Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.859
Filtrar
1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1772-1780, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742812

RESUMEN

Fourteen current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the surface seawaters of the typical Liaoning sea areas were analyzed using HPLC-MS/MS. The concentrations, distribution, and ecological risks were studied, as well as their source appointments using principal component analysis (PCA). The results revealed that seven types of CUPs were detected in the surface seawaters of the typical Liaoning sea areas. The total concentrations of these CUPs ranged from 16.7 ng·L-1 to 176.1 ng·L-1. The samples with high concentrations were collected mostly from the estuary, and the concentrations of CUPs in the western Liaodong Bay were generally higher than those in the northeastern Yellow Sea. Atrazine and triadimenol were the predominant CUPs, and their contribution rates accounted for 56.0% and 34.5%, respectively. The PCA results indicated that six types of CUPs might be caused by the runoff from farmlands and the wastewater discharge from the chemical pesticide factory, and fruit planting could be a substantial contributor to the single component acetochlor. Atrazine and acetochlor posed medium-high ecological risks to the microalgae, while all the seven types of CUPs showed relatively lower risks to invertebrates and fish.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plaguicidas/análisis , Agua de Mar , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109116, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676332

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common zoonotic pathogens originating from animals consumed as food, especially raw chicken meat (RCM). As far as we know, this might be the first report that explores the efficacy of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs), such as zinc peroxide nanoparticles (ZnO2-NPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) against multidrug resistant (MDR) and/or pandrug resistant (PDR) S. aureus strains with a strong biofilm-producing ability isolated from RCM and giblets. The overall prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci was 21%, with a contamination level range between 102 and 104 CFU/g. The incidence of virulence genes See (21/36), pvl (16/36), clfA (15/36), sec (12/36), tst (12/36), and sea (11/36) among S. aureus strains were relatively higher those of seb, sed, fnbA, and fnbB. For antimicrobial resistance gene distribution, most strains harbored the blaZ gene (25/36), aacA-aphD gene (24/36), mecA gene (22/36), vanA gene (20/36), and apmA gene (20/36) confirmed the prevalence of MDR among S. aureus of RCM products. However, cfr (11/36), spc (9/36), and aadE (7/36) showed a relatively lower existence. The data of antibiogram resistance profiles was noticeably heterogeneous (25 patterns) with 32 MDR and four PDR S. aureus strains. All tested strains had a very high MAR index value (>0.2) except the P11 pattern (GEN, MXF, PMB), which showed a MAR index of 0.19. Among the strong biofilm-producing ability (BPA), 14 (70%) strains were isolated from wet markets, while only six strong BPA strains were isolated from supermarkets. The mean values of BPA ranged from 2.613 ± 0.04 to 11.013 ± 0.05. Clearly, ZnO2-NPs show significant inhibitory activity against S. aureus strains compared with those produced by the action of ZnO-NPs and TiO2-NPs. The results of anti-inflammatory activity suggest ZnO2-NPs as a lead compound for designing an alternative antimicrobial agent against drug-resistant and strong biofilm-producing S. aureus isolates from retail RCM and giblets.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Contaminación de Alimentos/prevención & control , Staphylococcus aureus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Titanio/farmacología , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología , Animales , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos , Carne/microbiología , Nanopartículas del Metal , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/prevención & control , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Virulencia/genética
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112169, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691217

RESUMEN

In this paper a novel methodology to assess the risk of marine litter (ML) pollution in the Mediterranean Sea is implemented. In this approach, the hazard component is estimated using a state-of-the-art 3D modeling system, which allows the simulation of floating and sinking ML particles; the exposure component is defined from biodiversity estimates; and the vulnerability is related to ML ingestion rates of each species. The results show that the hot-spots for the ML risk concentrate in the coastal regions, and are mainly conditioned by the biodiversity in the region. A dedicated analysis on the marine protected areas shows that the risk therein is controlled by the proximity to ML sources and that their present-day protection levels are not effective in the case of ML pollution. Only a reduction of ML at the sources could reduce the impact of ML pollution in protected areas.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Biodiversidad , Mar Mediterráneo , Medición de Riesgo
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112154, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735684

RESUMEN

Disappearing sea ice in the Arctic region results in a pressing need to develop oil spill mitigation techniques suitable for ice-covered waters. The uncertainty around the nature of an oil spill in the Arctic arises from the ice-covered waters and sub-zero temperatures, and how they may influence natural attenuation efficiency. The Sea-ice Environmental Research Facility was used to create a simulated Arctic marine setting. This paper focuses on the potential for biodegradation of the bulk crude oil content (encapsulated in the upper regions of the ice), to provide insight regarding the possible fate of crude oil in an Arctic marine setting. Cheaper and faster methods of chemical composition analysis were applied to the samples to assess for weathering and transformation effects. Results suggest that brine volume in ice may not be sufficient at low temperatures to encompass biodegradation and that seawater is more suitable for biodegradation.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación por Petróleo , Petróleo , Regiones Árticas , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cubierta de Hielo , Contaminación por Petróleo/análisis , Agua de Mar
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 198, 2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730196

RESUMEN

We investigated the association between air pollution and asthma and bronchitis hospital admissions in Algiers city (Algeria). In addition, we used geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical methods to evaluate their correlation with the atmospheric pollution estimated by the lichen biomonitoring method of the index of atmospheric purity (IAP), the index of human impact (IHI) and environmental parameters. Thus, we georeferenced 976 local patients (including 771 patients with asthma and 205 patients with bronchitis). Then, we compared the patients to the spatial distribution of IAP in thirty-five areas (communities). The results revealed a significant difference in the mean spatial variation in the diseases among those areas. In fact, maps and generalized linear models (GLMs) revealed a significant negative correlation between IAP and diseases. Therefore, redundancy analysis (RDA) and Monte Carlo tests described a significant effect of IAP, urbanization and the number of roads on the distribution of diseases. We hope our findings contribute to enriching the literature on health research with a low-cost method of monitoring outdoor air pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Asma , Bronquitis , Líquenes , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Argelia , Asma/epidemiología , Bahías , Monitoreo Biológico , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 206, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751252

RESUMEN

The South Durban Industrial Basin (SDIB), South Africa, an economic hub that spans a long coastline, is a disaster management hotspot, which threatens the sustainability of the fishing industry in this region. This study investigated the elemental concentrations in fish and seawater from a mini-ecosystem in the SDIB, to determine if a direct relationship exists between these two matrices, and to assess for metal toxicities. The results showed As and Cr to be above the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for all fish species (blacktail, karanteen, five finger, mullet, and pompano), while fish from Isipingo Beach exceeded the WHO MPLs for Pb, As, and Cr. Fish did not display signs of metal toxicity indicating either a harmless form of metals or high tolerance levels. Typical concentrations of metals in seawater (mg L-1) at (Isipingo Beach, Cuttings Beach, and Amanzimtoti Beach) were found to be for Al (3, 2.7, and 16.4), As (0.17, 0.11, and 0.19), Cr (0.16, 0.17, and 0.23), Cu (0.15, 0.13, and 0.24), Fe (2.7, 3.45, and 33.9), and Zn (2, 2.1, and 2.12). Except for As, estimated daily intakes, target hazard quotients, and carcinogenic risks indicated no associated health risks due to consumption of the fish from the SDIB. However, due to target hazard quotients and carcinogenic risks for As being above 4 and 0.0001, respectively, fish from the SDIB should be consumed in moderation or not consumed to prevent long-term toxic effects of As.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Agua de Mar , Sudáfrica , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 155, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649931

RESUMEN

Regarding the generally accepted view of the minerals formed in solving the problem of ecosystem pollution, this research aims to track the role of seasonal minerals in overcoming widespread pollution problems in Lake Edku. At eleven locations inside Lake Edku and three locations in the outside the water inlets, some physical and chemical parameters that affect the formation of minerals and salts were detected seasonally. As a result of human activities from 1972 to 2020, the applied remote sensing technology showed a decrease in the area of Edku Lake by 13.3%. The saturation index (SI) of twelve minerals formed in fifty-six seasonal water samples collected from fourteen locations inside and outside the lake was estimated. The saturation index (SI) of anhydrite (ANH), gypsum (GYP), calcium phosphate (CP), magnesium phosphate (MP), calcite (CAL), aragonite (ARG), dolomite (DOL), magnesite (MGS), fluorapatite (FAP), hydroxyapatite (HAP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), and carbonate-fluorapatite (CFAP) was calculated. The presented SI values of apatite and phosphate minerals including FAP (SI 30.63-65.65), CFAP (SI 28.14-40.02), HAP (SI 24.83-31.81), Ca3(PO4)2 (SI 23.99-25.95), OCP (SI 19.96-25.47), and Mg3(PO4)2 (SI 15.80-17.46) were high. Palmer-Roger's diagram and piper ternary diagram models reflected the abundance of NaCl in lake water with 30, 40, 46, and 75% in winter, spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. Using correlation matrix, multiple stepwise regression and cluster analysis for statistical analysis, the relationship between sedimentary minerals and outflow and drainage, as well as the role of sedimentary minerals in reducing pollution in the lake area, was outlined.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Lagos , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Mar Mediterráneo , Minerales , Sales (Química)
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 224, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765246

RESUMEN

Although inland surface water bodies have been studied intensively, few studies have looked at the interactive effects of seawater intrusion and waterway types on the water quality. The current study aimed to (1) assess the inland water quality as affected by waterway types and seawater intrusion-affected zones, (2) examine the longitudinal dynamics of the water quality, and (3) quantify the contributive percentage of pollution sources in the coastal Tien Giang Province, Vietnam. A total of 680 surface-water samples were taken from 34 sites distributed over the Tien River and its tributary canals from 2015 to 2019. The water samples were analyzed for 16 physical, chemical, and biological parameters, which were used for water quality index (WQI) estimation and subjected to two-way ANOVA and principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA). The WQI in both waterway types tended to get better from the downstream to the upstream zone with an improving rate of WQI faster in the River (from 79 to 88) than in the canals (from 82 to 85). The PCA/FA showed that water from the two waterway types could be polluted by six main pollution sources, one of which was derived from the seawater intrusion, one from aquaculture, and the others from agricultural, residential, and industrial activities. In brief, the inland surface water quality of a coastal area was interactively influenced by spatial distance and waterway types, transferring various pollutants in and out of the inland area.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua de Mar , Vietnam , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 17029-17043, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646543

RESUMEN

North Africa coastline extends on 8955 km from Mauritania to Egypt. These areas continue to experience population and economic growth. North Africa coastal aquifers were exposed to an increase in groundwater salinity and seawater intrusion, which may contribute to economic crisis as a result of freshwater resources crisis. This work aims to explore the status and a holistic comprehending review of saltwater intrusion extent in the region and future challenges. Results on seawater intrusion in North Africa, from published papers and grey literature, show a several efforts have been made in understanding this phenomenon and developing management strategies in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania. The most method used is geochemical data and statistical analysis. Some studies linked geochemical data with geophysical techniques, geographical information system (GIS), and GALDIT index. Seawater intrusion varies from one country to another according to the aquifer hydrogeological settings, abstraction rates and aquifer morphology, climate change, urban expansion, and economic development. North Africa countries, such as Libya and Mauritania, need, for instance, more expertise and experience on the part of local researchers. The challenge of inadequate data and a need for a more robust data inventory was stressed. This paper recommends developing and building scientific capabilities in regional and international partnerships, and adopting rational water governance for sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Argelia , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Marruecos , Salinidad , Agua de Mar , Túnez
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112098, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662787

RESUMEN

The Deepwater Horizon blowout resulted in the second-largest quantity of chemical dispersants used as a countermeasure for an open water oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Of which, the efficacy of dispersant as a mitigation strategy and its toxic effects on aquatic fauna remains controversial. To enhance our understanding of potential sub-lethal effects of exposure to chemically dispersed-oil, sub-adult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were continuously exposed to a Corexit 9500: DWH crude oil chemically enhanced water accommodated fraction (CEWAF) for 3-days and transcriptomic responses were assessed in the liver. Differential expressed gene (DEG) analysis demonstrated that 63 genes were significantly impacted in the CEWAF exposed fish. Of these, 37 were upregulated and 26 downregulated. The upregulated genes were primarily involved in metabolism and oxidative stress, whereas several immune genes were downregulated. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR further confirmed upregulation of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase, along with downregulation of fucolectin 2 and chemokine C-C motif ligand 20. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) predicted 120 pathways significantly altered in the CEWAF exposed red drum. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway was significantly activated, while pathways associated with immune and cellular homeostasis were primarily suppressed. The results of this study indicate that CEWAF exposure significantly affects gene expression and alters signaling of biological pathways important in detoxification, immunity, and normal cellular physiology, which can have potential consequences on organismal fitness.


Asunto(s)
Perciformes/fisiología , Contaminación por Petróleo , Petróleo/toxicidad , Transcriptoma/fisiología , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Peces , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Golfo de México , Lípidos , Hígado/química , Contaminación por Petróleo/análisis , Agua/análisis
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144883, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736155

RESUMEN

Understanding pollen transport pathways and dispersal mechanism from the land to sea is a prerequisite for marine palynological study. Palynological analysis of 164 surface sediment samples in Liaodong Bay, and 39 analogous surface alluvium samples from its five inflowing rivers, identifies the distribution patterns, pathways and possible sources of pollen and spores. The results show that pollen and spore assemblages in surface sediments are well correlated to regional vegetation distribution, and the variations of pollen assemblage in different parts of Liaodong Bay reflected local vegetation changes along the coast. High pollen concentrations are mainly distributed in the estuaries of inflowing rivers, coastal waters and sea muddy areas. The pollen assemblage characteristics of alluvial samples are similar to those from coastal waters with water depths <8.5 m. Samples from the alluvium and surface sediments of coastal waters were dominated by herbaceous pollen taxa including Artemisia, Amaranthaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Typha. Herbaceous pollen percentages and concentrations decreased as the water depth increased, indicating that pollen and spores in the coastal waters of Liaodong Bay are mainly carried by the inflowing rivers. However, pollen assemblages for samples with water depth >8.5 m are significantly different from those of the alluvium. In samples taken below a depth of 8.5 m, the arboreal pollen is dominated by airborne Pinus, and there is a high number of the waterborne Selaginella fern spores, both of which are sourced from a wider region. In the Liaodong Bay, both wind and ocean current transportation determines the pollen distribution patterns in deeper waters, while fluvial and longshore current transportation determines the pollen assemblages found in shallow waters. The dispersal characteristics of pollen assemblages between the land and the sea in Liaodong Bay provide a theoretical basis for the interpretation of fossil pollen assemblages and past sea level changes.


Asunto(s)
Bahías , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Sedimentos Geológicos , Polen/química , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 49(1): 146-149, ene.-feb. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197111

RESUMEN

Evidence supports the link between air pollution and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, exposure to indoor pollution (IDP) is likely to be associated with the disease. The poor, refugees, and migrant workers who live in feeble conditions are the most vulnerable. The pandemic has caused many people to remain indoors, especially at-risk individuals (e.g., the elderly, diabetics, obese, cardiac, and chronic lung disease patients). Home isolation may be an underlying factor to other health problems among these populations if the place where they are socially isolating is not adequately ventilated. Therefore, understanding the conse­quences of the relationship between IDP and the COVID-19 pandemic is essential


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Neumonía Viral , Pandemias , Contaminación del Aire Interior/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Cuarentena
13.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 49(1): 166-167, ene.-feb. 2021. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197114

RESUMEN

We appreciate that Urrutia-Pereira M., et al. have reported on "COVID-19 and air pol­lution: A dangerous association."1 Research on the role of air pollution in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is worth discussing. Air pollution refers to harmful substances that are carried in the air. When the quantity or proportion of the pollutants reaches or exceeds the environmental carrying capacity, they will change the normal state of the environment.2 With rapid economic development around the world, global pollution gradually increases. Ecological governance has become a crucial issue across the globe.3 Pollution control is also a highly debated issue between developing countries and developed countries; China too has an environmental pollution control problem.4 China began to pay attention to the question of pollution control and its preven­tion methods early on. The Chinese government has formulated many policies in this respect. However, these measures did not improve the environment. At the end of 2019, the COVID-19 epidemic broke in Wuhan, China.5 The Chinese government has taken a series of measures to control the outbreak. Wuhan was locked down on January 23, 2020, and people's travel was restricted. We downloaded the daily air pollution parameters of 367 cities around China from the China Meteorological Administration website (http://data.cma.cn/). Records covered the periods between January 23, 2019 and March 23, 2019; November 22, 2019 and January 22, 2020; and January 23, 2020 and March 23, 2020. Pollution severity was divided into quartiles according to the air quality index (AQI). The AQI was calculated using the con­centration of the following six pollutants: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, SO2, and O3. An AQI of 0-100 indicates no pollution, 101-150 indicates mild pollution, 151-200 indicates moderate pollution, and AQI > 200 indicates severe pollution (USEPA 2013, http://www.Gpo.gov/). We found a significant improvement in air quality across China as a result of the reduction


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , China/epidemiología
14.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 19, 2021. 5 p.
No convencional en Inglés, Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150950

RESUMEN

Proporcionar condiciones térmicas y sistemas de ventilación adecuados que eviten la dispersión de patógenos es fundamental para proteger la salud de los pacientes, de los profesionales médicos y de enfermería, y del resto del personal, así como para el funcionamiento general de los equipos sensibles. Esta segunda versión presenta recomendaciones generales para evitar la transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 a través de sistemas de calefacción, ventilación y aire acondicionado en establecimientos de salud.


Providing adequate thermal conditions and ventilation systems that prevent the dispersion of pathogens, is fundamental to protect the health of patients, caregivers and staff, and to the overall operation of sensitive equipment. This technical note presents general recommendations to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in ​health care facilities.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Control de la Calidad del Aire , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Aire Acondicionado/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Filtros de Aire/normas , Betacoronavirus , Hospitales/normas
15.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 39(1): [E05], 15 febrero 2021. table 1, table 2, table 3
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1151091

RESUMEN

Objective. The study sought to correlate fear, stress, knowledge regarding COVID-19 in Nursing students and recent graduates in Mexico. Methods. Correlational design, sample comprising 912 nursing students and graduates during the last 18 months from public and private universities of Mexico. To measure the variables, the study applied the instrument Fear of COVID-19 Scale, knowledge subscale of the scale Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19, and the instrument COVID Stress Scale. Results. Relationship was found of the age variable with fear, danger of contamination, traumatic stress, knowledge and minor socioeconomic consequences (p<0.05). Likewise, relationship was observed of fear with stress regarding COVID-19, danger of contamination, socioeconomic consequences, xenophobia, traumatic stress, and compulsive checking (p<0.05). Stress and knowledge explain the presence of fear regarding COVID-19 in 50.3%, and fear and knowledge explain stress regarding COVID-19 in 50.4%. Conclusion. Nursing students and recent graduates have high levels of stress and fear, besides low level of knowledge. The presence of high stress and low knowledge predict fear regarding COVID-19. Interventions are required on knowledge, stress, and fear regarding COVID-19 in the population studied.


Objetivo. Correlacionar el temor, estrés, conocimientos frente al COVID-19 en estudiantes y recién egresados de enfermería en México. Métodos. Diseño correlacional, muestra constituida por 912 estudiantes de enfermería y egresados en los últimos 18 meses de universidades públicas y privadas de México. Para medir las variables se aplicó el instrumento Fear of COVID-19 Scale, subescala de conocimientos de la escala Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19, y el instrumento COVID Stress Scale. Resultados. Se encontró relación de la variable edad con temor, peligro de contaminación, estrés traumático, conocimientos y menores consecuencias socioeconómicas (p<0.05). De igual forma, se observó relación del temor con estrés ante el COVID-19, peligro de contaminación, consecuencias socioeconómicas, xenofobia, estrés traumático, y comprobación compulsiva (p<0.05). El estrés y los conocimientos explican la presencia del temor ante el COVID-19 en un 50.3 %, así como el temor y conocimiento explican el estrés ante el COVID-19 en un 50.4 %. Conclusión. Los estudiantes y recién egresados de enfermería tienen altos niveles de estrés y temor, además de bajo nivel de conocimientos. La presencia de alto estrés y bajos conocimientos predicen el temor ante del COVID-19. Se requieren intervenciones sobre los conocimientos, estrés y temor ante el covid-19 en la población estudiada


Objetivo. Correlacionar medo, estresse, conhecimento contra COVID-19 em estudantes e recém-formados em enfermagem no México. Métodos. Desenho correlacional, amostra composta por 912 estudantes e graduados de enfermagem nos últimos 18 meses de universidades públicas e privadas do México. Para mensurar as variáveis, foram aplicados o instrumento Escala de Medo do COVID-19, a subescala Conhecimento da escala Conhecimento, atitudes e práticas em relação ao COVID-19 e o instrumento Escala de Estresse COVID. Resultados. Foi encontrada relação entre a variável idade e medo, perigo de contaminação, estresse traumático, conhecimento e menores consequências socioeconômicas (p<0.05). Da mesma forma, foi observada relação entre medo e estresse frente ao COVID-19, perigo de contaminação, consequências socioeconômicas, xenofobia, estresse traumático e verificação compulsiva (p<0.05). O estresse e o conhecimento explicam a presença do medo do COVID-19 em 50.3%, assim como o medo e o conhecimento explicam o estresse do COVID-19 em 50.4%. Conclusão. Estudantes de enfermagem e recém-formados apresentam altos níveis de estresse e medo, bem como baixo nível de conhecimento sobre o COVID-19. A presença de alto estresse e baixo conhecimento prediz medo de COVID-19. Se faz necessário intervenções sobre o conhecimento, estresse e medo de covid-19 na população estudada.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Estrés Psicológico , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Conocimiento , Miedo , Pandemias , Enfermeras y Enfermeros
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112108, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581567

RESUMEN

In this study, metal compositions in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) sampled from 11 different sites representing Turkey, Georgia, and Abkhazia coasts of the Black Sea were investigated. For this purpose, micro (Al, Zn, Mn, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cd, Pb, Se, As, and Hg) and macro (K, Ca, Na, Mg, P) element content in edible muscle tissue of anchovy were determined. In addition, the potential risks associated with human consumption of the samples were evaluated using quality indices such as estimated weekly intake (EWI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and total exposure hazard index (HI). The results showed that the potassium (K) concentration was the highest in edible tissue of the anchovies from all stations. Anchovies were also found to be rich in phosphorus and calcium. When the metal content of anchovies was compared, there were statistically variations among metal concentrations (except for Co, Ni, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Hg) in the muscle tissue of anchovies according to the stations (P<0.05). The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr in anchovy were found below the maximum permissible values determined by various national and international organizations for seafood. Besides, when the samples were examined in terms of EWI, THQ, and HI quality indices, it was determined that anchovy consumption did not pose a potential hazard to human health for the consumption of the anchovy. The present study conclusively indicated that no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial anchovy along the Turkey, Georgia, and Abkhazia coasts of the Black Sea.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Animales , Mar Negro , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Georgia , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Alimentos Marinos/análisis , Turquia
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112049, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581568

RESUMEN

The persistence and transformation of water soluble chemical constituents derived from surface oil from the 2015 Refugio Oil Spill and from a nearby natural seep were evaluated under simulated sunlight conditions. Photoirradiation resulted in enhanced oil slick dissolution, which was more pronounced in spill oil compared to seep oil. Nontargeted analysis based on GC × GC/TOF-MS revealed that photoirradiation promoted oil slick dissolution, and more water soluble compounds were released from spill oil (500 compounds) than from seep oil (180 compounds), most of them (488 in spill oil and 150 in seep oil) still persisting in solution after 67 days of photoirradiation. First-order degradation rate coefficients of humic-like water soluble constituents were found to be 0.26 day-1 and 0.29 day-1 for irradiated spill and seep samples, respectively. The decreases in humic-like fluorescence, specific UV absorbance, and aromatic compounds without corresponding decreases in DOC concentration support indirect photochemical transformation in addition to complete photomineralization.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación por Petróleo , Petróleo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Contaminación por Petróleo/análisis , Agua de Mar , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112109, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581572

RESUMEN

Bulk organic matter proxies including total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and carbon stable isotopic composition (δ13C) combined with sterols in a sediment core were studied to reconstruct both organic matter (OM) sources and phytoplankton evolutions of the Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) during the past ~ 80 years. The OM source allocations were calculated based on δ13C and sterol. The results showed that the marine OM (MOM) input was the dominant OM sources, with the marine organic carbon (OCM) proportion of 54.2-78.4% and marine sterol proportion of 63.9-72.7%. The Terrestrial OM (TOM) contribution increased especially since the 1960s, mainly attributed to the increased sewage discharge and usage of fertilizer. Elevated marine primary productivity since the 1980s was mainly attributed to the increased nutrient inputs. Evolution of diatom compared with dinoflagellate in the JZB was closely related to the anthropogenic forcing and climate change.


Asunto(s)
Sedimentos Geológicos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Bahías , Carbono/análisis , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fitoplancton , Esteroles/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112052, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582425

RESUMEN

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hopanes were analyzed in plastic resin pellets collected from 19 locations along the Persian Gulf coastline. PCBs were high at locations near industrial areas, where their concentrations (sum of 13 congeners, 54-624 ng/g-pellet) were higher than those in rural coastal towns, which were close to global background levels (<10 ng/g-pellet). PAH concentrations (sum of 27 PAH species) varied from 273 to 15,786 ng/g-pellet and were highest in industrial cities (Bushehr and Bandar Abbas), with a petrogenic signature at most locations, possibly due to the petroleum-based industries, refineries, and tankers. These levels were placed in the extremely polluted category on a global basis. The distribution of hopanes was relatively homogeneous, and their range of concentrations was 8048-59,778 ng/g-pellet. This range had a positive correlation with PAH concentrations. The PAH and hopane results emphasize the ubiquity of petroleum pollution in the Persian Gulf.


Asunto(s)
Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Océano Índico , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos , Plásticos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145068, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592468

RESUMEN

In this study, we systematically investigated the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of arsenic (As) in a typical semi-enclosed gulf, Daya Bay. Ten categories of organisms and environmental samples for As, δ13C, and δ15N analyses were collected from 14 sampling sites in all four seasons. The results demonstrated that As concentrations in the organisms and environmental samples were within the normal range of As levels in other uncontaminated marine ecosystems. Arsenic concentrations were generally lower in the pelagic organisms than in the benthic organisms. Arsenic concentrations in the organisms at higher trophic levels (fish, crabs, shrimp, and cephalopods) were lower in summer and higher in winter, while As in the environments was stable in all seasons. The results of δ13C and δ15N analysis indicated that this ecosystem had a marine-derived food web with approximately 3.5 trophic levels. The positive correlation of As and δ15N in the organisms demonstrated that As was biomagnified along trophic transfer in the whole gulf food web in winter and spring. Specifically, As was biomagnified in the benthic food chains in all four seasons and in the pelagic food chains in winter and spring. These trends were consistent with the analysis of As transfer among the categories within the empirical food web. The trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of As were generally higher among the benthic categories than the pelagic categories. In addition, As transfer from stomach content to muscle was positively correlated to δ13C in fish, suggesting that As transfer was enhanced by a benthic habit. These results demonstrated that As could be biomagnified in marine food webs for specific organism compositions and seasonal variations, and a benthic habit was an important promoter for As biomagnification. Therefore, this study partially explained previous investigations in which As trophic transfers were diverse among marine ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bahías , Bioacumulación , China , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Peces , Cadena Alimentaria , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...