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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113806, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731958

RESUMEN

Understanding the sources, natural background levels (NBLs), and threshold values (TVs) of the major ions in groundwater is essential for the effective protection of water resources. In this study, a total of 70 shallow groundwater samples were collected in Suzhou, Huaibei Plain, China. A variety of statistical methods and cumulative probability distribution techniques were performed to identify the sources, NBLs, and TVs of the major ions. The major ion concentrations found in decreasing order as follows: HCO3- > SO42- > NO3- > Cl- and Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+. Piper diagram for hydrochemical types shows that groundwater types were Mg-HCO3 (36%), Ca-HCO3 (34%), and Na-HCO3 (30%). According to the factor and the Unmix model analysis, anthropogenic (agriculture-related) and geogenic source (water-rock interactions-related) were identified to be responsible for the chemical composition of the groundwater in the study area, and their mean contributions for the major ion concentrations are 47.9% and 52.1%, respectively. The NBLs for Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, and NO3- were determined to be 29.5-44.2, 26.2-38.9, 18.9-39.5, 1.0-9.9, 12.9-19.4, and 2.1-16.5 mg/L, respectively, and the TVs were calculated as 122.1, 169.5, 39.5, 129.6, 134.7, and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, this study shows the feasibility and reliability of using these multivariate statistical methods and natural background levels to evaluate the status of groundwater quality.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Iones , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126712, 2022 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388919

RESUMEN

Aquaculture is increasing at the global scale, and beneficial reuse of wastewater is becoming crucial in some regions. Here we selected a unique tertiary treatment system for study over a one-year period. This experimental ecosystem-based approach to effluent management included a treated wastewater pond (TWP), which receives 100% effluent from a wastewater treatment plant, and an aquaculture pond (AP) that receives treated water from the TWP for fish production. We examined the fate of a wide range of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in this TWP-AP system and a control pond fed by river water using traditional grab sampling and passive samplers. We then employed probabilistic approaches to examine exposure hazards. Telmisartan, carbamazepine, diclofenac and venlafaxine, exceeded ecotoxicological predicted no effect concentrations in influent wastewater to the TWP, but these water quality hazards were consistently reduced following treatment in the TWP-AP system. In addition, both grab and passive sampling approaches resulted in similar occurrence patterns of studied compounds, which highlights the potential of POCIS use for water monitoring. Based on the approach taken here, the TWP-AP system appears useful as a tertiary treatment step to reduce PhACs and decrease ecotoxicological and antibiotic resistance water quality hazards prior to beneficial reuse in aquaculture.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estanques , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126693, 2022 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396957

RESUMEN

Researchers interested in a paper's statement or aiming to acquire useful information from scientific papers rely heavily on references. Additionally, calculation accuracy is important for ensuring the technical soundness of scientific papers. However, inaccurate citations and calculations are common in scientific literature. A recently published paper in the Journal of Hazardous Materials reported a study on microplastics in groundwater and surface water from coastal south India (Tamil Nadu state) and the heavy metal adsorption capacities of different polymers. In this study, we identified critical calculation errors and incorrect reference citations.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113835, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600421

RESUMEN

Mining of uranium for defense-related purposes has left a substantial legacy of pollution that threatens human and environmental health. Contaminated waters in the arid southwest are of particular concern, as water resource demand and water scarcity issues become more pronounced. The development of remediation strategies to treat uranium impacted waters will become increasingly vital to meet future water needs. Ion flotation is one technology with the potential to address legacy uranium contamination. The green biosurfactant rhamnolipid has been shown to bind uranium and act as an effective collector in ion flotation. In this study, uranium contaminated groundwater (∼440 µg L-1 U) from the Monument Valley processing site in northeast Arizona was used as a model solution to test the uranium removal efficacy of ion flotation with biosynthetic (bio-mRL) and three synthetic monorhamnolipids with varying hydrophobic chain lengths: Rha-C10-C10, Rha-C12-C12, and Rha-C14-C14. At the groundwater's native pH 8, and at an adjusted pH 7, no uranium was removed from solution by any collector. However, at pH 6.5 bio-mRL and Rha-C10-C10 removed 239.2 µg L-1 and 242.4 µg L-1 of uranium, respectively. By further decreasing the pH to 5.5, bio-mRL was able to reduce the uranium concentration to near or below the Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 30 µg L-1. For the Rha-C12-C12 and Rha-C14-C14 collector ligands, decreasing the pH to 7 or below reduced the foam stability and quantity, such that these collectors were not suitable for treating this groundwater. To contextualize the results, a geochemical analysis of the groundwater was conducted, and a consideration of uranium speciation is described. Based on this study, the efficacy of monorhamnolipid-based ion flotation in real world groundwater has been demonstrated with suitable solution conditions and collectors identified.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Uranio , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Minería , Uranio/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149798, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454142

RESUMEN

Rapid changes in microbial water quality in surface waters pose challenges for production of safe drinking water. If not treated to an acceptable level, microbial pathogens present in the drinking water can result in severe consequences for public health. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the suitability of data-driven models of different complexity for predicting the concentrations of E. coli in the river Göta älv at the water intake of the drinking water treatment plant in Gothenburg, Sweden. The objectives were to (i) assess how the complexity of the model affects the model performance; and (ii) identify relevant factors and assess their effect as predictors of E. coli levels. To forecast E. coli levels one day ahead, the data on laboratory measurements of E. coli and total coliforms, Colifast measurements of E. coli, water temperature, turbidity, precipitation, and water flow were used. The baseline approaches included Exponential Smoothing and ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average), which are commonly used univariate methods, and a naive baseline that used the previous observed value as its next prediction. Also, models common in the machine learning domain were included: LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) Regression and Random Forest, and a tool for optimising machine learning pipelines - TPOT (Tree-based Pipeline Optimization Tool). Also, a multivariate autoregressive model VAR (Vector Autoregression) was included. The models that included multiple predictors performed better than univariate models. Random Forest and TPOT resulted in higher performance but showed a tendency of overfitting. Water temperature, microbial concentrations upstream and at the water intake, and precipitation upstream were shown to be important predictors. Data-driven modelling enables water producers to interpret the measurements in the context of what concentrations can be expected based on the recent historic data, and thus identify unexplained deviations warranting further investigation of their origin.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Calidad del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Escherichia coli , Microbiología del Agua
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149585, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454149

RESUMEN

The impacts of COVID-19 lockdowns on air quality around the world have received wide attention. In comparison, assessments of the implications for water quality are relatively rare. As the first country impacted by COVID-19, China implemented local and national lockdowns that shut down industries and businesses between January and May 2020. Based on monthly field measurements (N = 1693) and daily automonitoring (N = 65), this study analyzed the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on river water quality in China. The results showed significant improvements in river water quality during the lockdown period but out-of-step improvements for different indicators. Reductions in ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) began relatively soon after the lockdown; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) showed improvements beginning in late January/early February and mid-March, respectively, while increases in pH were more temporally concentrated in the period from mid-March to early May. Compared to April 2019, the Water Quality Index increased at 67.4% of the stations in April 2020, with 75.9% of increases being significant. Changes in water quality parameters also varied spatially for different sites and were mainly determined by the locations and levels of economic development. After the lifting of the lockdown in June, all water quality parameters returned to pre-COVID-19 lockdown conditions. Our results clearly demonstrate the impacts of human activities on water quality and the potential for reversing ecosystem degradation by better management of wastewater discharges to replicate the beneficial impacts of the COVID-19 lockdown. CAPSULE SUMMARY: River water quality improved during China's COVID-19 lockdown, but returned to normal conditions after the lockdown.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Ríos , SARS-CoV-2 , Calidad del Agua
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149838, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454156

RESUMEN

Microplastics (MPs) have been widely detected in aquatic environments, and become emerging contaminants of growing concern. It is urgently needed to explore how to effectively remove MPs from water. This study first established an alternative method of removing MPs by magnetic nano-Fe3O4. Results showed that 1.3 g·L-1 nano-Fe3O4 and 150 min treatments caused optimal magnetization of MPs via surface absorption. Then, magnetized MPs in water can be conveniently removed by suction of the magnet. The average removal rate of four common types of MPs including polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate in size of approximately 200-900 µm was 86.87 ± 6.92%, 85.05 ± 4.70%, 86.11 ± 6.21%, and 62.83 ± 8.34%, respectively. The removal rate varied among polymer- and size-different MPs, and was positively related to the density of nano-Fe3O4 absorbed on MP surfaces. In addition, the removal rate of MPs in artificial seawater was relatively high in comparison to pure water. Furthermore, the established approach was effectively applied to remove MPs in environmental water bodies including river water, domestic sewage, and natural seawater, with the removal rate of higher than 80%. Altogether, this study provided a novel and simple removal approach to remove MPs in water, which has a certain application prospect.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fenómenos Magnéticos , Plásticos , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149780, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461478

RESUMEN

In order to evaluate the potential risk of surface water acidification in regions with historically-elevated acid deposition and to measure the recovery of such ecosystems after policy changes, critical loads and their exceedances were estimated for 349 headwater streams across China using a modified SSWC model. Such a model considered the acid-neutralizing capacity derived from high base cation deposition and the robust retention of sulfate and nitrate. Results indicated that China's streams had higher critical loads (averaged at 4.7 keq·ha-1·yr-1) and were less sensitive to acid deposition as compared to Europe and North America. The proportion of surveyed streams with acid deposition exceeded critical load decreased from 40.4% in 2005 to 29.5% in 2018, indicating a significant decrease in risk of surface water acidification, and thus a benefit from the emission abatement in recent years. Nonetheless, a relatively high risk of acidification still existed in southeast China with lower critical loads and most critical load exceedances. More efforts should be put into implementing emission control policies in the future.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ríos , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Dulce , Sulfatos , Azufre/análisis
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149727, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461481

RESUMEN

This is the first study to show microplastics contamination in an alluvial sedimentary aquifer that has been capped from the atmosphere. Microplastics are often reported in biotic and abiotic environments, but little is known about their occurrence in groundwater systems. In this study, eight of the most commonly found microplastics in the environment (polyethylene, PE; polystyrene, PS; polypropylene, PP; polyvinyl chloride, PVC; polyethylene terephthalate, PET; polycarbonate, PC; polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA; and polyamide, PA) were analysed in triplicate groundwater samples (n = 21) from five sampling sites across seven capped groundwater monitoring bores from Bacchus Marsh (Victoria, Australia) using Agilent's novel Laser Direct Infra-Red (LDIR) imaging system. Microplastics were detected in all samples, with PE, PP, PS and PVC detected in all seven bores. The average size of the microplastics identified was 89 ± 55 µm (St.Dev.), ranging from 18 to 491 µm. The average number of microplastics detected across all sites was 38 ± 8 microplastics/L, ranging from 16 to 97 particles/L. PE and PVC in total contributed to 59% of the total sum of microplastics detected. PE was consistently detected in all seven bores (average: 11 particles/L), while PVC was more pronounced in a bore adjacent to a meat processor (52 particles/L) compared to that of its overall average of 12 particles/L. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between PVC and PS (R = 0.934, p ≤0.001). As this study collected samples from capped groundwater bores, the most probable avenue for microplastics was permeation through soil. Therefore, to further understand the fate and transport of microplastics within a groundwater system, it is necessary to analyse a greater range of groundwater bores not only from Australia but throughout the world.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Victoria , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149882, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464788

RESUMEN

The Doce River mouth (DRM) was severely impacted by the rupture of the Fundão Dam in 2015, considered the greatest Brazilian environmental tragedy in terms of tailings volume released (>40 million m3) and traveled distance (~600 km until the Atlantic Ocean). Environmental monitoring has been performed since then, but background levels are scarce or absent to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), making impact assessments difficult. In the current study, we presented the baseline levels, inventories, and risk assessment of the POPs polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), in surface sediment of the DRM. Samples were collected in December 2010 and July 2011, i.e., four years before the Fundão dam failure. The total PCBs and the OCPs (Aldrin, HCHs, and Chlordanes) were detected in both sampling campaigns, with levels up to 9.50 and 1.64, 0.28, and 0.63 ng g-1, respectively. The decrease of the Doce River flow was the main factor contributing to seasonal variations in the spatial distribution, and to a slight decline in the levels and frequency of the analyzed POPs in sediments collected in the dry season (July 2011). Environmental risk assessment, inventories, and total mass results suggest a low potential of PCBs and OCPs accumulation before the dam failure. This is the first POPs assessment in the study area that helped identify some unexpected impacts of the Fundão dam failure and contributed to the understanding of POPs cycles in the Southern Atlantic, data that are still scarce in the region.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Clorados , Plaguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes , Plaguicidas/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149879, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464801

RESUMEN

Elevated nitrogen (N) concentration in shallow groundwater is becoming increasingly problematic, putting water resources under pressure. For more effective management of such a resource, more precise predictors of N level in groundwater using smart monitoring networks are needed. However, external factors such as land use type, rainfall, and N loads from multiple sources (residential and agricultural) make it difficult to accurately predict the spatial and temporal variations of N concentration. In order to identify the key factors affecting spatial and temporal N concentration in shallow groundwater and develop a predictive model, 635 groundwater samples from drinking wells in residential areas and agricultural wells in croplands of a typical agricultural watershed in the Erhai Lake Basin, southwest China, in the period from 2018 to 2020, were collected and analyzed. The results showed that the type of land use and seasonal variations significantly affected the N forms and their concentrations in the shallow groundwater, as the ratios of ON and NO3--N to TN were 30%-39% and 52%-59% for the two land uses and 25%-44% and 46%-66% for seasonal changes. Their variations were reflected by electrical conductivity (EC) and redox environment. EC and dissolved oxygen (DO) had a positive non-linear relationship with the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3--N). The fitted non-linear quantitative models were established separately to predict TN and NO3--N concentrations in groundwater using easily available indictors (EC and DO). The high accuracy and performance of the models were investigated and approved by rRMSE, MAE, and 1:1 line. These findings can provide technical support for the rapid prediction and evaluation of N pollution in shallow groundwater through easily available indicators.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Conductividad Eléctrica , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Lagos , Nitratos/análisis , Oxígeno , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149867, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469861

RESUMEN

The present study performed geochemical fractioning of major and minor elements in a cross-shelf gradient of the Abrolhos Bank, where the largest and most diverse coral reefs in the South Atlantic are concentrated. The fractioning was performed using sequential extractions to determine the degree of availability and toxicity of the elements. The mobility pattern of the elements investigated were in the following order: Ca > Mn > Pb > Cr > Zn > Fe > V > Cu > Ba>Al > Ni > Ti. For elements, such as (Ti, Ni, Al, Ba, Cu, V, Fe, Zn, Cr, Pb), the highest concentrations were in the residual phase at some sampling sites. As established by Environment Canada (Threshold Effect Level - TEL and Probable Effect Level - PEL), Ba, Cr, and Ni produced values higher than the limits, associated with higher concentrations of other elements. In addition, significant proportions of these elements were found in mobile phases in the same sites. Thus, more rigorous measures are critical to avoid alarming levels of chronic environmental pollution inside and outside protected areas of the region. To enhance the sustainability of the region, more effective enforcement is crucial to prevent anthropic contamination that may threaten its biodiversity. The results provide the baseline for future studies regarding the potential impacts of the breach of the tailings dam in the region of Mariana, Minas Gerais.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149893, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474294

RESUMEN

Peri-urban horticulture is crucial to local populations, but a global paucity of information exists regarding the contamination of the associated waterways because of this activity. The aim of this study was to assess pesticide pollution of surface water, suspended particulate matter and bottom sediments from the Carnaval Creek Basin (La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina) - a representative system of waterways surrounded by horticultural production - by over 40 selected herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides by gas-chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Six sampling campaigns were conducted biannually from 2015 to 2017. Glyphosate and (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid (AMPA), surprisingly, were the most frequently detected pesticides, in concentrations comparable to those reported in areas with genetically modified extensive crops (maximum in water, 20.04 and 4.86 µg·L-1; in sediment, 1146.5 and 4032.7 µg·kgdw-1, respectively). The insecticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in more than 30% of the samples. The concentrations tended to greatly exceed those previously reported - by up to more than 800 times for chlorpyrifos in water (maximum 2.645 µg·L-1) and more than 400 times for lambda-cyhalothrin in sediments (maximum 2607.7 µg·kgdw-1). The total pesticide concentration in surface water was found to be influenced by precipitation regimes but was independent of the season of the year, with precipitations of more than 140 mm diluting the pesticide concentrations to levels below detection limits. An environmental risk assessment performed with the pesticide concentrations of pesticides in surface water revealed that the surrounding horticultural activity posed a high risk for aquatic biota, with 30% of the samples exceeding the threshold value by more than a thousand times. We conclude that pesticides from horticultural use are a major threat to small streams and their biodiversity. This work provides valuable information that is scarce regarding the impact on watercourses exclusively as a consequence of horticulture.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Argentina , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Horticultura , Plaguicidas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149927, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474297

RESUMEN

Effective stewardship of ecosystems to sustain current ecological status or mitigate impacts requires nuanced understanding of how conditions have changed over time in response to anthropogenic pressures and natural variability. Detecting and appropriately characterizing changes requires accurate and flexible trend assessment methods that can be readily applied to environmental monitoring datasets. A key requirement is complete propagation of uncertainty through the analysis. However, this is difficult when there are mismatches between sampling frequency, period of record, and trends of interest. Here, we propose a novel application of generalized additive models (GAMs) for characterizing multi-decadal changes in water quality indicators and demonstrate its utility by analyzing a 30-year record of biweekly-to-monthly chlorophyll-a concentrations in the San Francisco Estuary. GAMs have shown promise in water quality trend analysis to separate long-term (i.e., annual or decadal) trends from seasonal variation. Our proposed methods estimate seasonal averages in a response variable with GAMs, extract uncertainty measures for the seasonal estimates, and then use the uncertainty measures with mixed-effects meta-analysis regression to quantify inter-annual trends that account for full propagation of error across methods. We first demonstrate that nearly identical descriptions of temporal changes can be obtained using different smoothing spline formulations of the original time series. We then extract seasonal averages and their standard errors for an a priori time period within each year from the GAM results. Finally, we demonstrate how across-year trends in seasonal averages can be modeled with mixed-effects meta-analysis regression that propagates uncertainties from the GAM fits to the across-year analysis. Overall, this approach leverages GAMs to smooth data with missing observations or varying sample effort across years to estimate seasonal averages and meta-analysis to estimate trends across years. Methods are provided in the wqtrends R package.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Calidad del Agua , Clima , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estaciones del Año
15.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131607, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311398

RESUMEN

MXene, comprised of two-dimensional transition metal carbides/nitride, has emerged as a novel material suitable for environmental remediation of toxic compounds. Due to their inherent and superior physical and chemical properties, MXene is employed in separation techniques like photocatalysis, adsorption, and membrane separation. MXene is equipped with a highly hydrophilic surface, ion exchange property, and robust surface functional groups. In this review paper, a comprehensive discussion on the structural patterns, preparation, properties of MXene and its application for the removal of toxic pollutants like Radionuclide, Uranium, Thorium, and dyes is presented. The mechanism of removal of the pollutants by MXene is extensively reviewed. Synthesis of MXene based membranes, their properties, and application for water purification and properties were also discussed. This review will be highly helpful to understand critically the methods of synthesis and use of MXene material for priority environmental pollutants removal. In addition, the challenges behind the synthesis and use of MXene for decontamination of pollutants were reviewed and reported.


Asunto(s)
Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Elementos de Transición , Purificación del Agua , Adsorción , Colorantes
16.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131609, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315074

RESUMEN

The systematic analysis of groundwater in the Greek island of Skiathos revealed a seasonal increase of total mercury concentrations after the extensive groundwater abstraction during the busy and heavily touristic summer months. This contamination was accompanied by a corresponding increase of the chloride content of groundwater, attributed to seawater intrusion into the freshwater-depleted aquifer within mercury-rich bedrock. The effects of elevated concentrations of chloride anions in the mobilization of mercury and its speciation were addressed by geochemical equilibrium modeling, considering cinnabar (HgS) as the mineral source of mercury. Adsorption onto hydrous ferric oxide (Fe2O3·H2O) was a necessary ingredient of the geochemical model for bringing the calculated concentrations in agreement with field measurements, after optimization of the cinnabar/adsorbent mass ratio to a value of 4.9 × 10-8. The speciation of mercury was found to depend on the acidity and redox status as well as on the chloride content of groundwater. Mercury concentrations in the groundwater of Skiathos rise above the World Health Organization limit of 1 µg L-1 for a seawater intrusion higher than 3 %, with HgCl2 being the dominant species followed by HgClOH, HgCl3- and HgCl42-. The assumed concentration of dissolved organic matter in groundwater had a negligible impact on the mercury speciation and its mobilization by chloride.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Mercurio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Dulce , Mercurio/análisis , Agua de Mar , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
17.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131621, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325254

RESUMEN

The persistence of trace organic chemicals in treated effluent derived from both centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and decentralized wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) is of concern due to their potential impacts on human and ecosystem health. Here, we utilize non-targeted analysis (NTA) with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS) to conduct an evaluation of the common persistent and removed compounds found in two centralized WWTPs in the USA and South Africa and one DEWATS in South Africa. Overall, removal efficiencies of chemicals were similar between the treatment plants when they were compared according to the number of chemical features detected in the influents and effluents of each treatment plant. However, the DEWATS treatment train, which has longer solids retention and hydraulic residence times than both of the centralized WWTPs and utilizes primarily anaerobic treatment processes, was able to remove 13 additional compounds and showed a greater decrease in normalized peak areas compared to the centralized WWTPs. Of the 111 common compounds tentatively identified in all three influents, 11 compounds were persistent in all replicates, including 5 compounds not previously reported in effluents of WWTPs or water reuse systems. There were no significant differences among the physico-chemical properties of persistent and removed compounds, but significant differences were observed among some of the molecular descriptors. These results have important implications for the treatment of trace organic chemicals in centralized and decentralized WWTPs and the monitoring of new compounds in WWTP effluent.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Compuestos Orgánicos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131667, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325256

RESUMEN

Excessive application of pesticides to control pests and weeds leads to contaminating bodies of water and health problems for consumers. The present study was designed to investigate the concentration of pesticides in raw water originated from the Marun River as well as the treated water of the drinking water treatment plant in Behbahan City. The efficiency of each treatment process was evaluated. Moreover, the health risks caused by detectable pesticides for consumers of treated water were assessed. The target pollutants were extracted using droplet liquid-liquid microextraction and detected by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer. The results showed relatively high mean concentrations of organophosphate pesticides ranging from 0.87 to 3.229 µg/L in the river water and low concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, except for 1,3-dichloropropene with the concentration of 3.58 µg/L. Alachlor had a rather high concentration (2.44 µg/L) in the river water. The concentration of pesticides in the drinking water had been reduced to an acceptable amount. The major part of pesticides removal occurred in coagulation-flocculation and rapid sand filtration units (87 %) due to the hydrophobic nature of pesticides and the use of GAC in the filtration unit. Based on the risk assessment estimates, the total hazard quotient (THQ) for all the pesticides was much less than one. The value of THQ was higher in younger individuals and children for all the given pesticides. The highest value of THQ in children was 0.2 which was attributed to aldrin. Similarly, the carcinogenic risk (CR) of aldrin for children and teenagers was in the unsafe range (more than 10-4) while the CR for other target compounds in all the age groups was negligible (10-4-10-6 or less). The high concentration of pesticides in the river water might be concerning and therefore selling and using pesticides, especially the banned ones, should be more regulated.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adolescente , Niño , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Irán , Método de Montecarlo , Plaguicidas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131633, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325267

RESUMEN

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are widespread contaminants that severely affect the endocrine systems of living organisms. In addition to the conventional instrument-based approaches for quantifying organic pollutants, a monitoring method using transgenic plants has also been proposed. Plants carrying a recombinant receptor gene combined with a reporter gene represent a system for the easy detection of ligands that specifically bind to the receptor molecule. Here, the EDC detection sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the medaka (Oryzias latipes) estrogen receptor (mER) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes, was assessed. Four transgenic Arabidopsis lines, obtained by transformation with expression plasmids constructed using combinations of two types of the ligand-binding domains of mER, the DNA-binding domain of LexA and the transactivation domain of VP16 in the chimeric receptors, showed significant induction of GFP when germinated on a medium contaminated with 1 ng/mL 4-t-octylphenol (OP). The most sensitive XmEV19-2 plants detected 0.1 ng/mL OP and 1 pg/mL 17ß-estradiol. GFP expression was suppressed by the insecticides imidacloprid and fipronil, whereas perfluorooctanesulfonic acid induced it at 0.1 ng/mL. Experiments with river water-based medium showed that XmEV19-2 can be used for monitoring polluted waters, detecting OP at concentrations as low as 5 ng/mL. Notably, XmEV19-2 showed a significant decrease in root length when grown on 0.1 ng/mL OP. mER transgenic plants can be a promising tool for simple monitoring of EDCs, without the need for extraction and concentration steps in sample preparation.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis , Disruptores Endocrinos , Oryzias , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Arabidopsis/genética , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oryzias/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Receptores de Estrógenos/genética , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
20.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131677, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346336

RESUMEN

China is considered to account for nearly a third of all plastic waste discharging from land to the ocean. To overall assess microplastic pollution status in Chinese coastal and marginal seas, this study summarized the abundance and characteristics of microplastics in the seawater, sediments and marine organisms. The results showed that the abundance of microplastics in the seawater of four major seas of China was 0.13-545 items/m³, and microplastic abundance in the sediments from the estuaries was 20-7900 items/kg, which are at middle level or even lower than those detected in other countries. By contrast, severe microplastic pollution was recorded in the estuaries, suggesting that plastic waste and microplastic interception measures should be conducted on the rivers to prevent the input of microplastics. In addition, microplastics were widely detected in marine fishes, mollusks, zooplankton, mammals and birds, which highlights the potential impacts of microplastic pollution on the whole marine ecosystem. Compared to the dry season, higher microplastic abundance was found in the rainy season, revealing that plastic waste recycling should be strengthened before the onset of rainy season. We suggest that all countries respond actively to the ubiquitous microplastic pollution through practical policies and measures to prevent microplastics from further damaging the marine ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , China , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Océanos y Mares , Plásticos , Agua de Mar , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
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