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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 752481, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616710

RESUMEN

Economic shocks from COVID-19, coupled with ongoing US-China tensions, have raised debates around supply chain (or global value chain) organisation, with China at the centre of the storm. However, quantitative studies that consider the global and economy-wide impacts of rerouting supply chains are limited. This study examines the economic and emissions impacts of reorganising supply chains, using Australia-China trade as an example. It augments the Hypothetical Extraction Method by replacing traditional Input-Output analysis with a Computable General Equilibrium analysis. The estimation results demonstrate that in both exports and imports, a trade embargo between Australia and China - despite being compensated for by alternative supply chains-will cause gross domestic production losses and emissions increases for both countries and the world overall. Moreover, even though all other economies gain from the markets left by China, many of them incur overall gross domestic production losses and emission increases. The finding that the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and India may also suffer from an Australia-China trade embargo, despite a gain in trade volume, suggests that no country should add fuel to the fire. The results suggest that countries need to defend a rules-based trading regime and jointly address supply chain challenges.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Australia , China , Comercio , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(5): 542-545, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628769

RESUMEN

In recent years, with the wide application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment in clinical practice, the quality of the equipment causes adverse events, which put pressure on manufacturers, at the same time, it puts forward higher requirements for medical device supervisors. In order to help the medical device supervisors to clarify the key points of verification, this paper analyzes the main risk points in the production process of the product according to the medical device good manufacturing practice(GMP), and puts forward the suggestions for field verification, which has practical significance for the submission of verification efficiency.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
3.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113836, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649322

RESUMEN

Trade has been substantially influencing regional economic development, environmental sustainability, and human well-being. Enabled by the decomposition analysis, pollution haven hypothesis or "no-trade" scenarios (NTSs), the effects of trade on global/national social-economic-environmental development have been revealed. However, major limitations (e.g., using with-trade economic structures or neglecting price differences) existed in previous studies, and thus made the previous assessments of trade's effects unsatisfactorily. This study develops a novel NTS that addresses the existing limitations, and further applies it to estimate the effect of trade on global economic development and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We show that current international trade benefits the global economic growth but with a consequence of more GHG emissions compared with the NTS. The hypothetical production in small countries (e.g., Luxembourg or Japan) would be more constrained by the production factors (e.g., land) under the NTS, compared with those factor-endowment countries (e.g., the United States or India). For country-specific analysis, we find that today's developed countries would have a substantial increase in their GHG emissions of clothing- and service-related products under the NTS, whereas countries with net-export (e.g., China or Brazil) would have less GHG emissions under the NTS. Enhancing future global collaborations is vital, especially for small or resource-deficient economies, if they are to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Comercio , Desarrollo Económico , Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Internacionalidad
4.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113695, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649325

RESUMEN

The current global economy demands synergies between ecological responsiveness and business models. To analyse this dynamic, this study investigates the relationship between green innovation and corporate financial performance for German HDAX companies from 2008 to 2019 by constructing an green innovation measure. A two-step GMM system and penalised-spline estimation are used to test the linear relationship between green innovation and financial proxies (return on assets, return on invested capital, and the market-to-book ratio). The results indicate a linear positive effect of green innovation on different financial performance measures. This suggests that green innovation drives resource efficiency and enhances corporate reputation, which, in turn, boosts financial performance.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Organizaciones , China , Clima
5.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 92(10): 825-830, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642003

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Research has highlighted the significant impact that jet lag can have upon performance, health, and safety. International business travelers have an important role in economic growth; however, there is a lack of research investigating jet lag and jet-lag management in international business travelers. This study aimed to investigate international business travelers use of jet-lag countermeasures. METHODS: International business travelers from Australia (N = 107) participated in a survey examining use of jet-lag countermeasures (pharmacological and nonpharmacological). Chi-squared tests were conducted examining the association between duration of stay and traveling experience on jet-lag countermeasure use. RESULTS: Most subjects had traveled for business for less than 15 yr and 57% reported taking between 14 trips annually. Durations of stay averaged 10 d (SD 13 d). Nonpharmacological countermeasure use was high. Pharmacological countermeasure use was less common. There were no significant associations between duration of stay and countermeasure implementation. Travel experience was only associated with nonpharmacological countermeasures after arrival home. CONCLUSION: Education programs delivered through businesses would be beneficial for providing information on jet lag, its implications, and recommended countermeasures to travelers. Rigney G, Walters A, Bin YS, Crome E, Vincent GE. Jet-lag countermeasures used by international business travelers. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(10):825830.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Jet Lag , Viaje , Australia , Comercio , Humanos , Síndrome Jet Lag/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 51(4): 195-200, 2021 Jul 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645115

RESUMEN

The Painting Album of Cityscapes and Business was finished in the early Qing Dynasty with realism. This painting album described the prosperity in business and everyday life in Suzhou during the late Ming and the early Qing Dynasties. They were drawn and painted retrospectively, ie, the content of the pictures was based on existing paintings handed down. In the painting album, more than ten medical-related elements were specifically depicted, such as traditional Chinese medicine clinics and pharmacies and seven ophthalmology-related elements including one clinic specialized in ophthalmology, two spectacle shops, two people wearing eyeglasses and three blind people. Up to now, no specialized ophthalmology clinics and spectacle shops have been found in earlier literature and paintings. It can be speculated that the Painting Album of Cityscapes and Business is the earliest album of paintings depicting clinics specialized in ophthalmology and spectacle shops in China. This painting album provides important information for the study of the medical industry in Suzhou in the late Ming and the early Qing Dynasties, particularly, in terms of ophthalmology-related diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Oftalmología , Pinturas , China , Comercio , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 723084, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604162

RESUMEN

The Covid-19 outbreak has spread over the world, limiting population and trade, causing job losses, and forcing businesses to close. The study's goal is to look at Covid-19's pandemic and consumer survival as a mediator for the future of running a business when FMCG companies are doing well. The researchers employed a basic random sampling strategy to do a layered transverse evaluation of samples. EFA, CFA, and SEM are used to choose data collection techniques for participants at Covid-19. According to the data, Malaysia has resulted in job losses, business growth, and customer satisfaction retention, as well as an increase in unemployment, company closures, and a drop in overall GDP. The impact of the Covid-19 epidemic on survival, production, and GDP has been demonstrated. Incorporating technology into all aspects of a company's working practices reveals the necessity and capacity of the organization to adapt to new scenarios.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Comercio , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9863155, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539772

RESUMEN

Computer technology plays a prominent role in almost every aspect of daily life including education, health care, online shopping, advertising, and even in homes. Computers help to make daily tasks much easier and convenient. Among social media, YouTube is a well-known social sharing networking service. As more and more people join social media and become everyday users, brands have also increased their online engagement. However, it is still unclear how to effectively measure value and return on advertising using social media. As of 2021, more than 31 million YouTube channels around the globe have been opened. In this paper, we consider YouTube advertising to check its effectiveness and benefits gained. Certain statistical tools are adopted to measure the extent of advertising benefits and their correlation in creating effective advertising campaigns on YouTube. Simple linear regression analysis is performed on the data representing the YouTube advertising budget of a company and the sales data of that company. Furthermore, we develop a new statistical distribution to provide the best description of the YouTube advertising data. The result of this research shows that YouTube is an effective medium for advertising and has a strong relationship with sales.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Comercio , Humanos , Análisis de Regresión
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 395-411, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542107

RESUMEN

Rising per capita consumption, economic growth, and urbanisation, particularly in developing countries, have been driving an increased global demand for food. These changing socio-economic trends, which have greatly influenced changes in dietary patterns globally and, more specifically, have increased consumption of livestock products in developing countries, are expected to endure and to place new pressures on livestock-sector infrastructure and the delivery of veterinary services. This paper summarises current trade in meat and presents plausible projections for the future. It highlights the impact of animal disease on trade and considers the effect of ongoing disease outbreaks, particularly the outbreaks of African swine fever and COVID-19, on current and future trade dynamics. The authors analysed published statistics on the demand for, and international trade in, livestock products at national and regional levels and made projections of the same up to 2050, generated from an integrated model of the global agricultural and food system. The resulting analyses identified patterns of trade consistent with growing populations, increasing incomes and changing diets in developing countries. The analyses also pointed to slow expansion of livestock production, and the impacts of countries' disease status on livestock trade. For most of the livestock products analysed, economic model projections indicate increased consolidation of production and exports among a few countries. Marked increases in the trade in livestock products suggest a changing role for Veterinary Services in facilitating trade and extension in the years to come.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Porcina Africana , COVID-19 , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , COVID-19/veterinaria , Comercio , Países en Desarrollo , Internacionalidad , Ganado , SARS-CoV-2 , Porcinos
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7703152, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545283

RESUMEN

Currently, the development of sharing economy and interconnection also has a profound impact on community life services. This study is based on the deep neural network theory, combined with the evolution mechanism of the commercial network of the community life service industry, link prediction theory, and the latest deep neural network algorithm, referring to the evolution model of merger and stripping, and the network structure is optimized on this basis. Through simulation experiments and result analysis, the model is used to deeply study the evolution trend and dynamics of the community life service business network from the perspective of quantitative analysis. Then the business network structure is optimized and development is promoted at the same time. At the same time, it can also upgrade those old scattered industries and provide theoretical and decision-making guidance for the future transformation and upgrading of the innovative community life service industry.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Comercio , Industrias
12.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021048, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525776

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine whether the regional density of tobacco outlets in Korea was associated with the likelihood of attempting to quit among smokers. METHODS: This study was designed as a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study. Data from the 2015 Korean Community Health Survey and tobacco outlet registrations in 17 metropolitan cities and provinces with 254 communities in Korea were used for the analysis. In total, 41,013 current smokers (≥19 years of age) were included. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate regional differences associated with smokers' attempts to quit and to evaluate the effects of individual and regional characteristics on quit attempts. RESULTS: Higher tobacco outlet density was associated with lower odds of attempting to quit. Smokers who resided in districts with the highest tobacco outlet density were 18% less likely to attempt quitting (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98) than smokers who resided in the regions with the lowest tobacco outlet density (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that quit attempts were related to community-level factors, such as tobacco outlet density, as well as other individual factors. These findings support the implementation of national policies restricting the number of tobacco outlets within communities or zones and limiting tobacco marketing in tobacco outlets.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/provisión & distribución , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multinivel , República de Corea/epidemiología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(3): 197-204, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473449

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This article provides examples of the application of technology transfer to improve the delivery of addiction prevention, treatment, and recovery. The article describes a case example of two regional Technology Transfer Centers (TTCs) focused on addiction and mental health. It illustrates the importance of cross-regional and network-wide activities as well as meaningful collaborations with other regional networks, professional associations, and state and federal entities. This article describes a model of identifying and delivering meaningful training and technical assistance (T/TA), which also advances interprofessional collaborations and shared ownership. The described model includes collaboration in assessing behavioral health T/TA needs and preference for delivery of T/TA. The case study presents the process of engaging providers and connecting them with content experts on emerging topics in the field of addiction. This work included T/TA around integrated care, co-occurring disorders, cultural humility and inclusion, and use of data to advance system care. The case also outlines the application and use of evidence-based translation models, including Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) and Communities of Practice.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Psiquiatría , Humanos , Salud Mental , Transferencia de Tecnología , Recursos Humanos
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 5995008, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475947

RESUMEN

Marketing means the strategies and tactics an organization undertakes for attracting consumers to promote the buying or selling of a product or service. Active marketing is about receiving messages from potential buyers to create ways to influence their purchasing decisions. Advertising is one of the most prominent marketing strategies to promote products to consumers. It is well known that advertisement has a significant impact on the sale of certain goods or services. In this paper, we consider two mediums of advertisement, such as Facebook (which is an online medium) and Newspaper (which is a printed medium). We consider a dataset representing the advertising budget (in hundreds of US dollars) of an electronic company and the sales of that company. We apply the quantitative research approach, and the data which are used in this research are secondary data. For analysis purposes, we consider a statistical tool called simple linear regression modeling. To check the significance of the advertising on sale, definite statistical tests are applied. Based on the findings of this research, it is observed that advertising has a significant impact on sales. It is also showed that spending money on advertising through Facebook has better sales than newspapers. The finding of this research shows that the use of computer-based technologies and online mediums has a brighter future for advertising. Furthermore, a new statistical model is introduced using the Z family approach. The proposed model is very interesting and possesses heavy-tailed properties. Finally, the applicability of the proposed model is illustrated by considering the financial dataset.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Comercio , Humanos , Mercadotecnía
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 6035022, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475948

RESUMEN

In recent years, with the rapid increase of the business volume of housing mortgage loans of commercial banks, the risk of prepayment is increasingly exposed. Prepayment will have a great impact on the duration and convexity of housing mortgage loans of commercial banks and then bring difficulties to the asset liability management of banks. Therefore, empirical research on the changes of duration and convexity of housing mortgage loans caused by prepayment when the market interest rate changes is of great significance for commercial banks to manage interest rate risk exposure. Based on the analysis of the option characteristics of prepayable housing mortgage loan, the CIR model with GARCH(1, 1) is selected to describe the interest rate change path, and the computer simulation method is used to calculate OAS and then calculate the effective duration and effective convexity of housing mortgage loan under different prepayment rates, so as to understand the interest rate risk of housing mortgage loan in the presence of embedded option.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Vivienda , Simulación por Computador
16.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 100, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pesticides can have negative effects on human and environmental health, especially when not handled as intended. In many countries, agro-input dealers sell pesticides to smallholder farmers and are supposed to provide recommendations on application and handling. This study investigates the role of agro-input dealers in transmitting safety information from chemical manufacturers to smallholder farmers, assesses the safety of their shops, what products they sell, and how agro-input dealers abide by laws and recommendations on best practices for preventing pesticide risk situations. METHODS: Applying a mixed-methods approach, we studied agro-input dealers in Central and Western Uganda. Structured questionnaires were applied to understand agro-input dealers' knowledge, attitude and practices on pesticides (n = 402). Shop layout (n = 392) and sales interaction (n = 236) were assessed through observations. Actual behavior of agro-input dealers when selling pesticides was revealed through mystery shopping with local farmers buying pesticides (n = 94). RESULTS: While 97.0% of agro-input dealers considered advising customers their responsibility, only 26.6% of mystery shoppers received any advice from agro-input dealers when buying pesticides. 53.2% of products purchased were officially recommended. Sales interactions focused mainly on product choice and price. Agro-input dealers showed limited understanding of labels and active ingredients. Moreover, 25.0% of shops were selling repackaged products, while 10.5% sold unmarked or unlabeled products. 90.1% of shops were lacking safety equipment. Pesticides of World Health Organization toxicity class I and II were sold most frequently. Awareness of health effects seemed to be high, although agro-input dealers showed incomplete hygiene practices and were lacking infrastructure. One reason for these findings might be that only 55.7% of agro-input dealers held a certificate of competency on safe handling of pesticides and even fewer (5.7%) were able to provide a government-approved up-to-date license. CONCLUSION: The combination of interviews, mystery shopping and observations proved to be useful, allowing the comparison of stated and actual behavior. While agro-input dealers want to sell pesticides and provide the corresponding risk advice, their customers might receive neither the appropriate product nor sufficient advice on proper handling. In light of the expected increase in pesticide use, affordable, accessible and repeated pesticide training and shop inspections are indispensable.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Agricultores , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Seguridad , Uganda
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(38): 52780-52797, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472028

RESUMEN

Due to the lack of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission data on China's logistics industry, this study uses the industry stripping method to calculate the embodied energy consumption CO2 emissions based on input-output tables for China's logistics industry from 1997 to 2017. And then the Log-Mean Divisia Index method is used to decompose the influencing factors of carbon emission from five aspects. The empirical study mainly focused on the application of carbon emission tools and approaches in China, and this resulted in four key findings. First, the use of transportation, warehousing, and postal industries as a proxy for the logistics is simply not in line with reality and could result in greatly underestimating the CO2 emissions of logistics. Second, the annual direct CO2 accounts for roughly 40% in the embodied CO2 emissions in the logistics industry. Third, construction industry makes a greater contribution to the embodied CO2 of the logistics industry, followed by manufacturing. Fourth, economic output, population size, industrial structure, and energy structure are factors that contributed to the increase of logistics CO2 emissions, while the restraining factors included energy intensity. There is immense scope for adjustment in the energy and industrial structures.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Industria de la Construcción , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Comercio , Desarrollo Económico
18.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 75, 2021 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493309

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of health-related food taxes on substitution and complementary purchases within food groups, including from unhealthier to healthier alternatives and between brands. METHODS: We used data from a virtual supermarket experiment with data from 4,259 shopping events linked to varying price sets. Substitution or complementary effects within six frequently purchased food categories were analyzed. Products' own- and cross-price elasticities were analyzed using Almost Ideal Demand System models. RESULTS: Overall, 37.5% of cross-price elasticities were significant (p < 0.05) and included values greater than 0.10. Supplementary and complementary effects were particularly found in the dairy, meats and snacks categories. For example, a 1% increase in the price of high saturated fat dairy was associated with a 0.18% (SE 0.06%) increase in purchases of low saturated fat dairy. For name- and home-brand products, significant substitution effects were found in 50% (n = 3) of cases, but only in one case this was above the 0.10 threshold. CONCLUSIONS/POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Given the relatively low own-price elasticities and the limited substitution and complementary effects, relatively high taxes are needed to substantively increase healthy food purchases at the population level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study included secondary analyses; the original trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000122459 .


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Preferencias Alimentarias , Australia , Humanos , Bocadillos , Impuestos
20.
F1000Res ; 10: 285, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457241

RESUMEN

Background: There have been many studies conducted on succession, which can be considered as the most important issue in family businesses. However, most of these previous studies have focused only on the early stage of succession, uncovering the role of the predecessor and the successor. Only a few studies have made efforts to examine the total lifecycle of succession. The purpose of this study is to explore the process of the transition in successors' behavior and mindset while managing long-lived small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises throughout the lifecycle of succession. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six successors of small and medium-sized manufacturing companies who are more than half a century old. Their answers were analyzed using the Modified-GTA method to construct a hypothetical model. Results: In total, 46 concepts, four categories, 17 subcategories, and one core category were generated. An analysis result diagram using all concepts and categories was formed. From the observation of this diagram, the successors gained confidence in management through the dilemma between autonomy and constraint in the early stage of succession, which was found in previous research. Following the initial stage, the successors responded to the crisis caused by market constraints and created autonomous strategies in their businesses. Conclusions: By experiencing repetitive crises, the successors tend to acquire new perspectives toward the naturally occurring crises. This change of premise by the successors is considered as the process of double-loop learning. Relationships inside and outside the company influence the generation of this viewpoint. From a long-term perspective, a sense of unity with employees, stable employment, and the pursuit of enjoyment constitute the successors' own values in this model.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Comercio , Japón , Investigación Cualitativa
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