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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150008, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482130

RESUMEN

The intensifying globalization contributes to the anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions outsourcing, a strong greenhouse gas and harmful air pollutant, through the increasingly complex global trade network. However, the CH4 flow patterns embodied in global traded goods and services have not been interpreted from the perspective of a complex network. In this paper, we integrate global CH4 emission inventory from the EDGAR (the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) databases, global multi-regional input-output model from the GTAP database, and complex network analysis to reveal the structural characteristics of the global CH4 flow network (GCFN). In the GCFN, more than one quarter of the global anthropogenic CH4 emissions in 2014 are associated with international trade. The top 20 economies contribute to about 70% of the total embodied CH4 emission flows. The GCFNs mainly consist of tripartite patterns centered on China, the USA and Russia. Some emerging countries, such as Thailand and Brazil, also exhibit dominated positions in different kinds of GCFNs. Moreover, the core-periphery structure of the GCFN confirms the existence of a few hub economies associated with a large amount of CH4 emissions. The results emphasize the multinational cooperation on global CH4 emission mitigation, and well-focused mitigation policies should be implemented on some key economies.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Servicios Externos , Comercio , Internacionalidad , Metano/análisis
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113870, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638044

RESUMEN

The question of whether it is possible to "do well by going green" has been debated at length in the literature on environmental sustainability, but no consensus has been reached to date. Building on stakeholder theory in that a firm's environmental sustainability can improve its competitive advantage, this study investigates the impacts of sustainable environmental practices on the competitiveness of 28 international airlines over 2010-2018. First, we use dynamic network data envelopment analysis to estimate airline operational efficiency as a measure of competitiveness. Second, we use a panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) model to test for nonlinearities and regime-switching behaviors between variables. Then, to account for endogeneity bias, we develop and estimate an instrumental variable PSTR (IV-PSTR) model. The empirical results indicate that the relationship between environmental sustainability and competitiveness has an inverted U shape, meaning there is an optimal level of environmental sustainability beyond which competitiveness decreases. Therefore, it is important for airline managers to understand that very high levels of investment in sustainable practices can have more negative effects compared to very little investment. The study concludes by providing implications for theory and practice.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Eficiencia , Inversiones en Salud
3.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210178, 2022. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1339878

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivo conhecer as percepções e perspectivas dos profissionais da saúde para o desenvolvimento da Prevenção Quaternária na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método Pesquisa Apreciativa, que aplicou as fases do "ciclo 4-D", na língua inglesa: discovery, dream, design e destiny. Este artigo analisa os resultados referentes à fase discovery (descoberta), de cujos dois encontros correspondentes participaram nove profissionais da Atenção Primária. Realizou-se análise de conteúdo, seguindo as etapas de pré-análise, exploração do material e tratamento dos dados. Resultados a Prevenção Quaternária representa uma potencialidade na inovação da atenção, com possibilidade de reduzir a medicalização social, que ocorre mediante a sobremedicalização, sobrediagnósticos e sobretratamentos. Como perspectivas, é apresentada a necessidade de conscientização da sociedade e dos profissionais sobre esses excessos e de (re) posicionamento da indústria, do mercado e da mídia sobre o significado de "estar saudável". Conclusão e implicações para prática é necessário atentar para a ética na prestação de cuidados quanto ao rastreio, diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças. A Prevenção Quaternária tem potencial para reverter um modelo hegemônico em relação ao cuidado de indivíduos e famílias ao fomentar a integralidade. A Enfermagem, como prestadora do cuidado, junto com a equipe multiprofissional, deve incorporar ações de Prevenção Quaternária em suas práticas.


Resumen Objetivo conocer las percepciones y perspectivas de los profesionales de la salud para el desarrollo de la Prevención Cuaternaria en Atención Primaria de Salud. Método Investigación Apreciativa, que aplicó las fases del "ciclo 4-D", en inglés: discovery, dream, design y destiny Este artículo analiza los resultados de la fase discovery (descubrimiento), en cuyos dos encuentros correspondientes participaron nueve profesionales de Atención Primaria. Se realizó análisis de contenido, siguiendo los pasos de pre-análisis, exploración de material y procesamiento de datos. Resultados la Prevención Cuaternaria representa un potencial en la innovación asistencial, con posibilidad de reducir la medicalización social, que se produce por sobremedicalización, sobrediagnóstico y sobretratamiento. Como perspectivas, se presenta la necesidad de concienciar a la sociedad y los profesionales sobre estos excesos y de (re) posicionar a la industria, el mercado y los medios de comunicación sobre el significado de "estar sano". Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica es necesario prestar atención a la ética en la prestación de cuidados en cuanto al cribado, diagnóstico y tratamiento de enfermedades. La Prevención Cuaternaria tiene el potencial de revertir un modelo hegemónico en relación al cuidado de las personas y familias al promover la integralidad. La Enfermería, como proveedora de cuidados, junto con el equipo multidisciplinario, deben incorporar las acciones de Prevención Cuaternaria en sus prácticas.


Abstract Objective to know the perceptions and perspectives of health professionals for the development of Quaternary Prevention in Primary Health Care. Method an Appreciative Research, which applied the phases of the "4-D cycle": discovery, dream, design and destiny. This article analyzes the results referring to the discovery phase (discovery), in which nine professionals from Primary Care participated in two corresponding meetings. Content analysis was performed, following the steps of pre-analysis, material exploration and data treatment. Results the Quaternary Prevention represents a potentiality in care innovation, with the possibility of reducing social medicalization, which occurs through over-medicalization, over-diagnosis and overtreatment. As perspectives, it is presented the need for society and professionals to be aware of these excesses and the (re) positioning of the industry, market and media about the meaning of "being healthy". Conclusion and implications for the practice it is necessary to pay attention to ethics in care provision regarding screening, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Quaternary Prevention has potential to revert a hegemonic model in relation to the care of individuals and families by promoting integrality. Nursing, as a care provider, together with the multi-professional team, must incorporate Quaternary Prevention actions in its practices.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Personal de Salud , Medicalización , Prevención Cuaternaria , Terapias Complementarias , Comercialización de los Servicios de Salud , Educación en Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Educación Continua , Gestor de Salud , Uso Excesivo de los Servicios de Salud , Anamnesis
4.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 43-49, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016904

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, states across the United States implemented various strategies to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of COVID-19-related state closures on consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, while controlling for changes in COVID-19 incidence and death. DESIGN: The analysis estimated a difference-in-difference model, utilizing temporal and geographic variation in state closure orders to analyze their impact on the economy, while controlling for COVID-19 incidence and death. PARTICIPANTS: State-level data on economic outcomes from the Opportunity Insights data tracker and COVID-19 cases and death data from usafacts.org. INTERVENTIONS: The mitigation strategy analyzed within this study was COVID-19-related state closure orders. Data on these orders were obtained from state government Web sites containing executive or administrative orders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes include state-level estimates of consumer spending, business revenue, and employment levels. RESULTS: Analyses showed that although state closures led to a decrease in consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, they accounted for only a small portion of the observed decreases in these outcomes over the first wave of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 on economic activity likely reflects a combination of factors, in addition to state closures, such as individuals' perceptions of risk related to COVID-19 incidence, which may play significant roles in impacting economic activity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Comercio , Empleo , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
5.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9322

RESUMEN

Em entrevista a Lucas Mendes, a médica e professora da Harvar Medical School, Marcia Angell diz que a indústria farmacêutica não inventa nada de novo, abusa de patentes e transforma a medicina em produto descartável em nome da ganância obsessiva.


Asunto(s)
Industria Farmacéutica/economía , Industria Farmacéutica/ética , Automedicación , Comercialización de Medicamentos , Gasto Público en Salud/políticas , Sistemas Nacionales de Salud/economía , Planes de Salud de Prepago , United States Food and Drug Administration , Entrevista , Estados Unidos
6.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9323

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic brought to light the shortcomings of health systems worldwide and the need to address the factors underpinning these flaws. In this webinar, we discuss the role of private sector and commercial determinants of health (#CDoH) in this global health crisis. Through their different perspectives, the panelists explore the role of private sector in the pandemic, the relationship between CDoH and COVID-19 on national and global levels and discuss the implications for global health. TIMESTAMPS: 00:00 | Welcome and Objective 02:35 | Opening Remarks 07:00 | COVID-19 as Commercial Determinant of Health 19:58 | Unhealthy Commodity Industries' Response to COVID-19 38:00 | Moderated Discussion and Q&A


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/economía , Sistemas Públicos de Salud , Política de Salud , Estrategias de Salud Globales , Capitalismo , Comercialización de los Servicios de Salud , Racismo , Equidad en Salud , Distanciamiento Físico , Cuarentena , Grupos de Riesgo , Prueba de COVID-19 , Equipo de Protección Personal , Promoción de la Salud , Sector Privado/economía , Industria del Tabaco
7.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9304

RESUMEN

This Series accompanies the development of the Lancet Commission on Gender and Global Health, inviting Commissioners and Co-Chairs to discuss a key topic, question, or challenge that the Commission hopes to tackle. The series aims to involve a range of stakeholders and voices in its work and promote discussion and debate on gender and health. In the thirteenth event of the series, we will hear from Commissioners Sharon Friel, Professor of Health Equity and Director of the Menzies Centre for Health Governance at the School of Regulation and Global Governance (RegNet), Australian National University, and Sarah Hill, Senior Lecturer and Director of the Global Health Policy Unit at the University of Edinburgh.


Asunto(s)
Equidad de Género , Género y Salud , Industria del Alcohol , Política de Salud , Normas de Género , Comercialización de los Servicios de Salud , Mercadeo Social
8.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48500

RESUMEN

O artigo 41 do Decreto nº 4.074, de 4/1/2002 determina que as empresas com produtos agrotóxicos, componentes e afins registrados no Brasil apresentem semestralmente aos órgãos federais e estaduais responsáveis pelo controle e fiscalização dessas substâncias relatórios sobre as quantidades produzidas, importadas, exportadas e comercializadas destes produtos.


Asunto(s)
Agroquímicos , Comercialización de Productos , Informe de Investigación/normas
9.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 3338840, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777491

RESUMEN

In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the utilization of data and information in the logistics distribution path optimization system of e-commerce, but it is difficult to have scientific guarantee in the process of determining the optimal distribution path scheme of e-commerce. How to realize the optimization and adaptive setting of distribution path by using intelligent algorithm has become a hot spot. To battle these issues, this paper studies the logistics distribution path optimization model based on recursive fuzzy neural network algorithm. This paper analyses the research status of logistics distribution path determination scheme and applies the recursive fuzzy neural network algorithm in the selection of e-commerce logistics distribution path scheme. The experimental results show that the recursive fuzzy neural network algorithm can realize the optimization of e-commerce logistics distribution path, and the best distribution route can be made according to the characteristic difference of logistics distribution route, and its distribution accuracy can reach more than 97%.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Comercio
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770208

RESUMEN

International trade has become more complicated and is now related to more aspects of health and the health system. As Thailand is active in international trade and health, understanding what knowledge exists and determining the knowledge gap is essential for generating the necessary evidence in order to promote better understanding and allow evidence-based policy decisions to be made. This study reviewed the existence of knowledge on international trade and health issues in a scoping review, focusing on Thailand during the period 1991-2020. In total, 156 studies from seven databases and manual searching were included. Of these, 46% were related to trade in health services and 39% were linked to intellectual property, particularly access to medicines. This review found only a very small amount of research on other issues and did not identify any study on trade policies or products related to health and international trade and the environment. We therefore recommend that further studies should be carried out to provide more critical evidence-in particular, more research focusing on the impacts of trade on health-related goods and the analysis of the positive and negative impacts of international trade on industry is needed. Furthermore, better knowledge management through the publication of research findings and making them searchable on international databases will increase the visibility of international trade, increase our knowledge of health issues, and provide supporting evidence.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Internacionalidad , Propiedad Intelectual , Políticas , Tailandia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259282, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731181

RESUMEN

Infectious diseases and widespread outbreaks influence different sectors of the economy, including the stock market. In this article, we investigate the effect of EBOV and COVID-19 outbreaks on stock market indices. We employ time-varying and constant bivariate copula methods to measure the dependence structure between the infectious disease equity market volatility index (IEMV) and the stock market indices of several sectors. The results show that the financial and communication services sectors have the highest and the lowest negative dependency on IEMV during the Ebola virus (EBOV) pandemic, respectively. However, the health care and energy sectors have the highest and lowest negative dependency on IEMV during the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Therefore, the results confirm the heterogeneous time-varying dependency between infectious diseases and the stock market indices. The finding of our study contributes to the ongoing literature on the impact of disease outbreaks, especially the novel coronavirus outbreak on global large-cap companies in the stock market.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Brotes de Enfermedades/economía , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/economía , Comercio , Ebolavirus , Humanos , Tiempo
13.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(11): 1891-1895, 2021 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739831

RESUMEN

In March 2021, 1,480 U.S. businesses operating 2,754 clinics were found selling purported stem cell treatments for various indications. More than four times as many businesses than were identified 5 years ago are selling stem cell products that are not FDA-approved and lack convincing evidence of safety and efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Trasplante de Células Madre , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4813-4822, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787177

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to characterize the environments of Curitiba's state schools in relation to commercialization of alcoholic beverages and investigate the association with local socio-economic indicators. A cross-sectional study in commercial establishments was carried out around 30 state-owned schools. We applied a survey to characterize the locations in relation to the availability of alcoholic beverages. Differentiation between school environments regarding income was estimated by multilevel mixed-effects model. We evaluated 200 commercial establishments, 66.0% commercialized alcohol. Of them, 52 (39.4%) were off-premise alcohol outlets and 80 (60.6%) on-premise. In on-premise category, neighborhood markets (16.5%) and gas stations (10.1%) had higher presence and half of schools had this type of this establishment in their environment. These establishment had more variety of alcoholic beverages and lower prices. In school's environments located in lower income's neighborhoods, the number of neighborhood market and bars were higher. It was observed the presence of establishments that commercialized alcoholic beverages and with attendance to the public during the classes period, near the evaluated schools.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Comercio , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Características de la Residencia , Instituciones Académicas
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 1346994, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721560

RESUMEN

Marketing refers to the strategies a company undertakes to promote its brands to its potential audience. Advertising provides useful venues for marketing to promote a company's survives/goods to the audience. It has a positive impact on the sale of services or products. In this study, we consider a well-known online medium called Twitter (the fourth most popular social media platform used by marketers) to check its impact on sales. For this purpose, the simple linear regression modeling approach is implemented to test the significance and usefulness of Twitter advertising on sale. Statistical tests such as t-test and correlation test are adopted to test the hypothesis of the "impact of Twitter advertising on sales." Based on the findings of this study, it is observed that Twitter advertising has a positive impact on sales. Furthermore, a new statistical model called the exponential T-X exponentiated exponential is introduced. The proposed model is very interesting and possesses heavy-tailed characteristics which are useful in finance and other related sectors. Finally, the applicability of the new model is illustrated by considering the sales data.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Comercio , Humanos , Mercadotecnía , Modelos Estadísticos , Análisis de Regresión
16.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3513-3523, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739802

RESUMEN

Bluetongue (BT) disease is a noncontagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants (mainly sheep, cattle, deer) caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) which is an orbivirus of the Reoviridae family and transmitted by vector Culicoides biting midges. It is a reportable disease of considerable socioeconomic concern and of major importance for the international trade of animals and animal products. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as virus propagation and isolation, immunoassays and also various molecular methods have been developed for the detection of the BTV. Here, we present a novel, rapid and pen-side test for the detection of BTV using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) based immunosensor. Though it is not reported yet. The MWCNTs were prepared, characterized and functionalized with carboxyl group. Viral antibodies were conjugated successfully with functionalized MWCNTs and coated on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). These SPCE were evaluated by using electrochemical sensor with an antigen specific to BTV antibodies, resulted in the self-assembled layer of antigen-antibody on the surface of SPCE. The approach described in the present study is a prototype for the development of simple and economic diagnostic tool which will provide the routine screening of BT disease at the door of farmers, thereby increasing the income of farmers by decreasing the cost of diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Virus de la Lengua Azul , Lengua Azul , Ciervos , Nanotubos de Carbono , Animales , Lengua Azul/diagnóstico , Bovinos , Comercio , Inmunoensayo , Internacionalidad , Ovinos
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 285: 118-123, 2021 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734861

RESUMEN

Business process modeling aims to construct digital representations of processes being executed in the company. However, models derived from the event logs of their execution tend to overcomplicate the desired representation, making them difficult to apply. The most accurate recovery of the business process model requires a comprehensive study of the various artifacts stored in the company's information system. This paper, however, aims to explore the possibility to automatically obtain the most accurate model of business process, using mutual optimization of models recovered from a set of event logs. Further, the obtained models are executed in multi-agent simulation model of company, and the resulting event logs are examined to determine patterns that are specific to distinct employees and those that generally characterize business process.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información en Salud , Comercio , Atención a la Salud
18.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 12.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728595

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic arsenal of hypoglycaemic drugs has been increased by the commercialization of new molecules in recent years. The main objective of this study was to know the trend of use of this group of drugs in a healthcare area. METHODS: The data was obtained through an electronic medical prescription billing computer application that contains all the information on the consumption of prescription drugs. The last seven years were analyzed in a healthcare area that covers a population of 85 thousand inhabitants and the defined daily dose (DDD) per inhabitant per day was used as a measurement variable. RESULTS: In our health area, an increasing and constant use of antidiabetic drugs was observed from a value of 55.62 DHD per inhabitant per day in 2014 to a value of 65.04 in 2020. Throughout the period studied, oral hypoglycemic drug combinations and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors were the therapeutic subgroups that experienced growth greater than 50%. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of hypoglycemic agents experienced a notable growth in the period analyzed, mainly at the expense of new therapeutic groups and new commercialized molecules.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2 , Atención a la Salud , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Glucosa , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes , España
19.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259226, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735499

RESUMEN

When emerging technologies transform an organization's way of working, explorative business process management (BPM) becomes a new challenge. Although digital innovations can boost process efficacy and business productivity, employees do not necessarily accept the implied work changes. We therefore looked at the increased digitalization efforts during the COVID-19 lockdowns, during which employees were forced to drastically rethink work by heavily depending on technology for communication and almost all business tasks. This global setting allowed us to scrutinize disruptive work changes and how employees can cope with disruptive work adaptations. We also looked into the explorative skillset needed to adapt to these changes. To theorize about an explorative BPM acceptance model, eleven hypotheses were supported based on a solid theoretical foundation. We followed a quantitative research design using partial least squares for structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) at the university administration settings in two regions, including purposive sampling. Data analysis covered both a measurement model assessment and structural model assessment. Our findings reveal that employees' perceived work modalities, feeling creative and feeling flexible are more promising features than perceived influence and attitude related to explorative work and skill development. We also offer novel insights into explorative business process management (BPM) skills, and which skills are more productive in uncertain or dynamic working conditions. This research is a learning path for managers struggling with flexible or competitive business environments, and more specifically to facilitate employee willingness.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Comercio , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Empleo , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Pandemias , Adulto , Anciano , Algoritmos , Creatividad , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Organizacionales , SARS-CoV-2 , Tecnología , Adulto Joven
20.
Adv Health Care Manag ; 202021 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779190

RESUMEN

This chapter addresses the grand challenge of an aging society and the subsequent growing demand for in-home care for the elderly - often referred to as homecare. It examines how emergent homecare models in England differ from the "time and task" model and how they are shaping the care market. These models offer new approaches regarding what, how, and when care is delivered at home. Homecare providers face rising demand driven not only by population aging but also by market demand for personalized care, choice, continuity of care, and real-time availability. The landscape presents an opportunity for innovative models to become established, by offering a more inducing service design and value propositions that respond to customers' needs. Using the "business model canvas" to guide data collection, this study presents an ethnographic case analysis of four homecare organizations with distinct emergent homecare models. The study includes 14 months of field observation and 33 in-depth interviews. It finds that providers are becoming increasingly aware of evolving customer needs, establishing models such as the "uberization," "community-based," "live-in," and "preventative" described in the chapter. These models are becoming more pervasive and are mostly market-driven; however, some of their innovations are market shaping. The major innovations are in their value propositions, partnership arrangements, and customer segments. Their value propositions focus on well-being outcomes, including choice and personalization for care users; their workforces are perceived to be a major stakeholder segment, and their networks of partners offer access to complementary services, investments, and specialist knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Anciano , Antropología Cultural , Comercio , Inglaterra , Humanos
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