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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113565, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314394

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution has become a threat to the global marine environment. Many studies have shown that marine organisms are at risk of plastic ingestion, but there is still a lack of relevant research in the artificial reef area and adjacent waters of Haizhou Bay, located in the western Yellow Sea. The study of MPs will provide useful information for MPs pollution in the artificial reef food webs, as well as the understanding of MPs trophic transfer by reef fish. In this study, we quantified plastic ingestion by marine fish in artificial reef areas and adjacent waters (Natural area, NA; Aquaculture area, AA; Estuary area, EA; Artificial reefs area, AR and Comprehensive effective area, CEA) and analysed the related possible influencing factors. Of the 146 fish samples examined, 100% of fish ingested plastics, and 98.9% of these particles were microplastics (MPs) (<5 mm), with 3.00 ± 2.63 pieces/fish. The main types and colours of MPs were fibre (95.9%) and blue (84%). The MP quantity of AR and AA were significantly higher than that of CEA (P < 0.05) and there is no significant difference among other habitats. The MP ingestion by pelagic fishes was significantly lower than that of demersal fishes (P < 0.05). MP ingestion by omnivores was significantly higher than that by carnivores and planktivores (P < 0.05). The body length (body weight) of four species (Larimichthys polyactis: 17.7-16.7 cm (16.01-59.41 g); Collichthys lucidus: 8.1-14.3 cm (19.65-56.92 g); Tridentiger barbatus: 5.9-9.2 cm (3.37-19.1 g); Cynoglossus joyneri: 10.1-18.7 cm (5-45 g)) had no significant correlation with MP ingestion (P > 0.05). Our results showed that MPs in this region are ubiquitous (i.e., the MP ingestion rate was as high as 100%). We infer that there is a transfer mechanism in MPs from pelagic to benthic fish in this area, and there is weak biomagnification with the trophic transfer of the food chain (TMF = 1.62). However, more practical studies still need to verify whether MPs are actually transferred to humans through trophic transfer from the marine food web.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bahías , Ingestión de Alimentos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Peces , Plásticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 798, 2022 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114873

RESUMEN

Mapping radon (222Rn) distribution patterns in the coastal sea is a widely applied method for localizing and quantifying submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). While the literature reports a wide range of successful case studies, methodical problems that might occur in shallow wind-exposed coastal settings are generally neglected. This paper evaluates causes and effects that resulted in a failure of the radon approach at a distinct shallow wind-exposed location in the Baltic Sea. Based on a simple radon mass balance model, we discuss the effect of both wind speed and wind direction as causal for this failure. We show that at coastal settings, which are dominated by gentle submarine slopes and shallow waters, both parameters have severe impact on coastal radon distribution patterns, thus impeding their use for SGD investigation. In such cases, the radon approach needs necessarily to allow for the impact of wind speed and wind direction not only during but also prior to the field campaign.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Radón , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Radón/análisis , Agua de Mar , Viento
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(10): 626, 2022 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114887

RESUMEN

Microplastic is a minute particle of chemical pollutant in marine environment and classified as less than 5 mm size. The microplastics could not degrade for long years and they are ingested, incorporated, and accumulated in tissues of living organisms, particularly can cause various ecotoxicological effects for their behavioural change, cytotoxicity, neuro-toxicity effects, liver stress, etc. This preliminary study was investigated the abundance and accumulation of microplastic in marine fish of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) gut region. Further, we identified the microplastic through stereomicroscope in Indian mackerel fish size up to 0.02 mm. In FT-IR analysis were identified the chemical group which were represents as nylon. In GC-MS analysis were identified that hexa decanoic acid and methyl ester plastic compounds as well as identify and screened the microplastic degrading bacteria from fish gut through partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis it was shows that the isolate reveals a Pseudomonas sp. As a result, it is possible that gut bacteria have a probiotic role in fish gut to may degrade microplastics.


Asunto(s)
Perciformes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bacterias , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ésteres/metabolismo , Peces/metabolismo , Microplásticos , Nylons/metabolismo , Plásticos , Pseudomonas/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/metabolismo , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(9): 4543-4555, 2022 Sep 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096595

RESUMEN

Sediment is the main storage medium of antibiotics in a water environment, and a growing body of research has focused on the distribution behavior of antibiotics in water-sediment. However, most of the previous studies were based on laboratory simulation, and less attention was paid to the distribution behavior of antibiotics in a natural water environment and its correlation with environmental factors. Thus, the surface water and sediment in Shijiazhuang were taken as the research object for this study. The temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of quinolone (QNs) antibiotics in Shijiazhuang water were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), calculating the distribution coefficients of quinolone (QNs) antibiotics in water and sediment, and confirming the main environmental factors influencing the distribution coefficient in natural water. The results showed that:① the content of ΣQNs in water and sediment ranged from 8.0 to 4.4×103 ng·L-1 and 16 to 2.2×103 ng·g-1 in Shijiazhuang water, whereas the primary QNs in water and sediment were enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL), respectively. ② The total concentrations of ΣQNs in Shijiazhuang water showed a tendency of being higher in December (1.0×104 ng·L-1) than in April (5.5×103 ng·L-1), and QNs in sediment were also higher in December (7.8×103 ng·g-1) than in April (6.2×103 ng·g-1). ③ The distribution coefficient of QNs in Shijiazhuang water varied from 34 to 2.9×105 L·kg-1 and showed a trend of being greater in December than in April. ④ The results of correlation analysis showed that total nitrogen (TN), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) were significantly correlated with most distribution coefficients of QNs[OFL, norfloxacin (NOR), ENR, difloxacin (DIF), and oxolinic acid (OXO)], whereas temperature (T), total organic carbon (TOC), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were significantly correlated with individual distribution coefficients of QNs[marbofloxacin (MAR) and DIF]. Therefore, the eutrophication level of water affects the distribution behavior of antibiotics in water-sediment.


Asunto(s)
Quinolonas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Antibacterianos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Nitrógeno/análisis , Quinolonas/análisis , Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078723

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has lasted from 2019 to 2022, severely disrupting human health and daily life. The combined effects of spatial, environmental, and behavioral factors on indoor COVID-19 spread and their interactions are usually ignored. Especially, there is a lack of discussion on the role of spatial factors in reducing the risk of virus transmission in complex and diverse indoor environments. This paper endeavours to summarize the spatial factors and their effects involved in indoor virus transmission. The process of release, transport, and intake of SARS-CoV-2 was reviewed, and six transmission routes according to spatial distance and exposure way were classified. The triangular relationship between spatial, environmental and occupant behavioral parameters during virus transmission was discussed. The detailed effects of spatial parameters on droplet-based, surface-based and air-based transmission processes and virus viability were summarized. We found that spatial layout, public-facility design and openings have a significant indirect impact on the indoor virus distribution and transmission by affecting occupant behavior, indoor airflow field and virus stability. We proposed a space-based indoor multi-route infection risk assessment framework, in which the 3D building model containing detailed spatial information, occupant behavior model, virus-spread model and infection-risk calculation model are linked together. It is also applicable to other, similar, respiratory infectious diseases such as SARS, influenza, etc. This study contributes to developing building-level, infection-risk assessment models, which could help building practitioners make better decisions to improve the building's epidemic-resistance performance.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , COVID-19 , Gripe Humana , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078735

RESUMEN

Reducing children's exposure to air pollutants should be considered a primary goal, especially for the most vulnerable subjects. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of applying a protocol in the event of alert days, i.e., days with forecasted PM10 levels above the EU limit value (50 µg/m3). The test was conducted, before the onset of SARS-CoV-2 restrictions, in a classroom of a primary school in Parma (Italy)-a highly polluted area in Northern Italy. The protocol included indications for the frequency of opening windows and doors, as well as the activation of an air purifier. Teachers and students were asked to apply the protocol only in the event of alert days, while no indications were provided for non-alert days. A monitoring system measuring PM1, PM2.5, PM10, CO2, and NO2 was deployed in the classroom. Measurements of the same parameters were also performed outdoors near the school. The application of the protocol reduced the indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio for all toxic pollutants. The reduction was also remarkable for PM10-the most critical air quality parameter in the study area (1.5 and 1.1 for non-alert and alert days, respectively). Indoor concentrations of PM10-especially during non-alert days-were often higher than outdoors, showing a major contribution from resuspension due to the movement of people and personal cloud. The protocol did not cause any increase in indoor CO2 levels. Our findings showed that the application of a ventilation protocol together with the contribution of an air purifier may represent an effective way to reduce children's exposure to air pollution during severe air pollution episodes. Considering the onset of COVID-19 and the airborne transmission of pathogens, this protocol now has more meaningful implications for children's welfare, and can be integrated with protocols designed as measures against the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Dióxido de Carbono , Niño , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituciones Académicas
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078825

RESUMEN

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, the scientific community has been trying to clarify various problems, such as the mechanism of virus transmission, environmental impact, and socio-economic impact. The spread of COVID-19 in the atmospheric environment is variable and uncertain, potentially resulting in differences in air pollution. Many scholars are striving to explore the relationship between air quality, meteorological indicators, and COVID-19 to understand the interaction between COVID-19 and the atmospheric environment. In this study, we try to summarize COVID-19 studies related to the atmospheric environment by reviewing publications since January 2020. We used metrological methods to analyze many publications in Web of Science Core Collection. To clarify the current situation, hotspots, and development trends in the field. According to the study, COVID-19 research based on the atmospheric environment has attracted global attention. COVID-19 and air quality, meteorological factors affecting the spread of COVID-19, air pollution, and human health are the main topics. Environmental variables have a certain impact on the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and the prevalence of COVID-19 has improved the atmospheric environment to some extent. The findings of this study will aid scholars to understand the current situation in this field and provide guidance for future research.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , COVID-19/epidemiología , Clima , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080963

RESUMEN

The tool created aims at the environmental monitoring of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (Spain) and the monitoring of the land use of its watershed. It integrates heterogeneous data sources ranging from ecological data obtained from a multiparametric oceanographic sonde to agro-meteorological data from IMIDA's network of stations or hydrological data from the SAIH network as multispectral satellite images from Sentinel and Landsat space missions. The system is based on free and open source software and has been designed to guarantee maximum levels of flexibility and scalability and minimum coupling so that the incorporation of new components does not affect the existing ones. The platform is designed to handle a data volume of more than 12 million records, experiencing exponential growth in the last six months. The tool allows the transformation of a large volume of data into information, offering them through microservices with optimal response times. As practical applications, the platform created allows us to know the ecological state of the Mar Menor with a very high level of detail, both at biophysical and nutrient levels, being able to detect periods of oxygen deficit and delimit the affected area. In addition, it facilitates the detailed monitoring of the cultivated areas of the watershed, detecting the agricultural use and crop cycles at the plot level. It also makes it possible to calculate the amount of water precipitated on the watershed and to monitor the runoff produced and the amount of water entering the Mar Menor in extreme events. The information is offered in different ways depending on the user profile, offering a very high level of detail for research or data analysis profiles, concrete and direct information to support decision-making for users with managerial profiles and validated and concise information for citizens. It is an integrated and distributed system that will provide data and services for the Mar Menor Observatory.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Agricultura , Monitoreo del Ambiente , España , Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081016

RESUMEN

Several pathogens that spread through the air are highly contagious, and related infectious diseases are more easily transmitted through airborne transmission under indoor conditions, as observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Indoor air contaminated by microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, or by derived pathogenic substances, can endanger human health. Thus, identifying and analyzing the potential pathogens residing in the air are crucial to preventing disease and maintaining indoor air quality. Here, we applied deep learning technology to analyze and predict the toxicity of bacteria in indoor air. We trained the ProtBert model on toxic bacterial and virulence factor proteins and applied them to predict the potential toxicity of some bacterial species by analyzing their protein sequences. The results reflect the results of the in vitro analysis of their toxicity in human cells. The in silico-based simulation and the obtained results demonstrated that it is plausible to find possible toxic sequences in unknown protein sequences.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , COVID-19 , Microbiología del Aire , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Bacterias , Hongos , Humanos , Pandemias , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 720, 2022 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056178

RESUMEN

Tropical estuaries are productive dynamic ecosystems where water quality is mediated by physicochemical and biological processes and by fluvial and anthropogenic discharges. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of environmental variables on the spatiotemporal dynamics of water quality in Buenaventura Bay, which is a highly impacted estuary. Sampling was carried out during the dry and rainy season, at three depths, in four stations that represent the environmental gradient of the bay. Temperature, total dissolved solids, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH were determined for each sample. In addition, alkalinity, phosphates, nitrites, and nitrates as indicators of water quality were also measured. The estuary was classified as meso- and polyhaline, with appropriate oxygen and pH conditions and spatiotemporal gradients of temperature and solids mediated by river discharges. Significant variations were found in the physicochemical variables by season, with maximum salinity, pH, and solids in the dry season and oxygen and temperature in the rainy season. Likewise, most of these environmental variables were higher in the outer zone of the estuary and lower in the inner stations. Alkalinity and nitrite values were within the permitted ranges, while phosphates and nitrates indicated low water quality. There was a significant direct influence of temperature and oxygen on alkalinity and nitrites. However, for phosphates, no significant influence of environmental variables was found, suggesting a greater influence by fluvial and anthropogenic discharges, which produce a decrease in the environmental quality of the estuary.


Asunto(s)
Nitritos , Calidad del Agua , Bahías , Colombia , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Nitratos/análisis , Nitritos/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos , Oxígeno/análisis , Fosfatos/análisis , Ríos , Estaciones del Año
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 721, 2022 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056241

RESUMEN

Mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems is a global concern due to the health risks of consuming contaminated fishes. Fish mercury concentrations are influenced by a range of biotic and abiotic factors that vary among regions, but these complex interactions are difficult to disentangle. We collected bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), white and black crappie (Pomoxis annularis; P. nigromaculatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), and northern pike (E. lucius) from waterbodies throughout Iowa and analyzed them for mercury concentrations. We used land use, water chemistry, and fish characteristics to explain variation in mercury concentrations among and within systems. Mercury concentrations were generally low and undetectable (< 0.05 mg/kg) in 43% of fish analyzed. Detected mercury concentrations were highest in largemouth bass, muskellunge, northern pike, and walleye, lowest in black and white crappie and bluegill, and positively related to fish length and age. Mean lake depth, pH, watershed area to lake area ratio, and percent of watershed as open water were positively related to fish mercury concentrations whereas lake area and percent of watershed as agriculture, developed, forested, and grassland were negatively related to mercury concentrations. Additionally, mercury concentrations were higher in shallow natural lakes compared to other lake types. Our results indicate fish mercury concentrations are lower in Iowa lakes compared to other regions. Models we developed in this study can be used to identify other waterbodies that may have elevated mercury concentrations that can guide fish mercury monitoring programs.


Asunto(s)
Lubina , Mercurio , Perciformes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Peces , Iowa , Mercurio/análisis , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
J Environ Manage ; 320: 115762, 2022 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056477

RESUMEN

The velocity distribution is an important factor that affects seawater intrusion (SI) and nitrate (NO3-) pollution. However, there are few studies on the impact of subsurface physical barriers (SPBs) on the velocity distribution of the whole aquifer and the impact of velocity distribution on SI and NO3- pollution. Especially, the quantitative method of velocity distribution has not been studied. By the methods of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, effects of the NO3- concentrations of the pollution source, hydraulic gradients (HGs), the location of the SPB and relative heights of SPBs (HP') on the SI, NO3- pollution levels and velocity in the presence of SI and SPBs were investigated. The velocity distribution was first quantified to better describe the relationships between the velocity and degrees of SI and NO3- pollution. The results showed that the HG and HP' were the main factors that affected the velocity, NO3- pollution and SI. The higher the HG, the smaller the HP', and the decreased SI inferred a more serious NO3- pollution. The influence of SPBs on NO3- pollution and SI was mainly affected by the changes in the velocity distribution in the aquifer. With increasing HGs, for the region with flow rate less than 0.5 m/d (A0.5), the smaller its distribution area is, the smaller the relative area of SI (TLs') is. With an increase in the HG or decrease in the HP', the relative area of NO3- pollution (Ns') is proportional to the distribution area where the flow velocity is greater than 1 m/d (A1). When the flow velocity distribution condition was A'1 (the relative area of A1) > A'0.5-1 (A'0.5-1 is the ratio of the area where the flow velocities are greater than 0.5 m/d and less than 1 m/d to the total area of the aquifer) > A'0.5 (the relative area of A0.5), NO3- pollution was serious; when the flow velocity distribution condition was A'0.5 > A'0.5-1 > A'1, the levels of NO3- pollution were the lowest.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Nitratos/análisis , Óxidos de Nitrógeno , Agua de Mar , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 723, 2022 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056993

RESUMEN

During COVID-19, Shenyang implemented strict household isolation measures, resulting in a sharp reduction in anthropogenic emission sources, providing an opportunity to explore the impact of human activities on air pollution. The period from January to April of 2020 was divided into normal period, blockade period and resumption period. Combined with meteorological and pollutant data, mathematical statistics and spatial analysis methods were used to compare with the same period of 2015-2019. The results showed that PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 increased by 32.6%, 13.2%, 4.65% and 22.7% in the normal period, among which the western area changed significantly. During the blockade period, the concentration of pollutants decreased by 35.79%, 35.87%, 32.45% and -4.84%, of which the central area changed significantly. During the resumption period, the concentration of pollutants increased by 21.8%, 8.7%, 5.7% and -6.3%, and the area with the largest change was located in the western. During the blockade period, a heavy pollution occurred with PM2.5 as the main pollutant. The WRF-Chem model and the HYSPLIT model were used to reproduce the pollution occurrence process. The result showed that winds circulated as zonal winds during the pollution process at high altitudes. These winds were controlled by straight westerly and weak northwesterly airflows in front of the high pressure, and the ground was located behind the warm low pressure. Weather conditions were relatively stable. Thus, high temperatures (average > 10 ℃), high humidity (40%-60%) and slow wind (2 m/s) conditions prevailed for a long time in the Shenyang area. The unfavorable meteorological conditions lead to the occurrence of pollution. The backward trajectory showed that the potential source areas were concentrated in the urban agglomeration around Shenyang, and sporadic contributions came from North Korea.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , COVID-19/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(11): 808, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125576

RESUMEN

One of the most serious environmental issues is air pollution. Unlike other environmental concerns, this form of pollution is extremely challenging to regulate. The greenery of roadside trees plays a significant role in air purification and pollutant absorption, therefore helping to mitigate environmental pollution. Several plants can absorb and store toxins in their leaves from the atmosphere. Green plants have the potential to work as sinks and filters for air pollutants. Green belt development along national highways is a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable method of reducing air pollution. Sensitive and tolerant plants against air pollution can be identified by evaluating their air pollution tolerance index (APTI) and anticipated performance index (API) values. In this study, the susceptibility level of plant species to air pollution was assessed using APTI and API. The four parameters on which APTI depends are ascorbic acid content, total chlorophyll content, relative water content, and leaf extract pH. For the estimation of API, the plant's biological and socioeconomic factors like tree habit, canopy structure, type, size, texture, and hardness of the plant are also assessed. These parameters were determined and incorporated into a formula that represents the APTI and API of plants. Moreover, multilinear regression modeling was performed using a Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, V25) and found that pH and ascorbic acid content in plant leaves have a significant role in the calculation of APTI and tolerance potential of plants. Therefore, APTI was assessed with seventeen plant species that are abundant in the area along the national highway in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, from Jan to Mar 2020. The APTI showed that Saraca asoca was the most resistant to air pollution, whereas Vachellia nilotica was the most sensitive. In addition, plants with higher APTI can also be used to reduce air pollution, while plants with lower APTI can be utilized to monitor air pollution. Based on the calculated API score, it is found that Ficus elastica (% score > 90) is the best option for green belt development. Urban local body (ULB) can also adopt Ficus religiosa, Saraca asoca, and Aucuba japonica (having % a grade score of 80-90) for mitigation of air pollution. The study indicates that plantations of tolerant species are useful for biomonitoring and developing green belts on and along national highways.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Clorofila/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Extractos Vegetales , Plantas , Goma , Árboles/química , Agua
15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(5, sept-oct): 453-463, 2022 Aug 26.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130351

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación de la concentración de con-taminantes atmosféricos y los indicadores epidemiológicos de Covid-19 en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México (ZMVM). Material y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico ecológico. Se utilizaron modelos lineales tipo Poisson para variables de conteo y modelos lineales de efectos aleatorios en variables continuas para cuantificar la asociación entre los contaminantes atmosféricos y los indicadores de Covid-19. Los datos obtenidos fueron del 28 de febrero de 2020 al 30 de junio de 2021. La exposición a contaminantes se estratificó por estaciones climáticas. RESULTADOS: Los contaminantes que tuvieron asociación significativa con indicadores de morbilidad y mortalidad fueron CO, NOX, O3 y PM10. En la estación seca fría el CO y el NOX tuvieron efecto sobre los casos diarios confirmados y las defunciones diarias. Las PM10 se asociaron con efecto en los indicadores de casos diarios confirmados, incidencia diaria, porcentaje de hospitalizados y la tasa de letalidad. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren una asociación entre el comportamiento epidemiológico de Covid-19 y la exposición a CO, NOX, O3 y PM10, en la que se encontró un mayor efecto en la estación seca-fría en la ZMVM.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Morbilidad , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 12926-12936, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069610

RESUMEN

This study presents total OH reactivity, ancillary trace species, HO2 reactivity, and complex isoprene-derived RO2 reactivity due to ambient aerosols measured during the air quality study (AQUAS)-Kyoto campaign in September, 2020. Observations were conducted during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic (associated with reduced anthropogenic emissions). The spatial distribution of missing OH reactivity highlights that the origin of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be from natural-emission areas. For the first time, the real-time loss rates of HO2 and RO2 onto ambient aerosols were measured continuously and alternately. Ozone production sensitivity was investigated considering unknown trace species and heterogeneous loss effects of XO2 (≡HO2 + RO2) radicals. Missing OH reactivity enhanced the ozone production potential by a factor of 2.5 on average. Heterogeneous loss of radicals could markedly suppress ozone production under low NO/NOx conditions with slow gas-phase reactions of radicals and change the ozone regime from VOC- to NOx-sensitive conditions. This study quantifies the relationship of missing OH reactivity and aerosol uptake of radicals with ozone production in Kyoto, a low-emission suburban area. The result has implications for future NOx-reduction policies. Further studies may benefit from the combination of chemical transport models and inverse modeling over a wide spatiotemporal range.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Ozono , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Ozono/química , Aerosoles y Gotitas Respiratorias
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 13076-13084, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075084

RESUMEN

Our understanding of the significance of dimethylmercury (DMHg) to the mercury (Hg) global ocean biogeochemical cycle is unclear because of the lack of detailed DMHg measurements in the water column. To our knowledge, 30 years of published studies have generated no more than 200 DMHg data points in the ocean surface waters and marine boundary layer (MBL). To improve the precision and reduce the uncertainty in determining DMHg in surface seawater, we developed a simple and robust DMHg automatic analyzer (DAA). This DAA system couples the main sampling and analytic steps, including a continuous flow chamber, with dual Carbotrap preconcentration, a gas chromatographic column, a cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry, and a data logger for signal integration. We compared the operation, performance, and reproducibility between our DAA and the traditional manual analytic method. Its advantages include the ease of operation, the high time resolution and precision (30 min sampling and <5% relative variation), and long-term stability (2 weeks). The DAA can determine DMHg in both the MBL and surface seawater. The estimated detection limits for DMHg with the DAA in the atmosphere and in surface seawater are 10 pg/m3 and 0.2 fM, respectively. The successful DAA field measurement in coastal waters indicates that it can help detect the low DMHg concentration in surface seawater, and the time series DMHg data helped our understanding of the DMHg behavior (sources and sinks) and its flux into the MBL. The comparison of DMHg concentration in various oceans also suggests that the coastal region had the lowest averaged DMHg, up to an order of magnitude lower than other ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Antivirales/análisis , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Gases , Mercurio/química , Compuestos de Metilmercurio , Océanos y Mares , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Agua de Mar/química , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 13019-13028, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053064

RESUMEN

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster released 3.19 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) in 2010, overlapping the habitat of pelagic fish populations. Using mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus)─a highly migratory marine teleost present in the GOM during the spill─as a model species, laboratory experiments demonstrate injuries to physiology and behavior following oil exposure. However, more than a decade postspill, impacts on wild populations remain unknown. To address this gap, we exposed wild mahi-mahi to crude oil or control conditions onboard a research vessel, collected fin clip samples, and tagged them with electronic tags prior to release into the GOM. We demonstrate profound effects on survival and reproduction in the wild. In addition to significant changes in gene expression profiles and predation mortality, we documented altered acceleration and habitat use in the first 8 days oil-exposed individuals were at liberty as well as a cessation of apparent spawning activity for at least 37 days. These data reveal that even a brief and low-dose exposure to crude oil impairs fitness in wild mahi-mahi. These findings offer new perspectives on the lasting impacts of the DWH blowout and provide insight about the impacts of future deep-sea oil spills.


Asunto(s)
Perciformes , Contaminación por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Golfo de México , Petróleo/metabolismo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 762, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087153

RESUMEN

With the increased urbanization, the rise of the manufacturing industry, and the use of fossil fuels, poor air quality is one of the most serious and pressing problems worldwide. The COVID-19 outbreak prompted absolute lockdowns in the majority of countries throughout the world, posing new research questions. The study's goals were to analyze air and temperature parameters in Turkey across various land cover classes and to investigate the correlation between air and temperature. For that purpose, remote sensing data from MODIS and Sentinel-5P TROPOMI were used from 2019 to 2021 over Turkey. A large amount of data was processed and analyzed in Google Earth Engine (GEE). Results showed a significant decrease in NO2 in urban areas. The findings can be used in long-term strategies for lowering global air pollution. Future research should look at similar investigations in various study sites and evaluate changes in air metrics over additional classes.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Turquia/epidemiología
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 761, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087154

RESUMEN

One of the main water supplies in Asia is known to be melting water from Himalayan glaciers. One of the most important metrics to analyze and evaluate potential shifts in freshwater supplies from glacier storage is the estimate of mass balance. The present study aims at estimating the glacier mass balance with the help of remote sensing and in situ data for the Mulkila, a benchmark glacier situated in the Bhaga basin of Western Himalayas. The inter-annual difference in the run-off of glaciers is associated with the annual change in glacier mass. To estimate the mass balance of the Mulkila glacier, the current study uses the transient snowline, accumulation area ratio (AAR), and glacier melt model. For 10 consecutive hydrological years from 2009 to 2018, the analysis was conducted using 40 cloud-free Landsat 5/7/8 and Sentinel-2 datasets. Additionally, in situ meteorological weather data for calculating precipitation and changes in temperature were also used. For the period of study, a cumulative mass balance of - 6.66 m.w.e. for 10 years and a mean mass balance of - 0.66 ± 0.27 m.w.e./year were obtained. A negative mass balance obtained for many consecutive hydrological years indicates the effect of climate change and global warming on the glacier ice thinning. This directly affects the regional or local environment and, in the long run, alters water supply. The findings of the present study help in preparing an immediate commitment to curb future warming both at the local and regional scale.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Cubierta de Hielo , Cambio Climático , Calentamiento Global , Hidrología
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