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1.
J. Health NPEPS ; 6(1)jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147344

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar a letalidade da COVID-19 por sexo e idade entre os profissionais de saúde do Estado Pará, Brasil. Método: estudo epidemiológico e observacional, com utilização de dados secundários públicos sobre casos e óbitos acumulados por COVID-19 e dados demográficos, entre março e outubro de 2020. O número de casos e óbitos por COVID-19 ocorridos entre profissionais de saúde foram comparados em relação à idade e ao sexo pelo teste qui-quadrado, seguido por regressão logística pelo método Backward Stepwise de Wald. Resultados: entre os 15.332 casos confirmados de COVID-19, 70,3% eram do sexo feminino e 61,3% com idade entre 30 a 49 anos (39,2±11,6 anos). Registraram-se 97 óbitos, com uma taxa de letalidade de 0,6%. A probabilidade de óbito foi 52,8 vezes (20,7-134,5) e 4,0 vezes (2,5-6,2) maior entre jovens e homens quando comparados às demais notificações. Conclusão: a taxa de letalidade entre os profissionais de saúde é alta, especialmente entre homens jovens. Este é um alerta sobre os impactos da doença entre os trabalhadores da saúde e suscita ao poder público, especificamente ao setor saúde melhores condições de trabalho e políticas de saúde do trabalhador.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the lethality of COVID-19 by sex and age among health professionals in the state of Pará, Brazil. Method: epidemiological and observational study, using public secondary data on cases and deaths accumulated by COVID-19 and demographic data, between March and October 2020. The number of cases and deaths by COVID-19 that occurred among health professionals were compared in relation to age and sex using the chi-square test, followed by logistic regression using Wald's Backward Stepwise method. Results: among the 15,332 confirmed cases of COVID-19, 70.3% were female and 61.3% aged between 30 and 49 years (39.2 ± 11.6 years). 97 deaths were recorded, with a fatality rate of 0.6%. The probability of death was 52.8 times (20.7-134.5) and 4.0 times (2.5-6.2) higher among young men and men when compared to other reports. Conclusion: the lethality rate among health professionals is high, especially among young men. This is an alert about the impacts of the disease among health workers and raises the public authorities, specifically the health sector, better working conditions and worker health policies.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar la letalidad de COVID-19 por sexo y edad en profesionales de la salud en el estado de Pará, Brasil. Método: estudio epidemiológico y observacional, utilizando datos secundarios públicos sobre casos y defunciones acumulados por COVID-19 y datos demográficos, entre marzo y octubre de 2020. Se comparó el número de casos y defunciones por COVID-19 ocurridos entre profesionales de la salud en relación con edad y sexo usando la prueba de chi-cuadrado, seguida de regresión logística usando el método de Wald Backward Stepwise. Resultados: entre los 15.332 casos confirmados de COVID-19, el 70,3% eran mujeres y el 61,3% tenían entre 30 y 49 años (39,2 ± 11,6 años). Se registraron 97 muertes, con una tasa de letalidad del 0,6%. La probabilidad de muerte fue 52,8 veces (20,7-134,5) y 4,0 veces (2,5-6,2) más grande entre hombres y jóvenes en comparación con otros informes. Conclusión: la tasa de letalidad entre los profesionales de la salud es alta, especialmente entre los hombres jóvenes. Se trata de una alerta sobre los impactos de la enfermedad entre los trabajadores de la salud y plantea a las autoridades públicas, específicamente al sector salud, mejores condiciones laborales y políticas de salud laboral.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud Laboral , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Política de Salud , Brasil , Estudios Epidemiológicos
2.
Rev. mex. ing. bioméd ; 42(1): e1110, Jan.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156801

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT A new coronavirus denominated first 2019-nCoV and later SARS-CoV-2 was found in Wuhan, China in December of 2019. This paper compares three mathematical methods: nonlinear regression, SIR, and SEIR epidemic models, to track the covid-19 disease in nine countries affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, to help epidemiologists to know the disease trajectory, considering initial data in the pandemic, mainly 100 days from the beginning. To evaluate the results obtained with the three methods one-way ANOVA is applied. The average of predicted infected cases with SARS-CoV-2, obtained with the mentioned methods was: for United States of America 1,098,508, followed by Spain with 226,721, Italy with 202,953, France with 183,897 United Kingdom with 182,190, Germany with 159,407, Canada with 58,696, Mexico with 50,366 and Argentina with 4,860 in average. The one-way ANOVA does not show a significant difference among the results of the projected infected cases by SARS-CoV-2, using nonlinear regression, SIR, and SEIR epidemic methods. The above could mean that initially any method can be used to model the pandemic course.


RESUMEN Un nuevo coronavirus denominado primero 2019-nCoV y más tarde SARS-CoV-2 fue encontrado en Wuhan, China en diciembre de 2019. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar tres métodos matemáticos: regresión no lineal, modelos epidemiológicos SIR y SEIR, para rastrear la enfermedad del COVID-19 en nueve países infectados por el virus SARS-CoV-2, con el propósito de ayudar al epidemiólogo a conocer el curso de la pandemia, considerando principalmente sus primeros 100 días. Para evaluar los resultados obtenidos de la aplicación de los tres métodos, se aplicó ANOVA de una vía. El número promedio de casos infectados con SARS-CoV-2, obtenidos con los tres métodos descritos son: para Estados Unidos 1,098,508, seguido de España con 226,721, Italia con 202,953, Francia con 183,897 Reino Unido con 182,190, Alemania con 159,407, Canadá con 58,696, México con 50,366 y Argentina con 4,860 en promedio. El ANOVA de una vía no muestra diferencias significativas entre los resultados de los casos infectados proyectados por SARS-CoV-2, utilizando la regresión no lineal y los métodos SIR and SEIR. Lo anterior podría señalar que cualquiera de los tres métodos estudiados puede modelar el curso de la pandemia en las condiciones descritas para cada uno.

3.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(1): 19-29, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152665

RESUMEN

RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar e identificar a partir de cacao fermentado en Caldas Colombia, bacterias con potencial de aplicación en procesos biotecnológicos, como la detoxificación de cadmio (Cd(II)) y arsénico (As(III)) en el organismo humano. En total se recuperaron 36 aislados de los cuales se recuperaron 11 en presencia de 1,0 mg/L de Cd(II) y 25 en presencia de 0,1 mg/L de As(III). Su identificación molecular determinó que la mayoría de los aislados son del género Lactobacillus. Los ensayos de crecimiento en presencia de diferentes concentraciones de los elementos evaluados permitió determinar que gran parte de los aislamientos presentan resistencia a mayores concentraciones de As(III) (300 mg/L) que de Cd(II) (10 mg/L). En ensayos de tolerancia a la acidez (pH 2,5) se encontró que la cepa tipo Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1055, junto con los aislamientos nativos L. plantarum A19, A26 y C16, mostraron la mayor tolerancia, por lo que se seleccionaron para evaluar su tolerancia a condiciones de salinidad. Las bacterias evaluadas mostraron crecimiento en concentraciones de hasta 4 g/L de sales biliares. Se concluye que los L. plantarum evaluados en este trabajo tienen un gran potencial para futuros ensayos en los que se busque demostrar la disminución de la bioaccesibilidad de Cd(II) y As(III) en condiciones in vitro del sistema digestivo humano debido a su resistencia a altas concentraciones de estos elementos y su tolerancia a condiciones de acidez y salinidad. Esto, junto con el reconocido potencial probiótico que tienen estos microorganismos, permitirá a futuro su uso en procesos biológicos de mitigación de Cd(II) y As(III).


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to isolate and identify from fermented cocoa in Caldas Colombia, bacteria with potential application in biotechnological processes such as detoxification of cadmium (Cd(II)) and arsenic (As(III)) in the human organism. In total, 36 isolates were obtained, from which 11 were recovered in the presence of 1.0 mg/L of Cd(II) and 25 in presence of 0.1 mg/L of As(III). Molecular identification showed most isolates belong to the genera Lactobacillus. Minimum inhibitory concentration assays, in presence of different concentrations of the elements, allowed to determine that the majority of isolates have resistance to higher concentration of As(III) (300 mg/L) than Cd(II) (10 mg/L). Acidity tolerance assays at pH 2.5 showed that type strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1055, and native isolates L. plantarum A19, A26, and C16, presented the highest tolerance, thus they were selected to evaluate their tolerance to salinity conditions. The evaluated bacteria could grow in bile salts up to 4 g/L. It is concluded that the evaluated L. plantarum have great potential to be used in assays in which bioaccessibility of Cd(II) and As(III) is diminished under in vitro conditions of the human digestive system, due to its resistance to high concentrations of the elements and tolerance to acidic and high bile salt conditions. These facts, together with the recognized probiotic potential of these microorganisms, may allow their future use in biological processes to mitigate Cd(II) and As(III).

4.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(1): 99-104, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152673

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Predator species under field conditions can face different and variable densities of prey species. This work evaluated the functional response of the neotropical lady beetle Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) subjected to different densities of the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae and Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Thus, predation rates were analyzed of fourth-instar larvae and one-day old adults of the lady beetle preying upon the aphids at constant densities of 20, 40, 50, 60, and 70 aphids with 15 repetitions per density. The aphids were offered on 5 cm leaf discs of each plant host. The handling times and attack rates were 0.03 h-1 and 0.27 h-1 for larvae and 0.03 h-1 and 0.15 h-1 for adults fed B. brassicae and 0.59 h-1 and 0.35 h-1 for larvae and 0.70 h-1 and 0.95 h-1 for adults fed A. craccivora, respectively. Both larva and adult lady beetles increased predation rate as a function of prey density offered, with an estimated maximum number of prey consumed of 30.3 and 31.6 B. brassicae and 36.3 and 34.6 of A. craccivora by larva and adult lady beetles at the highest prey density, respectively. In conclusion, larvae and adults of E. connexa exhibited a type II functional response.


RESUMEN Las especies de depredadores en condiciones de campo pueden enfrentar densidades diferentes y variables de sus presas. Este trabajo evaluó la respuesta funcional de la mariquita neotropical Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) sometida a diferentes densidades de los pulgones Brevicoryne brassicae y Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Se analizaron las tasas de depredación de larvas de cuarto estadio y adultos de un día de vida en las densidades constantes de 20, 40, 50, 60 y 70 pulgones con 15 repeticiones por densidad. Los pulgones se ofrecieron en discos de 5 cm de hojas de la planta huésped. Los tiempos de manejo y las tasas de ataque fueron 0.03 h-1 y 0.27 h-1 para larvas y 0.03 h-1 y 0.15 h-1 para adultos alimentados con B. brassicae y 0.59 h-1 y 0.35 h-1 para larvas y 0.70 h-1 y 0.95 h-1 para adultos alimentados con A. craccivora, respectivamente. Las larvas y las mariquitas adultas aumentaron la tasa de depredación en función de la densidad de presas ofrecidas, con un número máximo estimado de presas consumidas de 30.3 y 31.6 de B. brassicae y 36.3 y 34.6 de A. craccivora para larvas y mariquitas adultas a la mayor densidad de presas, respectivamente. En conclusión, las larvas y los adultos de E. connexa exhibieron una respuesta funcional del tipo II.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53413

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To assess the association between childhood hunger experiences and the prevalence of chronic diseases later in life. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil), a nationally representative study of persons aged 50 years and older (n = 9 412). Univariate and bivariate analyses were used to describe the sample, and multivariate logistic regressions to examine the association between childhood hunger and hypertension, diabetes, arthritis and osteoporosis. Adjusted odds ratios and predicted probabilities were calculated. Results. 24.7% of Brazilians aged 50 and over experienced hunger during childhood. This harmful exposure was significantly more common among non-white people, individuals with lower educational attainment, lower household income and heavy manual laborers. Regional variation was also observed, as the prevalence of individuals reporting childhood hunger was higher in the North and Northeast regions. The multivariate analysis revealed that older adults who reported having experienced hunger during childhood had 20% higher odds of developing diabetes in adulthood (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.41) and 38% higher odds of developing osteoporosis (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.64) than adults who did not experience hunger during childhood, after controlling for covariates. Conclusions. The study showed an association between childhood hunger and two chronic diseases in later life: diabetes and osteoporosis. This work restates that investing in childhood conditions is a cost-effective way to have a healthy society and provides evidence on relationships that deserve further investigation to elucidate underlying mechanisms.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Evaluar la asociación entre las experiencias de hambre en la niñez y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas en las etapas posteriores de la vida. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal utilizando como línea de base los datos del Estudio Longitudinal del Envejecimiento en Brasil (ELSI-Brasil), un estudio nacional representativo de personas de 50 años o más (n = 9 412). Se emplearon análisis univariado y bivariado para describir la muestra, y regresión logística multivariada para examinar la asociación entre el hambre en la niñez y la hipertensión, la diabetes, la artritis y la osteoporosis. Se calcularon las razones de posibilidades ajustadas y las probabilidades previstas. Resultados. El 24,7% de los brasileños de 50 años o más pasó hambre en la niñez. Esta experiencia perjudicial fue considerablemente más común en las personas no blancas, las personas con menor nivel de instrucción, las personas con ingresos familiares bajos y los trabajadores de mano de obra pesada. También se observó una variación regional, puesto que la prevalencia de individuos que expresaron haber pasado hambre en la niñez fue mayor en las regiones Norte y Nordeste. Luego de controlar las covariables, el análisis multifactorial reveló que los adultos mayores que dijeron haber pasado hambre en la niñez tenían una probabilidad 20% mayor de tener diabetes en la edad adulta (aOR = 1,20, IC 95%: 1,02 – 1,41) y 38% mayor de tener osteoporosis (aOR = 1,38, IC 95%: 1,15 – 1,64) que los adultos que no habían pasado hambre en la niñez. Conclusiones. El estudio reveló una asociación entre el hambre en la niñez y dos enfermedades crónicas en las etapas posteriores de la vida: la diabetes y la osteoporosis. Este trabajo reafirma que invertir en las condiciones de vida de las personas en la niñez es una manera costoeficaz de tener una sociedad saludable, al tiempo que aporta evidencia acerca de relaciones que merecen investigarse más a fin de esclarecer los mecanismos subyacentes.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Avaliar a associação entre a experiência de passar fome na infância e a prevalência posterior de doenças crônicas. Métodos. Um estudo transversal foi realizado a partir de dados básicos do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde dos Idosos Brasileiros (ELSI-Brasil), uma pesquisa com representatividade nacional realizada com pessoas de 50 anos ou mais (n = 9.412). Análises univariadas e bivariadas foram usadas para descrever a amostra e a regressão logística multivariada foi aplicada para examinar a associação entre passar fome na infância e hipertensão, diabetes, artrite e osteoporose. Foram calculadas razões de chances (odds ratio, OR) ajustadas e probabilidades previstas. Resultados. Verificou-se que 24,7% dos brasileiros com 50 anos ou mais passaram fome na infância. Esta exposição prejudicial foi significativamente mais frequente em pessoas não brancas, com nível de instrução menor e renda familiar mais baixa e em trabalhadores braçais. Observou-se também uma variação regional, com uma maior prevalência de pessoas que relataram ter passado fome na infância nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste. Na análise multivariada, nos idosos que informaram ter passado fome na infância, a probabilidade foi 20% maior de ter diabetes na idade adulta (ORaj 1,20; IC 95% 1,02–1,41) e 38% maior de ter osteoporose (ORaj 1,38, IC 95% 1,15–1,64) em comparação aos adultos que não passaram fome na infância, após o controle de covariáveis. Conclusões. O estudo demonstrou associação entre passar fome na infância e duas doenças crônicas na vida adulta: diabetes e osteoporose. Este trabalho reitera que investir na infância é uma maneira custo-efetiva de se criar uma sociedade saudável e fornece evidências sobre relações que devem ser pesquisadas mais a fundo para esclarecer os processos subjacentes.


Asunto(s)
Hambre , Enfermedad Crónica , Envejecimiento , Diabetes Mellitus , Osteoporosis , Brasil , Hambre , Enfermedad Crónica , Envejecimiento , Brasil , Hambre , Enfermedad Crónica , Envejecimiento , Osteoporosis
6.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818557

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals are often subjected to demanding working conditions, and both burnout and work engagement are psychological reactions that develop when personality traits interact with the characteristics of the work. The objective of this study was to analyse the factors that influence burnout and work engagement levels among healthcare professionals. METHODS: A systematic review of articles published between January 2015 and October 2020 was conducted in the Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect electronic databases, following the PRISMA format. Methodological quality was assessed through the critical evaluation tools for non-randomised studies by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). RESULTS: A total of 27 studies were included in this review. Moderate levels of work engagement and low levels of burnout were observed among healthcare professionals. Job demands (work overload, shift type, negative events, type of service, etc.) and personal, situational, and organisational resources (psychological capital, social support, ability to express emotions, personal values, feeling self-fulfilled, among others) may be factors that influence work engagement and burnout levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide implications for the design, assessment and effectiveness of workplace interventions towards reducing the risk of burnout and improving work engagement levels among healthcare professionals.

7.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(3): e00216620, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825801

RESUMEN

The goal of this study is to characterize the population of older adults in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic with regard to health, socioeconomic conditions, gender inequality, adherence to social distancing and feelings of sadness or depression. It is a cross-sectional study carried out with Brazilian older adults who responded to an online health survey (N = 9,173), using a "virtual snowball" sampling method. Data were collected online via a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence and confidence interval estimates were performed and verified for independence using Pearson's chi-square test. During the pandemic there was a fall in household income among almost half of older adults. Extreme social distancing was practiced by 30.9% (95%CI: 27.8; 34.1) and 12.2% (95%CI: 10.1; 14.7) did not adhere to it. Older adults who were not working before the pandemic adhered in greater numbers to extreme social distancing measures. Most of them presented comorbidities associated with a higher risk of developing the severe form of COVID-19. Feelings of loneliness, distress and sadness were frequent among older adults, especially women. The COVID-19 pandemic widened the inequality gap by affecting the most vulnerable older people. Strategies to mitigate loneliness and social distancing should consider social vulnerability and the marked difference between men and women in terms of household composition and socioeconomic and working conditions. The development of representative surveys of Brazilian older adults is recommended, investigating the impact of the pandemic on this population.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 24(1): 20-33, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197118

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: La promoción de la salud en el trabajo integra las iniciativas en salud y seguridad en ámbito ocupacional, con mejoras personales, incremento de productividad y menores riesgos y gastos sociales, especialmente en migraña, como enfermedad neurológica con prevalencia estimada en el 11% de la población. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer las condiciones preventivas de los trabajadores con migraña y las opciones de gestión preventiva en sus empresas. MÉTODO: Estudio observacional transversal realizado en 3.342 pacientes de España, Italia, Francia, Portugal, Irlanda, Reino Unido, Alemania y otros países de la UE mediante encuesta anónima en la web de la European Migraine & Headache Alliance (EMHA-web), entre septiembre de 2018 y enero de 2019. RESULTADOS: Estrés laboral y uso de PVD son los riesgos más referidos por los trabajadores con migraña. El 43.71% de trabajadores desconoce el tipo de Servicio de Prevención de su empresa, 49.06% no dispone de servicio médico; el 67.67% no ha tenido impedimentos de acceso laboral por migraña, ni despido o no renovación del contrato, pero el 42,14% tuvo algún conflicto por pérdida de productividad; el 26,54% desconoce el concepto de especial sensibilidad o no lo ha solicitado por migraña; un 55,42% no se ha sentido comprendido ni apoyado por su empresa en sus limitaciones por migraña, pero sí por los compañeros. CONCLUSIÓN: Se observa una deficiente información preventiva y escaso uso de las opciones de gestión adaptativa en las empresas para personas con migraña


INTRODUCTION: Workplace health promotion integrates initiatives in health and safety in the occupational field, with personal improvements, increased productivity and lower risks and social cost, especially with respect to migraine headaches, a neurological disorder affecting approximately 11% of the population. The objective of this study was to know the preventive resources available to workers with migraine headaches and the preventive management options in their companies. METHOD: Cross-sectional observational study of 3,342 patients from Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany and other European Union countries, conducted through an anonymous survey on the web of the European Migraine & Headache Alliance (EMHA-web), from September 2018 to January 2019. RESULTS: Occupational stress (77.65%) and use of computer monitors (63.87%) are the most common risks described by workers with migraine. About. 43.71% of workers are not familiar with the type of occupational health service present in their company, 49.06% do not have a medical service; 67.67% reported no work-related limitations due to migraine, neither dismissal nor non-renewal of their contract (88.29%), but 42.14% had experienced some conflict due to decreased productivity; 26.54% were unaware of the concept of vulnerable workers or had not requested this status because of their migraine (63.8%), nor had they demanded job accommodations (67.64%) or job change (80.89%); 55.42% did not feel understood or supported by their company in their limitations due to migraine, although they did feel they were supported by their colleagues (63.07%). CONCLUSION: We found that preventive resources and information were deficient, and that there was little use of adaptive management options for workers with migraine in their companies


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Trastornos Migrañosos/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud del Trabajador/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgos Laborales , Lugar de Trabajo , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología
9.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(1): 21-28, 10 de marzo de 2021.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177399

RESUMEN

Las Enfermedades de Transmisión Vectorial contribuyen de manera importante a la carga mundial de morbilidad afectando de manera especial a las poblaciones de los países en desarrollo. Ecuador es un país tropical, con condiciones climáticas favorables a para albergar mosquitos de las especies Aedes que son vectores activos de arbovirosis como el dengue, el zika, el chikungunya y la fiebre amarilla para las no existe un tratamiento específico ni métodos efectivos de inmunización, y la única forma de controlar la transmisión está dirigida hacia sus vectores. El uso de insecticidas químicos ha sido la forma más utilizada en los programas de Control, siendo Temephos, Deltametrina y Malathion los más comunes en Ecuador en la actualidad. El uso de los insecticidas tiene un efecto dual sobre la salud pública: Positivo, gracias al control que brinda a los vectores transmisores de ETV; y Negativo, traducido en los riesgos para la salud de trabajadores expuestos directamente y de la población en general causando efectos agudos y crónicos. El reconocimiento como trabajo de alto riesgo a la tarea de los fumigadores de Ecuador dado por el mayor ente ambiental del país, permite que se tomen las acciones necesarias para garantizar su salud y de ésta manera pueda verse reducido el impacto negativo, adoptando mejores y más eficientes métodos y equipos que sean seguros en la aplicación de insecticidas de control vectorial.


Vector-borne diseases contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, particularly affecting populations in developing countries. Ecuador is a tropical country, with favorable climatic conditions to house mosquitoes of Aedes species that are active vectors of arbovirosis such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever for which there is no specific treatment or effective method of immunization, and the only way to control transmission is to target their vectors. The use of chemical insecticides has been the most used form in Control programs, being Temephos, Deltametrina and Malathion the most common in Ecuador today. The use of insecticides has a dual effect on public health: Positive, thanks to the control provided to ETV transmitter vectors; and Negative, translated into the health risks to directly exposed workers and the general population causing acute and chronic effects. The recognition as high-risk work of the work of the Ecuadorian fumigators given by the largest environmental entity in the country, allows the necessary actions to be taken to guarantee their health and in this way the negative impact can be reduced, adopting better and more efficient methods and equipment that are safe in the application of vector control insecticides.

10.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 50(1): 22-28, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648691

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Resident physicians who work more hours a day are prone to suffer mental health problems such as depression, a subject that has been little studied. In this regard, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to evaluate the association between the number of daily working hours and depressive symptoms in Peruvian residents. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study that used the database of the National Survey for Resident Physicians-2016, a voluntary survey issued virtually by the National Council of Medical Residency of Peru to physicians who were undertaking their residency in Peru. The presence of depressive symptoms was considered as having obtained a score ≥3 with the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 scale. The number of hours worked each day was collected through a direct question. To assess the association of interest, prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using crude and adjusted Poisson regressions with robust variance. RESULTS: The responses of 953 residents (41.3% women, mean age: 32.5 years) were evaluated, 14.6% of which presented depressive symptoms. In the adjusted analysis, it was found that the prevalence of depressive symptoms increased for each additional hour worked (PR=1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17). CONCLUSIONS: One in seven residents had depressive symptoms. For every extra daily working hour, the frequency of depressive symptoms increased by 11%.

11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 37, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752603

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the change in health status of the general public after starting the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with changes in workload and lifestyle. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted in November 2020, about 9 months after starting the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, among 8000 Japanese men and women aged 25-64 years. Participants asked for the changes after starting the COVID-19 pandemic in health status, workload, daily life, and health behavior. Ordinal logistic regression was performed to elucidate factors associated with deterioration in general health status. RESULTS: A deterioration in general health status was reported by 17.0% of male and 19.4% of female. There has been a clear shift to sedentary life with decreasing moderate activity and increasing screen time. The multivariate analysis revealed that deteriorated work style, increased burden of housework, decreased moderate activity, increased digital media exposure, and increased body weight were significantly associated with deteriorating health status. CONCLUSION: Both men and women have experienced significant changes in workload and lifestyle since the COVID-19 pandemic started. People should be aware of the risks associated with their recent life changes and take self-care measures to prevent serious health consequences.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Estilo de Vida , Carga de Trabajo , Adulto , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e23718, 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663038

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Pain as a result of cervical radiculopathy (CR) can be widespread, nondermatomal and individually specific, but the association between pain extent and other clinical features has never been explored. The objective of this study is to investigate whether pain extent relates to clinical variables including pain intensity in addition to health indicators including disability, general health, depression, somatic anxiety, coping strategies or self-efficacy.An observational cohort study was conducted. Participants were recruited from 4 hospital spinal centres in Sweden. Pain extent was quantified from the pain drawings of 190 individuals with cervical disc disease, verified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compatible with clinical findings (examined by a neurosurgeon), that show cervical nerve root compression. Pain extent was evaluated in relation to neck pain, arm pain, and headache intensity. Multiple linear regression analysis were then used to verify whether pain extent was associated with other health indicators including disability, health-related quality of life, depression, somatic anxiety, coping strategies and self-efficacy.Pain extent was directly related to neck, arm and headache pain intensity (all P < .01). Multiple linear regression revealed that pain extent was significantly associated only to the level of perceived disability (P < .01).Increased pain extent in people with CR is associated with higher headache, neck and arm pain intensity, and disability but not measures of general health, depression, somatic anxiety, coping strategies or self-efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Estado de Salud , Dolor/etiología , Dolor/psicología , Radiculopatía/complicaciones , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Vértebras Cervicales , Depresión/etiología , Personas con Discapacidad , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dimensión del Dolor , Calidad de Vida , Autoeficacia , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Suecia , Evaluación de Capacidad de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
13.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735008

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the working and non-working conditions related to depressive symptoms in informal workers in the centre of Medellín in 2015-2019. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with analytical intention and primary sources of information. Data collection with assisted survey in one of its union headquarters in 2016, after a pilot test and standardisation of pollsters. A total of 291 women workers were taken as a census, and their working and non-working conditions were explored. RESULTS: The women had an average age of 45 years, ≤5 years of schooling, low and middle-income housing, and income below the 2016 minimum wage. About 60% suffered moderate-severe food insecurity, and received no state benefits. They were mainly the head of the family, with 1 or 2 dependents, and were responsible for the work at home. They worked at least 8hours a day, 6 or 7 days a week, with parents or relatives selling in the street, and at least 20 years in their work. About 60% had a partner, 21.6% with family dysfunction, and 15.4% moderate-severe depressive symptoms. Living in one room or a slum, with a low socioeconomic status and moderate-severe family dysfunction were associated with, and contributed to the explanation of, moderate-severe depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The non-working conditions that are associated with and explain the moderate-severe depressive symptoms of female workers can be modified with actions that impact on the social determinants of health.

14.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 24(1): 20-33, 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691037

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Workplace health promotion integrates initiatives in health and safety in the occupational field, with personal improvements, increased productivity and lower risks and social cost, especially with respect to migraine headaches, a neurological disorder affecting approximately 11% of the population. The objective of this study was to know the preventive resources available to workers with migraine headaches and the preventive management options in their companies. METHOD: Cross-sectional observational study of 3,342 patients from Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany and other European Union countries, conducted through an anonymous survey on the web of the European Migraine & Headache Alliance (EMHA-web), from September 2018 to January 2019. RESULTS: Occupational stress (77.65%) and use of computer monitors (63.87%) are the most common risks described by workers with migraine. About. 43.71% of workers are not familiar with the type of occupational health service present in their company, 49.06% do not have a medical service; 67.67% reported no work-related limitations due to migraine, neither dismissal nor non-renewal of their contract (88.29%), but 42.14% had experienced some conflict due to decreased productivity; 26.54% were unaware of the concept of vulnerable workers or had not requested this status because of their migraine (63.8%), nor had.

15.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664220

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The irruption of SARS-CoV-2 and its different incidence on the regional mortality rate could be revealing the effects of the change in the paradigm of health justice, initiated in Spain in 2010 and applied, more or less enthusiastically, by the different autonomous communities. The objective of this work was to look for if the socio-economic conditions and the policy of budgetary expenditure followed by the different Spanish autonomous communities have incidence, by themselves, on the mortality rate caused by the SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Econometric research based on Multiple Linear Regression to determine the direct cause-effect relationship between the dependent variable, mortality associated with COVID-19, with explanatory variables of the health budget and socio-economic type. RESULTS: The number of deaths caused by COVID-19 has a positive relationship with the rate of GDP per capita and inversely with expenditure on hospital and specialized services, teaching and IRMs and with the resources allocated to health over the last nine years. A reduction in any of these health budget variables leads to an increase in mortality caused by COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 mortality rate has hit the wealthiest autonomous communities hardest but, above all, has hit those that, although richer, applied more restrictive budgetary measures in the period 2010-2018.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Gastos en Salud , /economía , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Humanos , Modelos Econométricos , Pandemias/economía , Salud Pública/economía , Análisis de Regresión , España/epidemiología
16.
Arch. esp. urol. (Ed. impr.) ; 74(1): 80-93, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-199439

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: El Tratamiento Médico Expulsivo (TME) para litiasis ureterales ha sido puesto en cuestión durante los últimos años. OBJETIVOS: El objetivo principal de nuestro trabajo es definir las indicaciones del TME, los fármacos empleados y su efectividad y proponer un esquema de seguimiento. Los objetivos secundarios son analizar la efectividad del TME en algunos subgrupos especiales de la población como son las embarazadas y los niños y valorar aspectos de coste-efectividad del TME en comparación con otras opciones de tratamiento de litiasis ureterales (ureterorrenoscopia o litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Hemos realizado una revisión de los ensayos clínicos y metaanálisis de mayor relevancia que valoran la efectividad de los diferentes fármacos disponibles para el TME. Para la búsqueda bibliográfica hemos utilizado algunos términos como medical expulsive treatment/therapy", "ureteral lithiasis", "urolithiasis", "effectiveness", "alpha-blockers" y "calcium-antagonists", siendo la principal base de datos consultada MEDLINE (a través del portal web PubMed). RESULTADOS: Aún los estudios de mayor calidad presentan importantes limitaciones metodológicas, lo que condiciona que la evidencia obtenida sea heterogénea y restringida a pacientes y litiasis que cumplan determinadas condiciones. En líneas generales, el TME puede tener cierto papel en la expulsión de litiasis de tamaño ≥ 5 mm y ≤ 10 mm localizadas en uréter distal, aunque no se ha logrado demostrar que alguno de los fármacos utilizados pueda tener especial superioridad en términos de efectividad. En gestantes y niños las indicaciones del TME tampoco estan estandarizadas. Por último, el TME en comparación con opciones de tratamiento, parece ser una alternativa más coste-efectiva y la preferida por los pacientes según estudios sobre QoL. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario realizar ensayos clínicos de mayor calidad para poder indicar el TME con un mayor nivel de evidencia. Con la evidencia actual, parece que el TME puede favorecer la expulsión de litiasis localizadas en uréter distal y con un tamaño ≥ 5 mm y ≤ 10 mm. A pesar de ello no se han podido encontrar diferencias entre las distintas opciones farmacológicas disponibles


INTRODUCTION: Medical Expulsive Treatment (MET) for ureteral stones has been questioned for the last few years. OBJECTIVES: The main goal of our study is to define the indications of MET, the different drugs that are used and their effectiveness and to propose a follow-up strategy. Secondary objectives include the effectiveness of MET in some special subgroups such as pregnant women and children and to assess aspects of MET cost-effectiveness compared with other options for ureteral lithiasis treatment (ureterorenoscopy or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have reviewed the most relevant clinical trials and meta-analysis evaluating the impact of the different drugs available for MET. For the research we used some keywords like "medical expulsive treatment/therapy", "ureteral lithiasis", "urolithiasis", "effectiveness", "alpha-blockers" and "calcium-antagonists". MEDLINE database was used for the research (using the portal web Pubmed). RESULTS: Highest quality studies currently available show significant methodological limitations leading to heterogeneous and restricted evidence, which is only applicable to patients and lithiasis with specific conditions. Nevertheless, in general terms, it seems that MET can play a certain role in the expulsion of lithiasis ≥ 5 mm y ≤ 10 mm located in the distal ureter, although it has not been possible to demonstrate that any of the drugs used may have special superiority in terms of effectiveness. In pregnancy and children, the recommendations of MET are also irregular. Finally, MET seems to be an alternative cost-effective compared to active options of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Higher quality clinical trials are needed to reliably advice MET. With the current evidence, it appears that MET can improve the expulsion of distal ureteral lithiasis ≥ 5 mm and ≤ 10 mm, even though we have not found differences between the drugs that are available for MET


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Niño , Litotricia , Uréter , Cálculos Ureterales/tratamiento farmacológico , Ureterolitiasis/terapia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa , Ureteroscopía , Evaluación de Costo-Efectividad , Litotricia/métodos , Diálisis Renal
17.
J Anim Ecol ; 2021 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550590

RESUMEN

Sexual segregation in foraging strategies has been little studied in marine species with slight sexual size dimorphism (SSD), particularly regarding the role of environmental conditions and fishery activities. Sexual differences in fishery attendance are of particular concern because uneven mortality associated with bycatch may exacerbate impacts in wildlife populations. Using a seabird species with slight SSD, the Scopoli's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, we assessed sexual differences in foraging strategies and evaluated whether annual environmental conditions and fishery activity shaped such differences. We used a 4-year dataset combining bird GPS tracking, stable isotope analysis, the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO, as main proxy of the annual environmental conditions), and fishing vessel positioning data (Vessel Monitoring System, VMS) from the North Western Mediterranean, a region under intense fishery pressure. From 2012 to 2015, we tracked 635 foraging trips from 78 individuals. Females showed a greater foraging effort, a lower fishery attendance, a lower trophic level, and a narrower isotopic niche width than males. Moreover, in years with unfavourable environmental conditions, both sexes showed a lower fishery attendance and increased foraging effort compared to the year with most favourable conditions. Our results revealed that environmental conditions influence space use, feeding resources and fishery attendance differently in males and females, overall suggesting competitive exclusion of females by males from main foraging areas and feeding resources, particularly in unfavourable environmental conditions. We highlight the importance of evaluating sexual segregation under disparate environmental conditions, particularly in species with slight SSD, since segregation may pass otherwise unnoticed if only years with similar environmental conditions are considered. The higher fishery attendance of males likely explains the male-biased bycatch ratio for this species. Thus, inter-sexual differences in foraging strategies can lead to an unbalanced exposure to relevant threats and have implications for the conservation of long-lived species.

18.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(1): 30-48, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550956

RESUMEN

For social work practitioners in healthcare settings, self-care can be an integral tool to assuaging stressors associated with COVID-19. However, research that examines the impact of public health crises, such as COVID-19, is nominal, at best. This exploratory study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on the self-care practices of self-identified healthcare social workers (N = 2,460) in one southeastern state. Primary data were collected via an electronic survey and assessed via a retrospective pre/post design. Analyses compared practices before and after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. Overall, data suggest that participants experienced significant pre/post decreases in self-care practices across multiple domains. As well, findings indicate that participants who identified as married, financially stable, and working non-remotely, and in good physical/mental health engaged in significantly more self-care practices than other participants, at post. This study underscores the need to foster supportive professional cultures that include developing self-care practice skills, particularly during large-scale crisis, such as COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Autocuidado/psicología , Trabajadores Sociales/psicología , Adulto , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos
19.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(1): 49-61, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557718

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the systemic inequities in our health care system and society has called for actions to meet the clinical, psychosocial and educational needs in health care settings and communities. In this paper we describe how an organized Department of Health Social Work in a medical school played a unique role in responding to the challenges of a pandemic with community, clinical, and educational initiatives that were integral to our community's health.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Liderazgo , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Servicio Social/organización & administración , Desgaste por Empatía/epidemiología , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Estado de Salud , Líneas Directas/organización & administración , Humanos , Capacitación en Servicio/organización & administración , Salud Mental , Cuidados Paliativos/organización & administración , Pandemias , Telemedicina/organización & administración , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12198, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527667

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The health effects of telework, which was introduced extensively in the immediate context of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis in Japan, on teleworkers, their families, and non-teleworkers, are unknown. Accordingly, we developed a rapid health impact assessment (HIA) to evaluate positive and negative health effects of telework on these groups and recommended easily implementable countermeasures. METHODS: Immediately after an emergency was declared in Japan, we implemented a rapid, five-step HIA. We screened and categorized health effects of telework for the three above-mentioned groups, extracting their content, directionality, and likelihood. Following a scoping exercise to determine the HIA's overall implementation, five experienced occupational health physicians appraised and prioritized the screened items and added new items. We outlined specific countermeasures and disseminated the results on our website. A short-term evaluation was conducted by three external occupational health physicians and three nurses. RESULTS: Following screening and appraisal, 59, 29, and 27 items were listed for teleworkers, non-teleworkers, and family members of teleworkers, respectively, covering work, lifestyle, disease and medical care, and home and community. Targeted countermeasures focused on the work environment, business management, communications, and lifestyles for teleworkers; safety and medical guidelines, work prioritization, and regular communication for non-teleworkers; and shared responsibilities within families and communication outside families for family members of teleworkers. CONCLUSION: The HIA's validity and the countermeasures' practical applicability were confirmed by the external evaluators. They can be easily applied and adapted across diverse industries to mitigate the wider negative effects of telework and enhance its positive effects.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud , Salud Laboral , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Comunicación , Seguridad Computacional , Ejercicio Físico , Familia , Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud/métodos , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Japón , Estilo de Vida , Seguridad , Administración del Tiempo , Trabajo/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/organización & administración
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