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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670054

RESUMEN

Cultivated land plays an important role in water and soil loss in earthy/rocky mountainous regions in northern China, however, its response to soil conservation measures and rainfall characteristics are still not fully understood. In the present study, 85 erosive rainfall events in 2011-2019 were grouped into three types, and the responses of runoff and soil loss to soil conservation measures and rainfall regimes on five cultivated plots with different slopes in the upstream catchment of the Miyun Reservoir were evaluated. Results found that mean event runoff depths and soil loss rates on the five plots ranged from 0.03 mm to 7.05 mm and from 0.37 t km-2 to 300.51 t km-2 respectively, depending on rainfall regimes, soil conservation measures, and slope gradients. The high frequency (i.e., 72.94%) rainfall regime A with a short rainfall duration (RD), low rainfall amount (P), and high mean rainfall intensity (Im) yielded a lower runoff depth and higher soil loss rate. Rainfall regime B with a longer RD, and a higher P and Im, however, produced higher a runoff depth and lower soil loss rate. Terraced plots had the highest runoff and soil loss reduction efficiencies of over 96.03%. Contour tillage had comparable sediment reduction efficiency to that of the terraced plots on gentle slopes (gradient less than 11.0%), while its runoff reduction efficiency was less than 13.11%. This study implies that in the Miyun Reservoir catchment and similar regions in the world, contour tillage should be promoted on gentle slopes, and the construction of terraced plots should be given ample consideration as they could greatly reduce water quantity and cause water shortages in downstream catchments.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Movimientos del Agua , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lluvia
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112181, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676108

RESUMEN

Marine ecosystems across the world's largest ocean - the Pacific Ocean - are being increasingly affected by stressors such as pollution, overfishing, ocean acidification, coastal development and warming events coupled with rising sea levels and increasing frequency of extreme weather. These anthropogenic-driven stressors, which operate cumulatively at varying spatial and temporal scales, are leading to ongoing and pervasive degradation of many marine ecosystems in the Pacific Island region. The effects of global warming and ocean acidification threaten much of the region and impact on the socio-cultural, environmental, economic and human health components of many Pacific Island nations. Simultaneously, resilience to climate change is being reduced as systems are overburdened by other stressors, such as marine and land-based pollution and unsustainable fishing. Consequently, it is important to understand the vulnerability of this region to future environmental scenarios and determine to what extent management actions can help protect, and rebuild ecosystem resilience and maintain ecosystem service provision. This Special Issue of papers explores many of these pressures through case studies across the Pacific Island region, and the impacts of individual and cumulative pressures on the condition, resilience and survival of ecosystems and the communities that depend on them. The papers represent original work from across the tropical Pacific oceanscape, an area that includes 22 Pacific Island countries and territories plus Hawaii and the Philippines. The 39 papers within provide insights on anthropogenic pressures and habitat responses at local, national, and regional scales. The themes range from coastal water quality and human health, assessment of status and trends for marine habitats (e.g. seagrass and coral reefs), and the interaction of local pressures (pollution, overfishing) with increasing temperatures and climate variability. Studies within the Special Issue highlight how local actions, monitoring, tourism values, management, policy and incentives can encourage adaptation to anthropogenic impacts. Conclusions identify possible solutions to support sustainable and harmonious environment and social systems in the unique Pacific Island oceanscape.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Cambio Climático , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Hawaii , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Islas del Pacífico , Océano Pacífico , Filipinas , Agua de Mar
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112193, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706212

RESUMEN

Land use in the catchments draining to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon has changed considerably since the introduction of livestock grazing, various crops, mining and urban development. Together these changes have resulted in increased pollutant loads and impaired coastal water quality. This study compiled records to produce annual time-series since 1860 of human population, livestock numbers and agricultural areas at the scale of surface drainage river basins, natural resource management regions and the whole Great Barrier Reef catchment area. Cattle and several crops have experienced progressive expansion interspersed by declines associated with droughts and diseases. Land uses which have experienced all time maxima since the year 2000 include cattle numbers and the areas of sugar cane, bananas and cotton. A Burdekin Basin case study shows that sediment loads initially increased with the introduction of livestock and mining, remained elevated with agricultural development, and declined slightly with the Burdekin Falls Dam construction.


Asunto(s)
Sedimentos Geológicos , Ríos , Agricultura , Animales , Bovinos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Recursos Naturales
5.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448038

RESUMEN

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary tool for the stewardship, conservation, and restoration of marine ecosystems, yet 69% of global MPAs are only partially protected (i.e., are open to some form of fishing). Although fully protected areas have well-documented outcomes, including increased fish diversity and biomass, the effectiveness of partially protected areas is contested. Partially protected areas may provide benefits in some contexts and may be warranted for social reasons, yet social outcomes often depend on MPAs achieving their ecological goals to distinguish them from open areas and justify the cost of protection. We assessed the social perceptions and ecological effectiveness of 18 partially protected areas and 19 fully protected areas compared with 19 open areas along 7000 km of coast of southern Australia. We used mixed methods, gathering data via semistructured interviews, site surveys, and Reef Life (underwater visual census) surveys. We analyzed qualitative data in accordance with grounded theory and quantitative data with multivariate and univariate linear mixed-effects models. We found no social or ecological benefits for partially protected areas relative to open areas in our study. Partially protected areas had no more fish, invertebrates, or algae than open areas; were poorly understood by coastal users; were not more attractive than open areas; and were not perceived to have better marine life than open areas. These findings provide an important counterpoint to some large-scale meta-analyses that conclude partially protected areas can be ecologically effective but that draw this conclusion based on narrower measures. We argue that partially protected areas act as red herrings in marine conservation because they create an illusion of protection and consume scarce conservation resources yet provide little or no social or ecological gain over open areas. Fully protected areas, by contrast, have more fish species and biomass and are well understood, supported, and valued by the public. They are perceived to have better marine life and be improving over time in keeping with actual ecological results. Conservation outcomes can be improved by upgrading partially protected areas to higher levels of protection including conversion to fully protected areas.

6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 26, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389231

RESUMEN

Soil and water are vital natural resources. However, due to their indiscriminate use, these resources are being seriously threatened. Therefore, it is essential to manage them in a sustainable way and leave them for future generations. Population and agricultural areas have expanded, deforesting native landscapes for cultivation and pastures. As a result, soil loss from agricultural areas is increasing the amount of sediment transport in water courses. The objective of this study was to quantify soil loss and sediment yield from the Corrente dos Matões sub-basin (CMSB). These measurements are essential to quantify the environmental impact of advancing agricultural frontiers. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was applied due to its wide use, compatibility with GIS, and data availability. The suspended sediment transport was calculated by collecting samples with DH-48 sampler. From the application of USLE, the average soil erosion contributed very little to sediment delivery in the watercourse, with a magnitude of only 0.37 t ha-1 year-1. The highest soil loss was associated with greater slope and was observed in areas with agriculture or under the absence of vegetation cover. The low transport of suspended sediments in CMSB is due to the existence of preserved sites. About 99% of the sub-basin had a low degree of erosion. The high degree of soil loss was attributed to the cliffs and the development of agricultural activities leaving the soil uncovered. This work will help identify the most susceptible areas to water erosion for optimizing the allocation of financial resources for the preservation of this natural resource.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Suelo , Agricultura , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos
7.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492713

RESUMEN

Although invasive non-native species can adversely affect biodiversity in many ways, predation of native species by non-native species on islands can be severely damaging. Results of numerous studies document non-native birds preying on birds on islands, but our understanding of the number and type of species affected has been limited by the lack of a global review of these impacts. I identified the non-native bird species that have been recorded preying on birds, the locations where this predation occurred, and the bird species affected. Because the impacts of non-native birds can be particularly severe on small islands, I then identified the islands <500 km2 around the world that are occupied by predatory non-native birds. By taking into account their life-history traits and predation history, I also identified the near-threatened and threatened bird species on these islands that they may prey on. The results indicated that predation by non-native birds was primarily a concern for threatened bird conservation on small islands; almost all predation impacts (91%) on near-threatened and threatened birds were recorded on islands, and median island size was 106 km2 . I also found non-native bird predation was a poorly known and widespread potential threat to avian biodiversity; worldwide, 194 islands of <500 km2 were occupied by predatory non-native birds, but information on their impacts was unavailable for most of these islands. On them, where the impacts of non-native species can be severe, non-native birds may be preying on approximately 6% of the world's near-threatened and threatened bird species. Four non-native bird species I identified have been successfully eradicated from islands. If they were eradicated from the small islands they occupy, 70% of the near-threatened and threatened bird species I identified would no longer be affected by nest predation by non-native birds on small islands.

8.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502048

RESUMEN

Cultural adaptation is one means by which conservationists may help populations adapt to threats. A learned behavior may protect an individual from a threat, and the behavior can be transmitted horizontally (within generations) and vertically (between generations), rapidly conferring population-level protection. Although possible in theory, it remains unclear whether such manipulations work in a conservation setting; what conditions are required for them to work; and how they might affect the evolutionary process. We examined models in which a population can adapt through both genetic and cultural mechanisms. Our work was motivated by the invasion of highly toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina) across northern Australia and the resultant declines of endangered northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus), which attack and are fatally poisoned by the toxic toads. We examined whether a novel management strategy in which wild quolls are trained to avoid toads can reduce extinction probability. We used a simulation model tailored to quoll life history. Within simulations, individuals were trained and a continuous evolving trait determined innate tendency to attack toads. We applied this model in a population viability setting. The strategy reduced extinction probability only when heritability of innate aversion was low (<20%) and when trained mothers trained >70% of their young to avoid toads. When these conditions were met, genetic adaptation was slower, but rapid cultural adaptation kept the population extant while genetic adaptation was completed. To gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics (in which we saw a transitory peak in cultural adaptation over time), we also developed a simple analytical model of evolutionary dynamics. This model showed that the strength of natural selection declined as the cultural transmission rate increased and that adaptation proceeded only when the rate of cultural transmission was below a critical value determined by the relative levels of protection conferred by genetic versus cultural mechanisms. Together, our models showed that cultural adaptation can play a powerful role in preventing extinction, but that rates of cultural transmission need to be high for this to occur.

9.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111537, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120090

RESUMEN

Terracing and rainfall characteristics notably influence the water erosion processes. However, an extensive long term in situ quantitative evaluation of the approaches to control the water erosion in different orchard terraces has not yet been performed, especially considering the increasing frequency and severity of extreme rainfall events due to the global climate change. In this study, six types of orchard terraces, including slope land as the control (SLck), level terrace with bare (LTb) and vegetation taluses (LTv), outward (OTv) and inward terrace (ITv) with vegetation taluses and level terrace having front mounds and back ditches with vegetation taluses (MDLTv), were used to analyze the effects of extreme and ordinary rainfall events on the surface runoff and soil erosion. According to the measured data for twelve consecutive years, 356 natural rainfall events were divided into extreme and ordinary rainfall, based on the World Meteorological Organization standard. The results indicated that more severe surface runoff and sediment loss occurred under extreme rainfall: the runoff coefficient and soil loss under extreme rainfall were 2.6 and 11.5 times those under ordinary rainfall, respectively. The sediment yield (contribution rate, 42.9%) exhibited a higher sensitivity to extreme rainfall events compared to that of the surface runoff generation (contribution rate, 16.4%). Moreover, the reduction in the surface runoff and sediment in the extreme rainfall case differed for different orchard terraces. The average surface runoff coefficient and soil loss amount decreased in the following order: SLck>LTb>OTv>LTv>ITv>MDLTv. Nevertheless, the highest and lowest contributions of the extreme rainfall to the sediment yield occurred in the LTb (64.8%) and MDLTv (21.7%) plots, respectively. Therefore, severe talus erosion caused by extreme rainfall should be monitored, and a combination of vegetation taluses and front mounds and back ditches on the platforms is recommended as a sustainable strategy to prevent extreme water erosion when transforming slope land into orchard terraces.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Movimientos del Agua , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Suelo , Agua , Pesos y Medidas
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 162: 111907, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338927

RESUMEN

In a Mediterranean lagoon characterized by high levels of Hg in the sediment, Hg content in commercial fish species was determined, and, in order to establish Hg concentration in the water column, Diffusive Gradient in Thin films technique (DGT) was used. The results allowed to state (1) the disturbance of the surface sediment and its resuspension in the water column did not cause detectable increase in Hg releases, (2) the East basin acted more than the West one in contamination of fish species, (3) the small-sized sea-breams (<400 g) were more contaminated than larger sizes ones (>400 g). We concluded: (1) fish contamination may also depend on direct contact with releases of the contaminant and small, gregarious and less sedentary subjects are more likely to incur releases of Hg; (2) Hg releases can be greater in areas with a relatively low sedimentary organic matter load compared to areas subjected to high density macroalgal mat, regardless of the amount of Hg present in the sediments; (3) wind transport of plant masses in low energy storage areas, may constitute an increase factor of Hg in the sediment. A critical review of the results was made in comparison with the available literature reports and some hypotheses were proposed regarding the possible dynamics and availability of the contaminant.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bioacumulación , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244605, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378377

RESUMEN

Managing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is about managing human behaviours, but decision-making processes have traditionally focussed on ecological aspects, treating social aspects as secondary. It is now becoming more evident that an equal focus on the ecological and social aspects is required. Without the collection of information about social aspect such as impacts and sharing this as well as ecological information with communities, MPAs are at higher risk of opposition and social acceptability problems. This paper explores the development of a wellbeing framework to understand the social aspects, including the impacts of MPAs on the wellbeing of local communities. This research investigates two case study MPAs: Cape Byron and Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Parks in New South Wales, Australia. The MPAs are multiple-use and were implemented in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The research began with a review of the literature, followed by fieldwork, including semi-structured qualitative interviews with community members. Through thematic coding of the interview transcripts in light of the literature on assessing the social impacts of MPAs, a community wellbeing framework of domains and associated attributes was developed to investigate social impacts. Our analysis shows; first, local perspectives are crucial to understanding social impacts. Second, understanding social impacts gives insight into the nature of trade-offs that occur in decision-making regarding MPAs. Third, the intangible social impacts experienced by local communities are just as significant as the tangible ones for understanding how MPAs operate. Fourth, governance impacts have been the most influential factor affecting the social acceptability of the case study parks. We argue that failure to address negative social impacts can undermine the legitimacy of MPAs. We propose that the framework will support policymakers to work towards more effective, equitable and socially sustainable MPAs by employing much-needed monitoring of human dimensions of conservation interventions at the community level to shape adaptive management.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Política de Salud , Cambio Social , Animales , Cultura , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Biología Marina , Nueva Gales del Sur , Formulación de Políticas
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244495, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373404

RESUMEN

Species distribution monitoring and biomass assessment are crucial for fishery management and resource conservation. However, traditional methods such as motor trawling are costly and less effective than the novel environmental DNA (eDNA) approach. This study employs eDNA approach to investigate horizontal and vertical distributions of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis), an economically important species, in the East China Sea. The analysis of 171 eDNA samples collected from 44 stations using the species-specific primers and Taqman probe suggests a presence of small yellow croaker at 28 sampling layers in 44 stations. Significant differences in croaker eDNA concentrations were revealed among sampling stations and layers, consistent with previous findings through motor-trawl capture offshore and nearshore ichthyoplakton surveys, indicating small yellow croaker exhibits strong regional distribution and layer preference. In addition, we found a high eDNA concentration of small yellow croaker in the surface waters beyond the motor-trawl prohibition line, which confirms spawning grounds have been expanded from nearshore to offshore areas. Such expansion of spawning grounds could be a response by small yellow croaker to stressors such as overfishing, climate change, and nearshore environment contamination. To identify environmental variables potentially associated with small yellow croaker presence and absence, we conducted a correlation analysis between eDNA concentration and environmental variables, and the results provide a guideline for further investigation of fishery resources in the future. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the power of the eDNA approach in monitoring small yellow croaker at extensive geographic scales. The developed protocols and the findings are expected to assist in long-term monitoring and protection programs and benefit sustainable fishery in small yellow croaker.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/métodos , ADN Ambiental/aislamiento & purificación , Explotaciones Pesqueras/estadística & datos numéricos , Perciformes/genética , Distribución Animal , Animales , China , Estudios de Factibilidad , Agua de Mar/química
13.
Conserv Biol ; 2020 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314325

RESUMEN

Mapping and predicting the potential risk of fishing activities to large marine protected areas (MPAs), where management capacity is low but fish biomass may be globally important, is vital to prioritizing enforcement and maximizing conservation benefits. Drifting fish aggregating devices (dFADs) are a highly effective fishing method employed in purse seine fisheries that attract and accumulate biomass fish, making fish easier to catch. However, dFADs are associated with several negative impacts, including high bycatch rates and lost or abandoned dFADs becoming beached on sensitive coastal areas (e.g., coral reefs). Using Lagrangian particle modeling, we determined the potential transit of dFADs in a large MPA around the Chagos Archipelago in the central Indian Ocean. We then quantified the risk of dFADs beaching on the archipelago's reefs and atolls and determined the potential for dFADs to pass through the MPA, accumulate biomass while within, and export it into areas where it can be legally fished (i.e., transit). Over one-third (37.51%) of dFADs posed a risk of either beaching or transiting the MPA for >14 days, 17.70% posed a risk of beaching or transiting the MPA for >30 days, and 13.11% posed a risk of beaching or transiting the MPA for >40 days. Modeled dFADs deployed on the east and west of the perimeter were more likely to beach and have long transiting times (i.e., posed the highest risk). The Great Chagos Bank, the largest atoll in the archipelago, was the most likely site to be affected by dFADs beaching. Overall, understanding the interactions between static MPAs and drifting fishing gears is vital to developing suitable management plans to support enforcement of MPA boundaries and the functioning and sustainability of their associated biomass.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239209, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002077

RESUMEN

Recent decades have been marked by unprecendented environmental changes which threaten the integrity of freshwater systems and their ecological value. Although most of these changes can be attributed to human activities, disentagling natural and anthropogenic drivers remains a challenge. In this study, surface sediments from Lake Ighiel, a mid-altitude site in the Carpathian Mts (Romania) were investigated following high-resolution sedimentological, geochemical, environmental magnetic and diatom analyses supported by historical cartographic and documentary evidence. Our results suggest that between 1920 and 1960 the study area experienced no significant anthropogenic impact. An excellent correspondence is observed between lake proxy responses (e.g., growth of submerged macrophytes, high detrital input, shifts in diatom assemblages) and parameters tracking natural hydroclimate variability (e.g., temperature, NAO). This highlights a dominant natural hydroclimatic control on the lacustrine system. From 1960 however, the depositional regime shifted markedly from laminated to homogenous clays; since then geochemical and magnetic data document a trend of significant (and on-going) subsurface erosion across the catchment. This is paralleled by a shift in lake ecosystem conditions denoting a strong response to an intensified anthropogenic impact, mainly through forestry. An increase in detrital input and marked changes in the diatom community are observed over the last three decades, alongside accelerated sedimentation rates following enhanced grazing and deforestation in the catchment. Recent shifts in diatom assemblages may also reflect forcing from atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, a key recent drive of diatom community turnover in mountain lakes. In general, enhanced human pressure alongside intermittent hydroclimate forcing drastically altered the landscape around Lake Ighiel and thus, the sedimentation regime and the ecosystem's health. However, paleoenvironmental signals tracking natural hydroclimate variability are also clearly discernible in the proxy data. Our work illustrates the complex link between the drivers of catchment-scale impacts on one hand, and lake proxy responses on the other, highlighting the importance of an integrated historical and palaeolimnological approach to better assess lake system changes.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Lagos , Altitud , Cambio Climático/historia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Diatomeas , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Lagos/análisis , Recursos Naturales , Nitrógeno/análisis , Rumanía
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239136, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035224

RESUMEN

Ocean warming, ocean acidification and overfishing are major threats to the structure and function of marine ecosystems. Driven by increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO2, ocean warming is leading to global redistribution of marine biota and altered ecosystem dynamics, while ocean acidification threatens the ability of calcifying marine organisms to form skeletons due to decline in saturation state of carbonate Ω and pH. In Tasmania, the interaction between overfishing of sea urchin predators and rapid ocean warming has caused a phase-shift from productive kelp beds to overgrazed sea urchin barren grounds, however potential impacts of ocean acidification on this system have not been considered despite this threat for marine ecosystems globally. Here we use automated loggers and point measures of pH, spanning kelp beds and barren grounds, to reveal that kelp beds have the capacity to locally ameliorate effects of ocean acidification, via photosynthetic drawdown of CO2, compared to unvegetated barren grounds. Based on meta-analysis of anticipated declines in physiological performance of grazing urchins to decreasing pH and assumptions of nil adaptation, future projection of OA across kelp-barrens transition zones reveals that kelp beds could act as important pH refugia, with urchins potentially becoming increasingly challenged at distances >40 m from kelp beds. Using spatially explicit simulation of physicochemical feedbacks between grazing urchins and their kelp prey, we show a stable mosaicked expression of kelp patches to emerge on barren grounds. Depending on the adaptative capacity of sea urchins, future declines in pH appear poised to further alter phase-shift dynamics for reef communities; thus, assessing change in spatial-patterning of reef-scapes may indicate cascading ecological impacts of ocean acidification.


Asunto(s)
Kelp , Océanos y Mares , Refugio de Fauna , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos/metabolismo , Cambio Climático , Simulación por Computador , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Cadena Alimentaria , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Kelp/metabolismo , Erizos de Mar/metabolismo , Agua de Mar/química , Tasmania
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 736, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123775

RESUMEN

Sediment yield in river catchments can cause siltation of reservoirs and channels, carries contaminants adhered to sediment particles, and represents water erosion at the catchment scale, leading to decreased agricultural productivity. Hydrological monitoring enables the understanding of overland flow and soil erosion dynamics. In this study, we analyzed whether the relationship between precipitation (P), water flow (Q), and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) during rainfall events shows the usefulness of hydrological and sedimentological monitoring in soil and water conservation projects to river catchments. We conducted a study in the Lajeado Ferreira catchment in southern Brazil. This catchment is characterized by high soil fragility and erosion rates because of relief and intense tobacco cultivation. The small size of the catchment (120 ha) allowed a better understanding of the processes that occurred between hillslope and watercourses. We analyzed 43 rainfall-runoff events (P-Q), and we selected characteristic variables of each event and related them to independent variables (climate, land use, and soil management) and their seasonality using regression techniques. We also conducted a hysteresis analysis to understand the behavior of SSC in relation to runoff. The results showed a high relation of sediment yield (SY) with maximum water flow of the event (Qmax), and linear regression models showed the best performance between characteristic variables. In addition, the seasonal variability of the land coverage presented greater influence on the SY than the precipitation itself.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Hídricos , Suelo , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4764, 2020 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958769

RESUMEN

Industrial-scale harvest of species at risk of extinction is controversial and usually highly regulated on land and for charismatic marine animals (e.g. whales). In contrast, threatened marine fish species can be legally caught in industrial fisheries. To determine the magnitude and extent of this problem, we analyze global fisheries catch and import data and find reported catch records of 91 globally threatened species. Thirteen of the species are traded internationally and predominantly consumed in European nations. Targeted industrial fishing for 73 of the threatened species accounts for nearly all (99%) of the threatened species catch volume and value. Our results are a conservative estimate of threatened species catch and trade because we only consider species-level data, excluding group records such as 'sharks and rays.' Given the development of new fisheries monitoring technologies and the current push for stronger international mechanisms for biodiversity management, industrial fishing of threatened fish and invertebrates should no longer be neglected in conservation and sustainability commitments.


Asunto(s)
Especies en Peligro de Extinción/estadística & datos numéricos , Explotaciones Pesqueras/estadística & datos numéricos , Peces , Invertebrados , Animales , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción/economía , Explotaciones Pesqueras/economía , Peces/clasificación , Invertebrados/clasificación , Biología Marina , Alimentos Marinos/clasificación , Alimentos Marinos/economía , Alimentos Marinos/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237819, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822424

RESUMEN

Besides understanding the effects of fishing on harvested fish stocks, effects on non-target species, habitats and seafloor integrity also need to be considered. Static fishing gears have often been mentioned as a lower impact fishing alternative to towed gears, although studies examining their actual impact on the seafloor are scarce. In this study, we aimed to describe fish trap movements on the seafloor related to soaking time and trap retrieval. Impacts on the seafloor of lightweight rectangular traps and heavier circular traps were compared. We used 3D video cameras to estimate sweeping motion on the seabed and penetration into the sediment during soaking time. The area and distance swept by each type of trap during retrieval was determined by a camera set up facing the sea bottom. The potential rotation of the traps around the mainline was assessed using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Results showed that no penetration and almost no movements could be detected during soaking time for either lightweight or heavy commercial traps, even for high tidal coefficient (maximum 6 cm). No rotation could be observed when the tide turned. The swept area covered by a trap during retrieval was low (maximum 2.04 m2) compared to towed fishing gear and other static gear.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Ecosistema , Peces , Biología Marina
19.
Conserv Biol ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785955

RESUMEN

The availability of genomic data for an increasing number of species makes it possible to incorporate evolutionary processes into conservation plans. Recent studies show how genetic data can inform spatial conservation prioritization (SCP), but they focus on metrics of diversity and distinctness derived primarily from neutral genetic data sets. Identifying adaptive genetic markers can provide important information regarding the capacity for populations to adapt to environmental change. Yet, the effect of including metrics based on adaptive genomic data into SCP in comparison to more widely used neutral genetic metrics has not been explored. We used existing genomic data on a commercially exploited species, the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus), to perform SCP for the coastal region of British Columbia (BC), Canada. Using a RAD-seq data set for 717 P. californicus individuals across 24 sampling locations, we identified putatively adaptive (i.e., candidate) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on genotype-environment associations with seafloor temperature. We calculated various metrics for both neutral and candidate SNPs and compared SCP outcomes with independent metrics and combinations of metrics. Priority areas varied depending on whether neutral or candidate SNPs were used and on the specific metric used. For example, targeting sites with a high frequency of warm-temperature-associated alleles to support persistence under future warming prioritized areas in the southern coastal region. In contrast, targeting sites with high expected heterozygosity at candidate loci to support persistence under future environmental uncertainty prioritized areas in the north. When combining metrics, all scenarios generated intermediate solutions, protecting sites that span latitudinal and thermal gradients. Our results demonstrate that distinguishing between neutral and adaptive markers can affect conservation solutions and emphasize the importance of defining objectives when choosing among various genomic metrics for SCP.

20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111355, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753169

RESUMEN

This study assesses the microplastics (MPs) levels in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and seawater from a southern Mediterranean lagoon (Bizerte lagoon, Northern Tunisia) and discusses the potential effects of its consumption on human health. Polyethylene was the most abundant in mussels and seawater, followed by polypropylene and cellophane. The lowest and highest average MPs concentrations were recorded in the lagoon channel and southern area of the lagoon, respectively, for both mussels (2.6 ± 1.7-12.0 ± 1.4 items mussel-1) and seawater (0.2 ± 0.1-0.7 ± 0.2 items L-1). Mussels in areas highly polluted with fibers and polyethylene were found to have higher potential to ingest and/or adhere higher numbers of these particles. The annual dietary intake of MPs by Tunisians through the consumption of local mussels was estimated at 4.2 items capita-1 year-1. Even though MPs are not biodegraded and can be excreted by humans, their potential human health risks are discussed in this paper.


Asunto(s)
Mytilus , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Alimentos Marinos/análisis , Agua de Mar , Túnez
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