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1.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113606, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523540

RESUMEN

Forest certification has emerged as a voluntary, market-driven tool for sustainable forest management (SFM). Its legitimacy depends on its ability to achieve its objectives and to retain the support of stakeholders such as NGOs and the companies that adopt it. This study presents a novel approach for assessing the contributions of forest certification to biodiversity conservation, based on Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification in four northern European countries (Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia). In each case, national FSC certification requirements related to specific biodiversity targets were compared with requirements in national legislation. Nearly 80% of the assessed certification requirements were more prescriptive than the national legislation. One-third of these requirements (3-8 per country) were assessed to have a positive contribution to biodiversity conservation, whereas four requirements (up to 2 per country) were assessed to have a low positive contribution. FSC requirements to protect Woodland Key Habitats were identified as having a positive contribution in all four countries, whereas requirements regarding live tree retention in harvests and preserving dead wood had a positive contribution in three countries each. Despite often prescribing similar measures, the other requirements with positive contributions varied between countries depending on the national legislative baseline. The remaining requirements could not be assessed through expert evaluation, indicating the need for additional empirical research to evaluate how the normative requirements translate to impacts in the field, and how the national context may affect their implementation. The approach is globally applicable, repeatable, and provides a basis for designing systematic empirical assessments of the certification impact.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Biodiversidad , Certificación , Bosques
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245953, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556112

RESUMEN

This study aims to understand tourists' willingness to pay a price premium for a local green hotel certification, and is one of only a few in the literature for small-island tourism destinations in emerging economies with their unique and pressing sustainability challenges. In a survey of 535 tourists visiting Gili Trawangan, Indonesia, facing numerous waste management and coral reef conservation issues, the willingness to pay extra for sustainable hotel services was elicited. There were five discrete pricing levels across the surveys that ranged from $0.75 USD to $7.50 USD extra per night. We examined the relationship of the respondents' payment choice to their socio-demographic attributes and attitudes regarding environmental issues such as climate change. The main findings and practical implications of the study are: (1) to demonstrate the broad willingness to pay for sustainable hotel services. Findings indicate at all price levels (between $0.75 USD and $7.50 USD), more than 50% of tourists are willing to pay. (2) To estimate a lower bound mean willingness to pay per night for a local green hotel certificate of $1.55USD and 1.34€ EUR, and (3) To identify individual attributes that influence willingness to pay. Findings indicate environmental knowledge and preferences play a role. These results can be used generally to incorporate evidence-based practices into the development of a green hotel marketing strategy, and to help define the target market for small-scale green hotel certification. Additionally, we propose a finance strategy for funding local and sustainable initiatives that support the hotel industry and the island's infrastructure through the premiums collected from the 'Gili Green Award' certificate.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Certificación , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Turismo , Humanos
3.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 051874

RESUMEN

Official term awarded by a competent organization to products considered as acceptable on the basis of its level of environmental impact.


Designación otorgada por un organismo competente a los productos que tienen un nivel aceptable de impacto ambiental.


Designação outorgada por uma organização competente aos produtos considerados aceitáveis baseados em seu nível de impacto ambiental.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140712, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721759

RESUMEN

Tropical forests inhabited by endangered orangutans, rhinos, tigers, and elephants in South-east Asia are threatened by deforestation, including oil palm expansion. Certification has been proposed to label sustainable palm oil production. However, from a remotely sensed time-series and imagery analysis (1984-2020), we discovered that most of the currently certified grower supply bases and concessions in Sumatra and Borneo are located in the 1990s large mammals habitat and in areas that were biodiverse tropical forests less than 30 years ago. In light of this dramatic evidence, we suggest that certification schemes claim for the "sustainable" production of palm oil just because they neglect a very recent past of deforestation and habitat degradation.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Animales , Asia Sudoriental , Borneo , Certificación , Ecosistema , Indonesia , Aceite de Palma
6.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 273-281, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729560

RESUMEN

Trade in livestock and livestock products can bring about great benefits, but also substantial risk to animal and human health with high economic, social and environmental impacts. Livestock products are also especially vulnerable to food fraud. In order to mitigate risk and prevent fraud, most animal trade requires health certification by a competent authority, backed by systems and processes that create trust and confidence in importers. Among Veterinary Services which have undergone a structured assessment of performance, most find the need to improve their authority and/or capability for health certificates and for transparent disease reporting. Health certification is trusted when it is legal, carried out by an adequately performing authority, implemented by competent persons, supported by technical evidence, and validated by third parties and when the process is transparent, predictable and free from conflict of interest. The large and growing trade in animals and their products is a testimony to the effectiveness of the current process and the trust of importers. Nonetheless, there is considerable scope for further improvement especially by improving the legal framework, building capacity of Veterinary Services, increasing trust in signing authorities, validating the certification process, and making the process of certification more efficient and predictable.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales , Animales , Certificación , Salud Global , Humanos , Ganado
7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 223-233, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729565

RESUMEN

In recent decades, animal welfare in livestock production has been elevated to a topic of global interest. To meet growing requirements from consumers and society, governments have emphasised animal welfare in legislation. Retailers have integrated this topic into their quality assurance systems for the management of their supply chains. The challenge is to avoid conflicts between applicable national legislation and industry standards for quality assurance of livestock production with regard to animal welfare requirements. Where possible and applicable, private schemes refer to local animal welfare legislation, and offer the possibility to integrate animal welfare criteria that go beyond the legislation. Where animal welfare legislation is not in place, the private schemes set the rules. One of the main purposes of private schemes is to grant international market access to certified livestock producers. This paper presents the GLOBALG.A.P. integrated farm assurance (IFA) standard for livestock production and the GLOBALG.A.P. livestock transport standard as examples of private and globally acting quality assurance systems. Both standards integrate food safety, traceability, sustainability and animal welfare criteria. Animal welfare criteria are a fundamental part of IFA and, on average, account for 35% of the control points applicable to livestock. In the livestock transport standard, this accounts for 61% of the control points. Defined processes for accreditation and standard setting safeguard the reliability, feasibility and integrity of accredited third-party certification schemes. The GLOBALG.A.P. system also includes voluntary animal welfare add-on standards to demonstrate compliance with higher animal welfare requirements than those contained in the basic IFA standard. The possibility to customise products to the demands and requirements from specific markets and supply chains increases market access. Market access for producers irrespective of size is possible via single producer or group certification. Group certification offers the best opportunities for smallholders. For local supply chains the Primary Farm Assurance standard, based on parts of the GLOBALG.A.P. IFA standard, is a capacity-building tool. It is preferred by customers who do not require the full IFA standard because of local conditions, or because they source from producers who cannot immediately achieve full GLOBALG.A.P. certification.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Ganado , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Granjas , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
8.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 91(4): 318-325, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493553

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: General Aviation (GA) pilots who encounter hazardous weather inflight have a high probability of incurring fatal accidents. To mitigate this problem, previous research investigated pilot decision making and the effects of new technology. Limited investigations have examined usability and interpretability of observation and forecast weather products available to pilots. Therefore, this study examined the interpretability of weather observation and forecast reports that GA pilots use for preflight weather planning and the impact of pilot certification level on the interpretability of these displays.METHOD: There were 204 GA pilots (Mean age = 22.50 yr; Median flight hours = 131.0) who completed a 90-item multiple choice Aviation Weather Product Test. The questions portrayed static weather displays available on the NOAA/National Weather Service Aviation Weather Center website. The questions were designed to have high cognitive fidelity in comparison with preflight weather planning tasks.RESULTS: The results revealed overall low mean interpretability scores (Mean percent correct= 59.29%, SD = 16.01%). The scores for observation products and product attributes were lower for student pilots than experienced pilots. Forecast product scores for student and private pilots did not differ, however, student pilot scores were significantly lower than instrument rated private and commercial pilots.DISCUSSION: The low interpretability scores indicate that GA pilots misinterpret weather information provided by most weather observation and forecast products. Possible contributing factors to the low product interpretation scores include poor usability and a lack of training. Future research should measure the usability of weather displays designed for pilots.Blickensderfer BL, Guinn TA, Lanicci JM, Ortiz Y, King JM, Thomas RL, DeFilippis N. Interpretability of aviation weather information displays for general aviation. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2020; 91(4):318-325.


Asunto(s)
Aviación , Presentación de Datos , Toma de Decisiones , Pilotos , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Accidentes de Aviación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Certificación , Comprensión , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231073, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365128

RESUMEN

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) sets a standard by which sustainable fisheries can be assessed and eco-certified. It is one of the oldest and most well-known fisheries certifications, and an estimated 15% of global fish catch is MSC-certified. While the MSC is increasingly recognized by decision-makers as an indicator for fishery success, it is also criticized for weak standards and overly-lenient third-party certifiers. This gap between the standard's reputation and its actual implementation could be a result of how the MSC markets and promotes its brand. Here we classify MSC-certified fisheries by gear type (i.e. active vs. passive) as well as by length of the vessels involved (i.e. large scale vs. small scale; with the division between the two occurring at 12 m in overall length). We compared the MSC-certified fisheries (until 31 December 2017) to 399 photographs the MSC used in promotional materials since 2009. Results show that fisheries involving small-scale vessels and passive gears were disproportionately represented in promotional materials: 64% of promotional photographs were of passive gears, although only 40% of MSC-certified fisheries and 17% of the overall catch were caught by passive gears from 2009-2017. Similarly, 49% of the photographs featured small-scale vessels, although just 20% of MSC-certified fisheries and 7% of the overall MSC-certified catch used small-scale vessels from 2009 to 2017. The MSC disproportionately features photographs of small-scale fisheries although the catch it certifies is overwhelmingly from industrial fisheries.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad , Certificación , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Industria de Alimentos , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Publicidad/clasificación , Publicidad/métodos , Publicidad/normas , Animales , Certificación/organización & administración , Certificación/normas , Eficiencia Organizacional , Explotaciones Pesqueras/clasificación , Explotaciones Pesqueras/organización & administración , Explotaciones Pesqueras/normas , Peces/fisiología , Industria de Alimentos/clasificación , Industria de Alimentos/instrumentación , Industria de Alimentos/organización & administración , Industria de Alimentos/normas , Afiliación Organizacional/organización & administración , Afiliación Organizacional/normas , Alimentos Marinos/clasificación , Consejos de Especialidades/organización & administración , Consejos de Especialidades/normas
10.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126356, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146186

RESUMEN

EPA 3051A and Aqua Regia (AR) are widely adopted by global environmental agencies to assess soil quality in relation to potentially harmful elements (PHE). However, previous study has shown the formation of large amounts of short-range order materials (SRO) in the residues of these extractions. Residues obtained from the 3051A and AR were recovered from filter papers. To characterize the SRO in these residues, sequential extractions were performed with 0.2 mol L-1 ammonium oxalate (AO) and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH. On average (n = 15), the 3051A and AR residues contained 37% and 60% of SRO, respectively. The largest amounts of SRO formed in the AR residue was in sample 5 (99% of SRO). The main component of the SRO was Al2O3-AO, Fe2O3-AO and SiO2-NaOH. The formation of SRO and PHE resorption levels were random and highly dependent on the mineralogy of the soil clay fraction. Soils rich in smectites, which are more common in temperate regions, formed larger amounts of SRO. The association of Pb with the SRO was more pronounced in the 3051A residue than in the AR residue. If SRO was not extracted after 3051A, in sample 7, for example, 595 mg kg-1 of Pb (10.2%) would have not been accounted. The maximum PHE resorptions in SRO were (%): Pb - 10; Cu - 470; Ba - 280; As - 21. The underestimation of PHE contents due to resorption mechanisms may lead an environmental agency to certify the use of an area contaminated with PHE.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Certificación , Ácido Clorhídrico , Metales Pesados/análisis , Ácido Nítrico , Dióxido de Silicio , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
11.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 110(10): 830-840, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-185605

RESUMEN

Introducción: La exposición solar en la infancia es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de cáncer de piel en la vida adulta. Las intervenciones basadas en programas y políticas de fotoprotección escolar han demostrado ser las estrategias más eficaces y coste-efectivas para la prevención del cáncer de piel. Objetivos: Elaborar un modelo de certificación que permita identificar de forma objetiva aquellos centros escolares que promueven activamente la fotoprotección. Métodos: Se empleó metodología de consenso basada en panel de expertos, recurriendo al método Delphi en 2 rondas. Se analizaron las medianas de las valoraciones de la importancia y factibilidad de cada una de las recomendaciones, y el porcentaje de respuestas positivas para los niveles de cada una de ellas. Resultados: Se obtuvo un modelo integrado por 14 recomendaciones junto a sus criterios de evaluación, relativas a 7 dimensiones: 1) liderazgo organizacional (5 recomendaciones), 2) comunicación efectiva (2 recomendaciones), 3) elementos estructurales (2 recomendaciones), 4) formación de profesionales (una recomendación), 5) currículum escolar (una recomendación), 6) modelos de conducta (2 recomendaciones) y 7) hábitos del alumnado (una recomendación). Todas las recomendaciones mostraron un alto nivel de acuerdo, tanto en la valoración de la importancia y factibilidad como en la categorización de los niveles de complejidad. Conclusión: Se trata del primer distintivo de fotoprotección escolar que se desarrolla en nuestro país. Se necesitan estudios que evalúen el grado de aceptación de la estrategia y su impacto en los hábitos de fotoprotección de los escolares


Introduction: Sun exposure during childhood is the main risk factor for skin cancer in later life. School-based sun protection policies and practices have proven to be the most effective and cost-effective strategies for preventing skin cancer. Objective: To develop a sun protection accreditation program known as «Soludable» (a play on the Spanish words sol [sun] and saludable [healthy]) to objectively identify schools that actively promote sun protection behaviors among students. Methods: The consensus method used was a 2-round Delphi technique with input from a panel of experts. We then calculated the median scores for the importance and feasibility of each of the recommendations proposed and the level of complexity assigned to each recommendation by counting the percentage of experts who chose each difficulty category. Results: The resulting accreditation model consists of 14 recommendations with corresponding evaluation criteria divided into 7 domains: 1) organizational leadership (5 recommendations), 2) effective communication (2 recommendations), 3) structural elements (2 recommendations), 4) training of professionals (1 recommendation), 5) school curriculum (1 recommendation), 6) behavioral models (2 recommendations), and 7) student habits (1 recommendation). A high level of agreement among experts was observed for all recommendations, in terms of both their perceived importance and feasibility and their categorization by levels of complexity. Conclusions: This is the first sun protection accreditation program developed for Spanish schools. Studies are needed to evaluate how this program is received and how it affects students' sun protection behaviors


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Quemadura Solar/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Instituciones Académicas , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Liderazgo , Estilo de Vida Saludable
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35163-35182, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680201

RESUMEN

Vehicle emission certification is evaluated under laboratorial conditions, where vehicles perform a standard driving cycle in controlled conditions leading to several critics, which have resulted in the implementation of the Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing procedure, as a complementary certification procedure. RDE is still under debate since boundary conditions; evaluation and trip selection methods are still being studied to allow test reproducibility. Currently, the official data analysis method uses the moving average window (MAW_EC), based on the WLTP CO2 emissions for trip validity evaluation (RDE package 4) and emissions (RDE package 3). However, this does not consider the impact of vehicle dynamics. Consequently, this work focuses on developing a novel method to relate certification driving cycle dynamics and on-road test vehicle dynamics, to evaluate RDE tests fuel use and exhaust emissions in a comparable way to certification driving cycles, indicating how close, or far, real-world driving is from the laboratorial certification test. For this, a new method was developed called road vehicle evaluation method (ROVET), which relies on the cycle vehicle dynamic and on-road trip dynamics for assessing if both tests are comparable. Results from 5 measured vehicles with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) through reproducibility tests and 2 case studies, show that the ROVET provides results closer to the certification calculated reference than the most commonly used method in Europe (1% avg. difference for ROVET while 8% avg. difference for MAW_EC, regarding CO2 emission, for example). The use of vehicle dynamics on construction and references of a method could be used to incentivize the regulators to review the references used by the current used methods, which suffers several criticisms since their release. As the regulated methods are in constant update, this study could be useful for helping to improve or to be used as additional method for future vehicle certification procedures. Graphical abstract.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Conducción de Automóvil/estadística & datos numéricos , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Certificación , Europa (Continente) , Vehículos a Motor , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
14.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(4): 271-278, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315077

RESUMEN

In pharmaceutical compounding, effective contamination control is based on a complete understanding of the impact, sources, mechanisms, and prevention of adulterants in the compounding suite. Only then do the multiple facets of designing, constructing, maintaining, cleaning, using, and monitoring controlled environments make sense. This article presents an overview of the types of contaminants likely to compromise the potency and for their eradication. The information provided also applies to the contamination of other sites such as surgery suites, hallways, bathrooms, and the home setting. In a series of upcoming articles, the importance of compounding techniques, primary and secondary engineering controls, personal protective equipment, environmental monitoring, cleaning processes, hazardous-drug considerations, and certification of the compounding suite will be discussed in detail.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Medicamentos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Certificación , Composición de Medicamentos , Ambiente Controlado
15.
J Environ Manage ; 247: 253-262, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252224

RESUMEN

New environmental policies and initiatives increasingly drive firms to develop sustainable technologies, yet it is unclear why firms often decide not to capture value from the technologies that they create. We argue that the under-implementation of environmental technologies can be explained by the concept of institutional decoupling, which suggests that organizations may engage in symbolic actions without necessarily taking the risk of implementing a new technology in a less established market when there is no decisive evidence of its commercial viability. Focusing on the Korean Green Certification Program, a government-initiated review system for environmental technologies, we find that the timing of certification is a key source of variation in the implementation of certified technologies. Our findings also show that the main effect is conditioned by performance feedback and niche density-the factors that shape a firm's risk perceptions. Implications for organization studies, sustainable innovation, and environmental policies are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental , Tecnología , Certificación , Gobierno , Instituciones de Salud
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(12): 12505-12521, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850983

RESUMEN

The adaptability of ISO 14001 is considered as one of the most useful tools for environmental sustainability and worldwide competitive advantage; however, the future of ISO 14001 certification faces some uncertainties because of its uneven acceptance in various countries. These uncertainties, if not properly managed, can hinder the implementation of business management systems in these countries. In order to guide policymakers in better management of ISO 14001 in future with certainty, this study aims to forecast the ISO 14001 certifications for 10 years for China, India, the USA, Italy, Japan, and Germany, the top six certified countries, through advanced mathematical modeling, namely grey models, even GM (1,1), discrete GM (1,1), and non-homogenous discrete grey model (NDGM). The benefits of mentioned models are ensured accuracy in assessment using small samples and poor information. Moreover, current research is a pioneer in the certifications growth analysis using the Synthetic Relative Growth Rate and Synthetic Doubling Time models. Finally, the empirical analysis indicated that China is constantly leading in terms of its ISO 14001 certifications till 2026 and the performance of developing countries was spectacular. Furthermore, the article has proposed some suggestions for the policymakers to make the environment more sustainable.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Certificación , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/estadística & datos numéricos , Predicción , Alemania , Humanos , India , Italia , Japón
17.
Nursing ; 49(3): 45-47, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801407

RESUMEN

Toxicology is an interesting and specialized branch of medicine. This article examines the parallels between nursing and working as a specialist in poison information, offering a different career path for eligible nurses.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería , Especialización , Toxicología , Certificación , Humanos , Rol Profesional
18.
Conserv Biol ; 33(5): 1106-1119, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767306

RESUMEN

As landscapes continue to fall under human influence through habitat loss and fragmentation, fencing is increasingly being used to mitigate anthropogenic threats and enhance the commercial value of wildlife. Subsequent intensification of management potentially erodes wildness by disembodying populations from landscape-level processes, thereby disconnecting species from natural selection. Tools are needed to measure the degree to which populations of large vertebrate species in formally protected and privately owned wildlife areas are self-sustaining and free to adapt. We devised a framework to measure such wildness based on 6 attributes relating to the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of vertebrates (space, disease and parasite resistance, exposure to predation, exposure to limitations and fluctuations of food and water supply, and reproduction). For each attribute, we set empirical, species-specific thresholds between 5 wildness states based on quantifiable management interventions. We analysed data from 205 private wildlife properties with management objectives spanning ecotourism to consumptive utilization to test the framework on 6 herbivore species representing a range of conservation statuses and commercial values. Wildness scores among species differed significantly, and the proportion of populations identified as wild ranged from 12% to 84%, which indicates the tool detected site-scale differences both among populations of different species and populations of the same species under different management regimes. By quantifying wildness, this framework provides practitioners with standardized measurement units that link biodiversity with the sustainable use of wildlife. Applications include informing species management plans at local scales; standardizing the inclusion of managed populations in red-list assessments; and providing a platform for certification and regulation of wildlife-based economies. Applying this framework may help embed wildness as a normative value in policy and mitigate the shifting baseline of what it means to truly conserve a species.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Ecosistema , Humanos , Vertebrados
19.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 66(3): 274-282, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298930

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: While internationally educated occupational therapists (IEOTs) may assist Western countries in addressing workforce shortages, their transition to practice can be difficult. Provincial and national levels of government in Canada have funded initiatives to address the barriers experienced by IEOTs. The purpose of this study is to identify the key forces shaping the experiences of IEOTs transitioning to practice in Canada. METHODS: An interpretive description approach was taken to interview 11 IEOTs who graduated from the Occupational Therapy Examination and Practice Preparation (OTepp) program. Data analysis was guided by the theoretical scaffolding of the occupational therapy profession. Two team members, who are also occupational therapists, developed codes and categories independently and then through discussion reached a higher level of interpretation. RESULTS: The experiences of IEOTs in Canada were shaped by two key forces: Realising that more than exam preparation is required and the impact of previous person, environment and occupation transactions. Participants underestimated their learning needs related to their transition to Canadian practice. As they engaged in the OTepp program, they realised that their learning extended beyond that required for the national certification exam. Also, the extent to which the participant (person), previous context (environment) and previous practice (occupation) were similar to Canadian therapists, influenced IEOTs' performance in OTepp and their overall transition to practice. The Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model provided a framework to contextualise this theme. CONCLUSION: IEOTs will benefit from individualised learning needs assessments and education plans to address their specific needs. At an international level, the occupational therapy profession must engage in dialogue about the differences between education programs and the resulting implications for the profession. More research is also needed to understand the experiences of IEOTs who withdraw from or do not engage in formal supports.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/normas , Personal Profesional Extranjero/educación , Personal Profesional Extranjero/normas , Terapeutas Ocupacionales/normas , Terapia Ocupacional/educación , Aculturación , Canadá , Certificación , Ambiente , Humanos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Investigación Cualitativa
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(8): 7347-7355, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644605

RESUMEN

A new marine sediment certified reference material (IAEA 459) with very low concentrations (µg kg-1) for a variety of persistent organic contaminants (POPs) listed by the Stockholm Convention, as well as other POPs and priority substances (PSs) listed in many environmental monitoring programs was developed by the IAEA. The sediment material was collected from the Ham River estuary in South Korea, and the assigned final values were derived from robust statistics on the results provided by selected laboratories which demonstrated technical and quality competence, following the guidance given in ISO Guide 35. The robust mean of the laboratory means was assigned as certified values, for those compounds where the assigned value was derived from at least five datasets and its relative expanded uncertainty was less than 40% of the assigned value (most of the values ranging from 8 to 20%). All the datasets were derived from at least two different analytical techniques which have allowed the assignment of certified concentrations for 22 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 6 organochlorinated (OC) pesticides, 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). Mass fractions of compounds that did not fulfill the criteria of certification are considered information values, which include 29 PAHs, 11 PCBs, 16 OC pesticides, and 5 PBDEs. The extensive characterization and associated uncertainties at concentration levels close to the marine sediment quality guidelines will make CRM 459 a valuable matrix reference material for use in marine environmental monitoring programs.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Estuarios , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Certificación , Valores de Referencia , República de Corea
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