaria , Destilación/métodos , Juniperus/metabolismo , Aceites Volátiles/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Podofilotoxina/análisis , Eslovaquia
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(7): 2514-2524, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313070

RESUMEN

Juniperus przewalskii is important for water and soil conservation. It is one of the native tree species suitable for afforestation and greening in high-cold and arid areas of Qinghai Province. Predicting the potential geographic distribution of J. przewalskii in Qinghai Province under the climate change scenario will provide theoretical guidance for its management, introduction, and cultivation. In this study, the current potential distribution of J. przewalskii was simulated firstly based on 88 effective distributional records from field investigation and data collection via Maxent model and ArcGIS spatial analysis. We analyzed dominant factors affecting the potential distribution of J. przewa-lskii by Jackknife test and correlation coefficient. The distribution of J. przewalskii under three climate change scenarios (SSP126, SSP245, SSP585) with the climate model data of the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects (CMIP6) were predicted for 2061-2080. The results showed that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Maxent model was greater than 0.92, suggesting a good predictive performance. Under current climatic condition, the suitable distribution area of J. przewalskii was mainly located in the eastern part of Qinghai Province, with the suitable area accounted for 11.2% of the total. The dominant factors affecting the distribution of J. przewalskii were altitude, annual precipitation, the minimum temperature of coldest month, and slope, with a cumulative contribution rate of 85.9%. The suitable areas of J. przewalskii altered under the three future climate scenarios. The suitable areas would shrink under the SSP245 scenario and expand under the SSP126 and SSP585 scenarios. The sui-table area of J. przewalskii would have the most obvious expansion under the SSP126 climate situation, with the expanding areas being mainly located in Zeku County, the north-central part of Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, and the southeast of Qilian County. Under three climatic scenarios, the suitable area of J. przewalskii would gradually migrate to high altitudes, but without clear altitudinal and longitudinal shifts.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Juniperus , Altitud , China , Ecosistema , Predicción
7.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(10): e10891, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287579

RESUMEN

Juniperus communis (JCo) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has been used to treat wounds, fever, swelling, and rheumatism. However, the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of JCo extract on colorectal cancer (CRC) has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the anticancer effects of JCo extract in vitro and in vivo as well as the precise molecular mechanisms. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometry analysis, and cell apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Protein expression was analyzed using western blotting. The in vivo activity of the JCo extract was evaluated using a xenograft BALB/c mouse model. The tumors and organs were examined through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that JCo extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity against CRC cells than against normal cells and showed synergistic effects when combined with 5-fluorouracil. JCo extract induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase via regulation of p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 and induced cell apoptosis via the extrinsic (FasL/Fas/caspase-8) and intrinsic (Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-9) apoptotic pathways. In vivo studies revealed that JCo extract suppressed tumor growth through the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In addition, there was no obvious change in body weight or histological morphology of normal organs after treatment. JCo extract suppressed CRC progression by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential application of JCo extract in the treatment of CRC.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Juniperus , Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Apoptosis , Ciclo Celular , Puntos de Control del Ciclo Celular , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
8.
Planta ; 254(2): 31, 2021 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283297

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: Comparative analysis of miRNAs and their gene targets between the evergreen and yellowish-brown Cryptomeria fortunei phenotypes in cold winters suggests a possible role of miRNA-regulated pathways in needle color. Cryptomeria fortunei (Chinese cedar) is a conifer tree of considerable economic, ornamental and ecological importance. Despite the evergreen nature of C. fortunei, most needles turn yellowish- or reddish-brown in winter. The roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating pigment biosynthesis in color-leafed plants have been widely investigated. However, whether or not an miRNA-mediated staged discoloration mechanism exists in evergreen C. fortunei is currently unknown. In this study, we deciphered the microRNAs landscape in overwintering C. fortunei needles using high-throughput sequencing. A total of 517 known and 212 novel miRNA mature/star sequences, including 233 differentially expressed miRNAs, were identified. Based on integrated transcriptome and miRNA analysis, 2702 target unigenes of the miRNAs were predicted and these targets were significantly enriched in pigment-related biosynthesis pathways. A miRNA-target pigment biosynthesis regulatory network was then constructed, and its module miRNA (ath-miR858b, aly-miR858-3p, cme-miR828 and novel33_mature)-MYBs (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) appeared to be a key factor regulating needle discoloration in C. fortunei. These miRNA-MYBs were further confirmed by degradome sequencing. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of leaf/needle discoloration in gymnosperms and may contribute to the miRNA-mediated genetic improvement of evergreen C. fortunei needles.


Asunto(s)
Cryptomeria , MicroARNs , China , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , MicroARNs/genética , Agujas , ARN de Planta/genética , Árboles/genética
9.
Ecology ; 102(8): e03425, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091890

RESUMEN

Climate change is expected to alter the distribution and abundance of tree species, impacting ecosystem structure and function. Yet, anticipating where this will occur is often hampered by a lack of understanding of how demographic rates, most notably recruitment, vary in response to climate and competition across a species range. Using large-scale monitoring data on two dry woodland tree species (Pinus edulis and Juniperus osteosperma), we develop an approach to infer recruitment, survival, and growth of both species across their range. In doing so, we account for ecological and statistical dependencies inherent in large-scale monitoring data. We find that drying and warming conditions generally lead to declines in recruitment and survival, but the strength of responses varied between species. These climate conditions point to geographic regions of high vulnerability for particular species, such as Pinus edulis in northern Arizona, where both survival and recruitment are low. Our approach provides a path forward for leveraging emerging large-scale monitoring and remotely sensed data to anticipate the impacts of global change on species distributions.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Juniperus , Demografía , Bosques , Árboles
10.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063887

RESUMEN

The present work describes the use of Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) for the bio-guided isolation of repellent active volatile compounds from essential oils. Five essential oils (EOs) obtained from three Pinus and two Juniperus species were initially analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and evaluated for their repellent properties against Aedes albopictus. The essential oil from needles of P. pinea (PPI) presented the higher activity, showing 82.4% repellency at a dose of 0.2 µL/cm2. The above EO, together with the EO from the fruits of J. oxycedrus subsp. deltoides (JOX), were further analyzed by CPC using the biphasic system n-Heptane/ACN/BuOH in ratio 1.6/1.6/0.2 (v/v/v). The analysis of PPI essential oil resulted in the recovery of (-)-limonene, guaiol and simple mixtures of (-)-limonene/ß-pheladrene, while the fractionation of JOX EO led to the recovery of ß-myrcene, germacrene-D, and mixtures of α-pinene/ß-pinene (ratio 70/30) and α-pinene/germacrene D (ratio 65/45). All isolated compounds and recovered mixtures were tested for their repellent activity. From them, (-)-limonene, guaiol, germacrene-D as well the mixtures of (-)-limonene/ß-pheladrene presented significant repellent activity (>97% repellency) against Ae. albopictus. The present methodology could be a valuable tool in the effort to develop potent mosquito repellents which are environmentally friendly.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía/métodos , Repelentes de Insectos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Bioensayo , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Repelentes de Insectos/administración & dosificación , Repelentes de Insectos/farmacología , Juniperus/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Pinus/química , Volatilización
11.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2910-2923, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147039

RESUMEN

The effect of pine needle extract from Cedrus deodara (PNE) on the quality of salted meat was reported, and its action mechanism was further investigated. With the treatment of PNE, the physicochemical properties of salted meat were improved. The peroxide value decreased from 16.18 to 6.78 mmol O2 /kg, while the thiobarbituric acid value decreased from 0.79 to 0.40 mg MDA/kg. Moreover, the salted meat with PNE also had the better texture, color, and volatile compositions. The 0.2% PNE group showed the highest ΔE value (63.16 ± 0.56), hardness (813.5 ± 48.7 g), and volatility (45.86 ± 0.39), while the control group showed the lowest ΔE value (43.92 ± 2.13), hardness (515.8 ± 17.3 g) and volatility (29.97 ± 0.56). In addition, with the analysis of fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy, the spatial structures of myofibrillar protein (MP) in salted meat were obviously changed by PNE. Meanwhile, methylconiferin, 1-O-feruloyl-ß-D-glucose, nortrachelogenin, secoxyloganin, 1-O-(4-coumaroyl)-ß-D-glucose and pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside were identified from PNE. Furthermore, according to the analysis of molecular docking, hydrogen bond, hydrophobic force, and electrostatic force were obtained as the main molecular forces between MP and the phenolic compounds of PNE, while arginine, glutamic acid, and glycine residues were the main binding sites. All results suggested that PNE might be a potential candidate to improve the quality of salted meat in the food industry. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The quality deterioration of meat may not only affect its further processing and consumption but also may lead to some food safety problems. In present study, PNE exhibited the fine capability to inhibit the oxidation of meat, while it could ameliorate the texture, color, and physicochemical properties of meat due to its tightly interaction with myofibrillar protein. All result suggested that PNE could be potentially utilized to improve the quality of meat in food industry.


Asunto(s)
Cedrus/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacología , Calidad de los Alimentos , Carne/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Sensación , Cloruro de Sodio/química , Animales , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Humanos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Extractos Vegetales/química
12.
Comput Biol Med ; 135: 104555, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1), a virulence agent of SARS-CoV-2, has emerged as an important target for drug discovery. Nsp1 shuts down the host gene function by associating with the 40S ribosomal subunit. METHODS: Molecular interactions, drug-likeness, physiochemical property predictions, and robust molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to discover novel Nsp1 inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated a series of molecules based on the plant (Cedrus deodara) derived α,ß,γ-Himachalenes scaffolds. RESULTS: The results obtained from estimated affinity and ligand efficiency suggested that BCH10, BCH15, BCH16, and BCH17 could act as potential inhibitors of Nsp1. Moreover, MD simulations comprising various MD driven time-dependent analyses and thermodynamic free energy calculations also suggested stable protein-ligand complexes and strong interactions with the binding site. Furthermore, the selected molecules passed drug likeliness parameters and the physiochemical property analysis showed acceptable bioactivity scores. CONCLUSION: The structural parameters of dynamic simulations revealed that the reported molecules could act as lead compounds against SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 protein.


Asunto(s)
Cedrus/química , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , ARN Polimerasa Dependiente del ARN/antagonistas & inhibidores , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/antagonistas & inhibidores , Sitios de Unión , ARN Polimerasa Dependiente del ARN/química , Subunidades Ribosómicas Pequeñas de Eucariotas , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/química
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(1): 241-262, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934282

RESUMEN

Biopesticides such as essential oils (EOs) are considered an improvement for integrated pest control as they appear to be less toxic to the environment than chemical acaricides. The current study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of Artemisia herba-alba and Melia azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion as alternatives for chemical acaricides against the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii, besides evaluating their toxic effect on Swiss albino mice. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for the characterization of loaded nano-emulsions.The immersion test was used for the bioassay of both loaded nanoemulsions on tick stages (egg, nymph, larva, and adult). Mortality percentages and LC50 values of each tick stage were calculated. Reproductive performance for the survived engorged females after treatment was monitored. The toxicity of both loaded nano-emulsions was evaluated on Swiss albino mice by an oral dose of 1500 mg/kg/day for five successive days. The hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes were evaluated. TEM characterization revealed spherical droplets for A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion with droplet size ranging from 62 to 69 nm and 52-91 nm, respectively. FTIR revealed the absence of extra peaks in the loaded nano-emulsions that confirmed no chemical changes existed by ultrasonication. The LC50 values of A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion on embryonated eggs, larvae, engorged nymphs, and unfed adults were 0.3 and 1.1%, 0.7 and 1.7%, 0.3 and 0.4%, 4.4 and 22.2%, respectively. The egg productive index (EPI), egg number, and hatchability percentage were lower in the treated females compared with Butox 5% (deltamethrin) and control. The hematological picture and biochemical analysis revealed insignificant changes in the treatment group compared with the negative control group. The liver of the A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion treated group exhibited vacuolar degeneration and infiltration of lymphocytic cells. The kidney of mice treated with A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion showed hemolysis and slight degeneration of epithelial cells of tubules. It is concluded that A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion have good acaricidal activity against camel tick H. dromedarii.


Asunto(s)
Acaricidas , Artemisia , Ixodidae , Melia azedarach , Aceites Volátiles , Acaricidas/toxicidad , Animales , Femenino , Larva , Ratones , Aceites Volátiles/toxicidad
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(10): 4255-4268, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988734

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of juniper essential oil (EO), α-pinene, and sabinene on the quorum-sensing (QS)-mediated proteolytic and lipolytic properties of Pseudomonas fluorescens KM24. These activities were verified under in situ conditions, in which sub-MICs of the agents altered the morphology of KM24 cells. RNA-Seq studies revealed key coding sequences (CDSs)/genes related to QS and the proteolytic/lipolytic activities of pseudomonads. In this work, all the examined agents decreased autoinducer synthesis and influenced the mRNA expression of the encoding acyltransferase genes lptA, lptD, and plsB. The highest reduction on the 3rd and 5th days of cultivation was observed for the genes lptD (-5.5 and -5.61, respectively) and lptA (-3.5 and -4.0, respectively) following treatment with EO. Inhibition of the lptA, lptD, and plsB genes by singular constituents of EO was on average, from -0.4 to -0.7. At 5 days of cultivation the profile of AHLs of the reference P. fluorescens KM24 strain consisted of 3-oxo-C14-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C4-HSL, and N-[(RS)-3-hydroxybutyryl]-HSL, the concentrations of which were 0.570, 0.018, 3.744, and 0.554 µg ml-1, respectively. Independent of the incubation time, EO, α-pinene, and sabinene also suppressed the protease genes prlC (-1.5, -0.5, and -0.5, respectively) and ctpB (-1.5, -0.7, and -0.4, respectively). Lipolysis and transcription of the lipA/lipB genes were downregulated by the agents on average from -0.3 to -0.6. α-Pinene- and sabinene-rich juniper EO acts as an anti-quorum-sensing agent and can repress the spoilage phenotype of pseudomonads. KEY POINTS: Juniper EO, α-pinene, sabinene exhibited anti-QS potential toward KM24. RNA-Seq revealed key CDSs/genes related to QS/proteolytic/lipolytic activities of KM24. Agents at sub-MIC levels influenced the mRNA expression of QS/lipase/protease genes.


Asunto(s)
Juniperus , Aceites Volátiles , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Biopelículas , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Pseudomonas fluorescens/genética , Percepción de Quorum
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 788: 147623, 2021 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023597

RESUMEN

Airborne pollens cause pollinosis and have the potential to affect microphysics in clouds; however, the number of monitored species has been very limited due to technical difficulties for the morphotype identification. In this study, we applied an eDNA approach to the airborne pollen communities in the suburbs of the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan, within a mixed urban, rural, and mountain landscape, revealing pollen seasonality of various taxa (a total of 78 families across the period) in the spring season (February to May). Those taxa distinctly shifted in the season, especially in the beginning of February and the middle of April. Air temperature shift was an obvious key factor to affect the airborne pollen community, while the influence of other meteorological factors, such as wind speed, humidity, and precipitation, was not clear. Taxonomic classification of major Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) indicates multiple pollen sources, including natural forest, planted forest, roadside, park lands, and horticultural activities. Most major ASV belongs to Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), which is the most notable allergen that causes pollinosis in Japan, peaking in mid-February to March. Backward trajectory analysis of air masses suggests that the Japanese cedar and other Cupressaceae plantation forests in the western mountains were a significant source of airborne pollen communities detected at our sampling site. Other major plant pollen sources, including Japanese zelkova (Zelkova serrata) and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), emanated from the nearby parks or roadside regions. This study's approach enables us to visualize the phenology of multiple pollen, including timing and duration. Long-term monitoring of this type would provide additional insight into understanding the role of climate change on pollen transmission and links to flowering events.


Asunto(s)
Cryptomeria , Polen , Alérgenos , Humanos , Japón , Estaciones del Año , Tokio
16.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 127(2): 165-175.e1, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029713

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated inflammatory condition that causes sneezing, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and nasal itch. Although subcutaneous immunotherapy for the treatment of AR has been in use and well established as a treatment modality, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly considered to be the safer and more convenient alternative. Thus, the objective of this review is to describe recent findings pertaining to the use of SLIT tablets (SLIT-T) for AR. DATA SOURCES: A database search (PubMed.gov) for articles published between January 1, 2017, and February 9, 2021, was conducted using the following key words: "allergic rhinitis," AND-ed "sublingual immunotherapy." Included were randomized placebo-controlled trials. Other experimental design studies were excluded. STUDY SELECTIONS: A total of 11 randomized placebo-controlled trials were selected for full-text review and included in the analysis. All studies investigated the use of SLIT on patients with seasonal AR (4 tree pollen, 1 grass pollen, and 1 Japanese cedar) or perennial AR (3 house dust mite). RESULTS: Our review of 7 recently published randomized placebo-controlled trials with 2348 subjects receiving SLIT reported increased efficacy, safety, supportive immunologic parameters (IgE and IgG4 pre- and posttreatment levels), and improved quality of life. All studies excluded subjects with overlapping seasonal or perennial allergens, a history of moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma, or reduced lung function. CONCLUSION: Our review highlights that SLIT is a safe and effective treatment that considerably reduces symptoms and medication requirements in AR and improves quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos/administración & dosificación , Desensibilización Inmunológica/métodos , Polen/inmunología , Rinitis Alérgica/terapia , Inmunoterapia Sublingual/efectos adversos , Inmunoterapia Sublingual/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Alérgenos/inmunología , Ambrosia/inmunología , Animales , Antígenos de Plantas/inmunología , Niño , Preescolar , Cryptomeria/inmunología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Extractos Vegetales/inmunología , Poaceae/inmunología , Pyroglyphidae/inmunología , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Adulto Joven
17.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(5): 579-584, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998423

RESUMEN

Temperature is one of the main factors affecting insect growth, development and reproduction. The effects of temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C) on the development and reproduction of Cinara cedri Mimeur (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae) fed on Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don were evaluated in this study. With the increase of temperature from 10 to 30°C, the development duration at different development stages gradually shortened. There was a significant positive correlation between the developmental rates and temperature, following a quadratic regression model. The lower developmental threshold temperature (C) and effective accumulated temperatures (K) for completing a generation were 4.13°C and 263.4 degree-days, respectively. The highest fecundity was observed at 20°C with 25.74 first-instar nymphs/female. Both the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r, 0.11 ± 0.03) and net reproduction rate (R0, 19.06 ± 2.05) were observed at 20°C, whereas the lowest values of r (0.05 ± 0.01) at 10°C and R0 (5.78 ± 0.88) at 30°C were observed. The results suggest that temperature significantly affects the biology of C. cedri and the optimal temperature for its development is 20°C.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros/crecimiento & desarrollo , Temperatura , Animales , Cedrus , Fertilidad/fisiología , Hemípteros/fisiología , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida
18.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(3): 3313-3327, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849116

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental illness in population, antianxiety drugs often only have single action targets, require long-term use, and are associated with many adverse reactions and dependencies. Professor Yan Zhaojun from Shandong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has applied the modified Renshu Powder, a TCM formula, to treat anxiety disorders, with satisfactory outcomes. Here, we investigated the mechanism of action of two core herbs (prepared Rehmannia root and Chinese arborvitae kernel) in the Renshu Powder in the treatment of anxiety disorders by using network pharmacology approaches. METHODS: Candidate compounds of the herb pair of prepared Rehmannia root-Chinese arborvitae kernel were extracted via the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) platform. The targets of action of the main compounds were collected using the SwissTargetPrediction database. Targets associated with anxiety disorders were retrieved from DisGeNET, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), DrugBank, GeneCards, and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) databases. The compound-target interaction network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.2 software, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) platform. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses the data by using Metascape. RESULTS: The main active compounds of the herb pair included arachidonic acid, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol. The key targets included Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 (NOS3), Epidermal growth factor (EGF), Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (PTGS2), Caspase 3 (CASP3), Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAPK1), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), RELA Proto-Oncogene, NF-KB Subunit (RELA), Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1), Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4 (SLC6A4), and Phosphatase and Tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Anxiety disorder-related GO analysis mainly involved synaptic signaling, neurotransmitter receptor activity, and G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptor activity. The KEGG pathways involved neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, serotonergic synapse, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of action of the prepared Rehmannia root-Chinese arborvitae kernel in treating anxiety disorders involves multiple ingredients, multiple targets, and pathways.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Rehmannia , Thuja , Trastornos de Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/genética , China , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas , Proteínas de Transporte de Serotonina en la Membrana Plasmática
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 782: 146924, 2021 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848864

RESUMEN

Recent warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is approximately twice the global-mean surface temperature increase and poses a threat to the healthy growth of forests. Although many studies have focused on whether recent climate warming has caused forest growth decline on the TP, it remains unclear how asymmetric warming, that is faster increasing nighttime temperature than daytime, impacts forest growth decline. We explored this question by using a ring-width index series from 1489 juniper trees (Juniperus prezwalskii and J. tibetica) at 50 sites on the TP. We calculated the percentage of trees with growth decline (PTD) to reconstruct historical forest growth decline and employed a piecewise structural equation meta-model (pSEM) and linear mixed model (LMM) to explore influencing factors. We found that the PTD has decreased since the late 19th century, with an abrupt decreasing trend since the 1980s. Results of the pSEM show that winter minimum temperature has a stronger indirect negative effect on the variation in PTD (ß = -0.24, p < 0.05) compared to that of the weak indirect positive effect of summer maximum temperature (ß = 0.16, p < 0.05). The results of LMM show that the variation in PTD is directly negatively (p < 0.001) affected by both winter minimum temperature and summer total precipitation, but the former has a greater independent contribution than the latter (with 17.7% vs 2.5% of variances independently explained, respectively). These results suggest that increased winter minimum temperature substantially mitigates the growth decline in juniper forests on the TP. As the minimum temperature generally occurs at night, we conclude that the asymmetric increase in nighttime temperature has decreased the incidence of juniper forest growth decline on the TP under climate warming. This alleviating effect of nighttime warming is likely due to reduced low-temperature constraints and reduced damage to tree growth.


Asunto(s)
Juniperus , Cambio Climático , Bosques , Incidencia , Temperatura , Tibet , Árboles
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882830

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Juniperus procera Hoechst. ex Endl. is a medicinal tree in Saudi Arabia, primarily in the Enemas region, but it is locally threatened due to die-back disease and difficulties regarding seed reproduction (seed dormancy and underdeveloped embryonic anatomy, and germination rate < 40%). Hence, the alternative methods for reproduction of Juniperus procera are really needed for conservation and getting mass propagation for pharmaceutical uses. RESULTS: In this manuscript, we articulated the successful in vitro shoot multiplication and callus induction of J. procera by using young seedling as explants and detected an important antibacterial and antitumor product. Explants were grown on different types of media with the supplement of different combinations of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) at different concentrations. The best media for shoot multiplication was Woody Plant Media (WPM) supplemented with PGRs (0.5 µM of IAA and 0.5 µM BAP or 0.5 µM IBA and 0.5 µM BAP). Whereas for callus induction and formation Woody Plant Media (WPM) with the addition of PGRs (0.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.5 µM BAP) was better than the Chu Basal Salt Mixture (N6), Gamborg's B-5 Basal Medium (B5), and Murashige and Skoog media. The possibility of multiplication of J. procera in vitro creates significant advantages to overcome the difficulties of seeds dormancy for the reproduction of plants, conservation of trees, and getting mass propagation material for pharmaceutical studies. The shoot and callus extract of J. procera was detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed more than 20 compounds related to secondary metabolites, which contained antibacterial and antitumor agents, such as ferruginol, Retinol, and Quinolone as well as confirmed by Direct Analysis in Real Time, Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (DART-ToF-MS). Podophyllotoxin (PTOX) was detected in callus material by HPLC with sigma standard and confirmed by DART-ToF-MS and UV spectra. CONCLUSION: We successfully conducted in vitro shoot multiplication and callus induction from J. procera seedlings using WPM and a different combination of PGRs and, detected an important antibacterial and antitumor product such as ferruginol and podophyllotoxin. According to our findings, J. procera has become a new natural source of novel bioactive compounds.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Juniperus/química , Juniperus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Horticultura , Extractos Vegetales/química , Brotes de la Planta/química , Arabia Saudita , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo
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