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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 521, 2022 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732906

RESUMEN

In South Africa, the relevant authorities use environmental impact assessments (EIAs) to achieve sustainable development. Biodiversity impact assessment (BIA) studies are part of EIAs to ensure that biodiversity issues are considered. In 2013, the mining industry published the Mining and biodiversity guideline to improve the integration of biodiversity into their activities. This research analysed the inclusion of biodiversity impacts in mining EIAs before and after the publication of the guideline. A customised mining BIA report-review package was developed and used to review 46 mining BIAs produced before and after 2013. Secondary data were collected using questionnaires on the inclusion of biodiversity impacts in mining EIAs. The results showed that most BIAs failed to properly consider biodiversity issues, with an overall satisfactory score of 43% before and 57% after 2013. Areas of weakness included project description, sensitivity mapping, stakeholder consultation, consideration of alternatives, and monitoring. The extent to which biodiversity specialist inputs were included in the main mining EIA reports showed an improvement after 2013, with an overall satisfactory score of 78%, compared to the 52% before 2013. The majority of the BIAs complied with the minimum requirements for specialist studies stipulated by the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 (NEMA). The analysis of the questionnaires revealed inadequacies regarding the inclusion of biodiversity impacts. These included poor consideration of indirect and cumulative impacts, failure to incorporate environmental thresholds, and use of the ecosystem approach.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Biodiversidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Minería , Sudáfrica
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 3): 156234, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644400

RESUMEN

Human activities in coastal lagoons over several decades have had a significant impact on their ecology and the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Although there are several management approaches to mitigate the problem, they are unable to link human needs and activities with changes in the state of the environment. This research provides this link via assessment of eleven lagoons in Ghana with a socio-ecological framework (Drivers (D), Activities (A), Pressure (P), State (S), Impact (I) on welfare (W), and Response (R) as a Measure (M); DAPSI(W)R(M)). Data were systematically obtained from relevant publications, previously conducted research, and national reports on the subject and were analyzed using this socio-ecological framework. Results show that basic biological and physiological needs such as food and shelter, social status and dominance, financial self-reliance, and self-actualization are the drivers of fishing, farming, settlements, salt mining, mangrove harvesting, industries, among others. These activities have contributed to pressures of selective extraction of fish and mangroves species, the introduction of heavy metals, organic materials, and smothering of substrates, consequently altering the environment by decreasing the oxygen rate and increasing the biochemical oxygen demand, organic matter, nutrients and pathogens, and reduction in lagoon areas and biodiversity. Thus, ultimately impacting human welfare, such as loss of revenue, employment, and seafood provision. Management options, including addressing the building and fuelwood material sources, afforestation and community ownership of lagoons, the prohibition of construction activities, and research-led management that can support decision-makers to improve the sustainability of these ecosystems, are highlighted. The findings have global implications for guiding local planners and state regulators in the applications of such integrated environmental management.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Actividades Humanas , Minería , Oxígeno
3.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt D): 113575, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644495

RESUMEN

Non-ferrous metal mining is considered one of the largest sources of toxic metal released to the environment and may threaten ecosystems, notably biota. We explored how birds that inhabit non-ferrous metal mining sites are exposed to mercury, lead, and other trace elements by analyzing their feathers and verifying which factors may influence element concentrations in feathers. We sampled a total of 168 birds, representing 26 species, with different feeding habits and migration patterns in a non-polluted reference site and two historical metal mining areas: Almadén, which is considered one of the most heavily mercury-contaminated sites worldwide, and the Sierra Madrona mountains where lead has been mined since ancient times. The quantification of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), thorium (Th), thallium (Tl), uranium (U), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Feather analysis revealed contamination by Hg and Pb, in Almadén and Sierra Madrona, respectively. We found that granivorous birds had the lowest feather Hg levels compared to those found in omnivorous, insectivorous, and piscivorous species, whereas feather Pb was about twice as high in granivores and omnivores, than in insectivorous and piscivorous birds. We also found differences among study sites in 13 elements and confirmed the influence of feather age, migratory patterns of the birds, and external deposition of elements, on metal concentrations in the feathers. Our results highlight that despite the cessation of metal mining in the study areas, local avifauna are being exposed to Hg and Pb from abandoned mines and old tailings sites, indicating that appropriate measures are needed to protect biota from overexposure to these toxic metals.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Oligoelementos , Animales , Aves , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Plomo/análisis , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Oligoelementos/análisis
4.
J Environ Manage ; 315: 115184, 2022 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523070

RESUMEN

Phytoremediation is a cost-effective, environmentally-friendly and emerging remediation technology that treats polluted areas using plants, having the potential to restore ecosystems and make compromised areas useable again, therefore returning a resource to community use. In the present work a study was conducted on the contamination of soil by heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Co) in the mining area of Angouran (northwestern Iran) and on their uptake by 25 native species present in the mining district, in order to evaluate their potential use in phytoremediation interventions. Plant and soils from three sites around the mine were sampled and characterized, and metals accumulation and translocation were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) were applied to study the behavior of species in the accumulation and translocation of the elements in their tissues. The contents of Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Co in the studied plants were, respectively, 31.77-723.05, 7.78-233.25, 1.77-21.57, 0.04-7.92, and 0.15-9.97 mg/kg. Among the 25 species, 13 plants showed translocation factor greater than one (TF > 1) for Zn, 14 for Pb, 3 for Cr, 10 for Co, and 6 for Cd. Marrubium cuneatum having an accumulation factor greater than one (AF > 1) for Zn and bioconcentration factor greater than one (BCF >1) for Cd can be considered as an accumulator and stabilizer for Zn and Cd, respectively. Also, the highest value of Pb (233.25 mg/kg) and Cr (21.57 mg/kg) were found in the shoot of this plant. Psathyrostachys fragilis with BCF >1 for Co and maximum Pb accumulation in the root can be used as a stabilizer plant for Pb and Co-contaminated soils. Besides, Stipa arabica and Verbascum speciosum, with TF > 1 and rather high AF, could be considered suitable species for removing Zn and Pb through phytoextraction. This research showed that some native species in the study area have considerable potential for developing phytoremediation strategies.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio/análisis , Ecosistema , Irán , Plomo/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería , Plantas , Poaceae , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Zinc/análisis
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564693

RESUMEN

This study examined the use of an artificial soil substrate in a mine waste reclamation area and its effect on plant metabolic functions. Research was conducted by determining the relationship between the plants' biochemical features and the properties of plant growth medium derived from post-flotation coal waste, sewage sludge, crushed stone and fly ash on the surface of the mine waste disposal area. Trees and shrubs were established on the material and allowed to grow for eight years. The study determined that the applied plants and the naturally occurring Taraxacum officinale were suitable for physio-biochemical assessment, identification of derelict areas and reclamation purposes. An evaluation of a soil substrate applied to post-mining areas indicated that it was beneficial for plant growth since it activated the metabolic functions of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees. The study showed that soil substrate can be targeted to improve plant stress tolerance to potentially toxic elements (PTEs). These data suggest the potential for growth and slower susceptible response to Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. It is possible that the constructed soil-substitute substrate (biosolid material) would be an effective reclamation treatment in areas where natural soil materials are polluted by PTEs. This observation may reflect a more efficient use of soil substrate released from the cycling of organic biogene pools, in accordance with the circular economy approach. In further studies related to land reclamation using sewage sludge amendments, it would be necessary to extend the research to other stress factors, such as salinity or water deficiency.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Ceniza del Carbón , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería , Plantas/metabolismo , Aguas del Alcantarillado/química , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Árboles
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129045, 2022 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525218

RESUMEN

In this study, the metal(loid) fractions in two alkaline iron tailings areas with similar physico-chemical properties and the enrichment ability of dominant plants in these areas were investigated. Additionally, high-throughput sequencing and metagenome analysis were used to examine the rhizosphere microbial community structures and their strategies and potential for carbon fixation, nitrogen metabolism, and metal(loid) resistance in mining areas. Results showed that Salsola collina, Setaria viridis, and Xanthium sibiricum have strong enrichment capacity for As, and the maximum transport factor for Mn can reach 4.01. The richness and diversity of bacteria were the highest in rhizosphere tailings, and the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota, and Thaumarchaeota. The key taxa present in rhizosphere tailings were generally metal(loid) resistant, especially Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Nocardioides, and Microbacterium. The reductive citrate cycle was the main carbon fixation pathway of microorganisms in tailings. Rhizosphere microorganisms have evolved a series of survival strategies and can adapt to oligotrophic and metal(loid) polluted mining environments. The results of this study provide a basis for the potential application of plant-microbial in situ remediation of alkaline tailings.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Contaminantes del Suelo , Bacterias/genética , Hierro/análisis , Metales/análisis , Minería , Plantas , Rizosfera , Suelo/química , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 415, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536368

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to find out characteristics of trace element levels and those impacts to organisms at a former uranium (U) mining site. Concentrations of trace elements (Li, Mg, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, Bi, and U) were determined in sediments, water, and three organism types (insects, frogs, and newts) from three zones in the former U mining site, Ningyo-toge in Japan. Concentrations of As and U in the sediments and water samples were the highest at the mill tailings pond (MP) site, where post-U extraction remnants have been accumulated. Additionally, among the organisms analyzed the highest concentrations of these elements/isotopes were found in newts from MP. Considering data analyses of the whole-body element concentrations, bioaccumulation factors, and δ15N values for the organisms, it was concluded that newts might be the most vulnerable species in this location. Further monitoring and more accurate evaluation of the ecological impacts are preferred for this former U mining site.


Asunto(s)
Oligoelementos , Uranio , Ambiente , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Japón , Minería , Oligoelementos/análisis , Uranio/análisis , Agua/análisis
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565067

RESUMEN

With the development of technology, the concepts of "green" and "sustainable" have gradually been popularized in all walks of life. With the continuous development of the world mining industry, the efficiency of resource development in various countries has been improved, but mining activities and production will undoubtedly bring many environmental pollution problems. As a mining power, China is one of the first countries to put forward the concept of "green mining". Over the years, as people emphasize safety and environmental protection, green mining technology has become the hot topic. At the same time, groundwater pollution caused by mining has become the focus of China's "green mine construction": with the continuous development of mining, mining activities and production will also undoubtedly bring significant environmental pollution. The environmental pollution of the mined area has a vital influence on the surrounding environment. The pollutants mainly come from mining operations and production of the mineral processing industry, including process wastewater, gas waste, smelting slag, etc., which are all acidic. Acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs in the process of mining production, due to the structure of minerals and the complex reactions between oxygen and minerals, and results in heavy metal ions leaching into groundwater. Once the groundwater is polluted, it will slowly flow to the surrounding area, resulting in the migration and diffusion of pollutants in the groundwater, affecting the surrounding rivers, farmland, and drinking water for residents. In recent years, environmental damage caused by groundwater pollution from underground mines in Shijiazhuang, China, and Selangor, Malaysia, has had a negative impact on rivers, farmland, and human health. At the same time, the paper introduces many key technologies of green mine construction, such as the backfill mining method. In cooperation with China Road & Bridge Corporation, this paper also introduces the progress in the reuse of mining waste, especially the use of mining waste as aggregate to prepare concrete materials for road and bridge construction. This information article introduces the development status of green mine construction in China and briefly reviews the key technologies of green mine construction in China.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Minería , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 419, 2022 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543872

RESUMEN

This paper was aimed at providing a perspective on the assessment of land-use dominant transition. Based on the transfer matrix of land-use type, the dynamic degree of dominant morphology transition was measured, and an active degree index was proposed. The spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics were assessed and analyzed by land use change characteristics in different phases. Our assessment resulted in three types of spatiotemporal differentiation of Hainan Province in China. The whole island can be divided into three regions with two parallel lines at 45° based on spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics. The "slow-type" was distributed in four eastern counties (cities), "steady-type" was distributed in 13 central and western counties (cities), and the "active-type" was distributed in four central counties (cities). Over three phases, namely 2010-2011, 2012-2015, and 2015-2018, four levels of spatiotemporal differentiation of the 21 counties (cities) were assessed, and they were relatively stable, leaping, declining, and unstable. Areas of new construction and fixed assets investments consumed by increased construction land were the positive factors of land-use dominant transition, while output values of secondary industries and area of industrial-mining per capita were the negative factors. Based on these results, a more informative examination of LULC was proposed, and all resulting land management policies will be more targeted and effective.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Minería , China , Ciudades , Industrias , Políticas
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 437, 2022 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583831

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the acid production potential (AP) calculation factor and seven different S analysis methods in the preliminary mine waste characterization by analyzing and comparing 48 Finnish mine waste samples. Special attention was paid on mineralogical aspects and data produced in the exploration phase of a mining project.According to our results, the abundance of sulfide species other than pyrite in Finnish mine waste suggests that the factor to calculate the AP should be considered based on mineralogy and would often be below 31.25. Therefore, the mineralogy-based determination of S should be preferred. However, the determination of S based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) mineralogy includes some uncertainties. Underestimation of S content may appear if not all S-bearing mineral particles have been detected, or if the amount of S is low in general. This uncertainty appears to be especially related to the samples containing elevated (> 9 wt%) amounts of serpentine, diopside, augite, and/or hornblende. Risk of overestimating AP is related to samples containing high amounts (> 4.13 wt%) of S-bearing minerals. These uncertainties can be reduced by inspecting that the SEM mineralogy-based S concentrations are in line with the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer data. The aqua regia extractable S concentrations, which are often available in the exploration phase, appeared to be usable in the preliminary waste rock AP assessment and often comparable with the analytical total S values in the Finnish waste rock samples, especially when the samples did not contain any sulfate minerals. In contrast, the analytical sulfide S and the X-ray fluorescence methods may lead to an underestimation of AP.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Minería , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Minerales/análisis , Sulfuros/análisis , Azufre/análisis
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580347

RESUMEN

Lead pollution from metalliferous mines can have major environmental and health effects long after the mines have closed. Animals living near derelict mine sites can inadvertently ingest lead-contaminated soils, causing them to accumulate lead and potentially experience significant adverse health effects. Human food products, such as eggs, produced near metalliferous mines may also be contaminated with lead. The focus of this case study was to determine whether free-range chickens living near a derelict lead mine had high lead body burdens, whether they were producing eggs with elevated lead concentrations, and whether these eggs could be hazardous to human health. Soil samples and chicken egg, feather, blood, and bone samples were collected from a small farm near an abandoned metalliferous mine. The soil in and around the chicken pens contained lead concentrations that were elevated above established soil lead baseline concentrations. The lead concentrations in the chicken feather, blood, and bone samples were consistent with lead toxicity and indicated long-term, continuous exposure. Finally, the lead concentrations in the eggs were significantly greater than those found in commercial eggs. Based on previously established lead benchmark dose levels, humans, and in particular, children, could experience adverse health impacts if they routinely consumed these eggs. Environmental lead contamination continues to pose a major health risk for humans, and further research, understanding, and awareness are required to safeguard the public from the risks of consuming food produced near derelict mines.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Pollos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Plomo/análisis , Minería , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564526

RESUMEN

Dissolved and suspended toxic elements in water discharged from abandoned and active mining areas pose several critical issues, since they represent a threat to the environment. In this work, we investigated the water, suspended particulates, and stream sediments of a 2.1 km long creek (Fosso della Chiusa) that is fed by waters draining the galleries of the abandoned Hg mining area of Abbadia San Salvatore (Mt. Amiata, Tuscany, central Italy). The geochemical results show evidence that the studied matrices are characterized by relatively high concentrations of Hg and As, whereas those of Sb are generally close to or below the instrumental detection limit. Independent of the matrices, the concentration of As decreases from the emergence point to the confluence with the Pagliola creek. In contrast, Hg concentrations display more complex behavior, as water and sediment are mainly characterized by concentrations that significantly increase along the water course. According to the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), sediments belong to Class 6 (extremely contaminated) for Hg. The Igeo of As varies from Class 6, close to the emergence, to Class 2 (moderately contaminated), dropping to Class 0 (uncontaminated) at the confluence with the Pagliola creek. Finally, the total mass load of Hg and As entering the Pagliola creek was computed to be 1.3 and 0.5 kg/year, respectively, when a mean flow rate of 40 L/s was considered. The calculated loads are relatively low, but, when the Fosso della Chiusa drainage basin is taken into account, the specific load is comparable to, or even higher than, those of other mining areas.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Mercurio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Arsénico/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Ríos/química , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564574

RESUMEN

Identifying the spatial range of mining disturbance on vegetation is of significant importance for the plan of environmental rehabilitation in mining areas. This paper proposes a method to identify the spatial range of mining disturbance (SRMD). First, a non-linear and quantitative relationship between driving factors and fractional vegetation cover (FVC) was constructed by geographically weighted artificial neural network (GWANN). The driving factors include precipitation, temperature, topography, urban activities, and mining activities. Second, the contribution of mining activities (Wmine) to FVC was quantified using the differential method. Third, the virtual contribution of mining activities (V-Wmine) to FVC during the period without mining activity was calculated, which was taken as the noise in the contribution of mining activities. Finally, the SRMD in 2020 was identified by the significance test based on the Wmine and noise. The results show that: (1) the mean RMSE and MRE for the 11 years of the GWANN in the whole study area are 0.0526 and 0.1029, which illustrates the successful construction of the relationship between driving factors and FVC; (2) the noise in the contribution of mining activities obeys normal distribution, and the critical value is 0.085 for the significance test; (3) most of the SRMD are inside the 3 km buffer with an average disturbance distance of 2.25 km for the whole SRMD, and significant directional heterogeneity is possessed by the SRMD. In conclusion, the usability of the proposed method for identifying SRMD has been demonstrated, with the advantages of elimination of coupling impact, spatial continuity, and threshold stability. This study can serve as an early environmental warning by identifying SRMD and also provide scientific data for developing plans of environmental rehabilitation in mining areas.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Minería , China , Temperatura
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564604

RESUMEN

The article presents the results of radon research, carried out in the area of the mining commune in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), Poland. Past investigations in the 1990s on radon concentrations in buildings, located within the mining area, showed that the indoor radon concentrations measured in the area affected by mining were higher than in buildings located outside that area. Currently, all underground hard coal mines within the boundaries of the observed commune have been closed. In 2020, after the closure of the last active mine, radon measurements were started again. The current results of indoor radon concentrations were compared with the archival results from the 1990s. It was found that the radon concentration increased significantly in the basements of buildings where measurements were made in 1990, 2020, and 2021: the maximum values were 260 Bq/m3, 644 Bq/m3, and 1041 Bq/m3, respectively. Therefore, these questions were posed: Do the mine closure processes increase radon migration? How long is the period of the occurrence of changes in radon concentrations in buildings after the cessation of mining operations?


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Minas de Carbón , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radón , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Carbón Mineral , Minería , Monitoreo de Radiación/métodos , Radón/análisis
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564925

RESUMEN

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a significant source of gold production globally despite the sector being informal and illegal. The rapid increase in the number of roving mining camps has negatively impacted the surrounding environment; however, the formation and transformation of roving mining camps have not been well studied. This study investigated the long-term trends and significant hotspots of roving camp-type ASGM (R-C-ASGM) in Katingain Regency, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, from 1988 to 2020 using remotely sensed data, including Sentinel-1 time-series, global surface water (GSW), and world landcover datasets. Results show that several active R-C-ASGM sites existed in the Galangan and Kalanaman areas in 2017/2018. According to the GSW dataset, the Galangan area was estimated to be formed earlier, whereas the Kalanaman areas were recently formed and were associated with the Kalanaman river expansion. Notably, the center of Galangan was still a significant R-C-ASGM hotspot. The findings of this study broaden our understanding of R-C-ASGM transformation and identify significant R-C-ASGM hotspots over a long period. This study contributes to the development of timely and appropriate interventions for strengthening environmental governance.


Asunto(s)
Oro , Mercurio , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Agua
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627826

RESUMEN

Mercury (Hg) is one of the most harmful metals and has been a public health concern according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the world's fastest-growing source of Hg and can release Hg into the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. Hg has been widely used in ASGM industries throughout Southeast Asia countries, including Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Here, 16 relevant studies were systematically searched by performing the PRISMA flow, combining the keywords of "Hg", "ASGM", and relevant study areas. Mercury concentrations exceeding the WHO and United States Environmental Protection Agency guideline values were reported in environmental (i.e., air, water, and soil) and biomonitoring samples (i.e., plants, fish, and human hair). ASGM-related health risks to miners and nonminers, specifically in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Myanmar, were also assessed. The findings indicated severe Hg contamination around the ASGM process, specifically the gold-amalgamation stage, was significantly high. To one point, Hg atmospheric concentrations from all observed studies was shown to be extremely high in the vicinity of gold operating areas. Attentions should be given regarding the public health concern, specifically for the vulnerable groups such as adults, pregnant women, and children who live near the ASGM activity. This review summarizes the effects of Hg in Myanmar and other Southeast Asian countries. In the future, more research and assessment will be required to investigate the current and evolving situation in ASGM communities.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Animales , Contaminación Ambiental , Femenino , Oro , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Mianmar , Embarazo , Estados Unidos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627632

RESUMEN

Substances found in watersheds and sediments in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas contaminated by heavy metals are becoming tremendously critical issues in Asia. This study aimed at clarifying the pollution caused by heavy metals in sediments in river basins near ASGM sites in Gorontalo Province, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Sediment samples collected from experimental areas were classified into nine clay samples and twenty-seven sand samples, whereas three other samples were collected from the control area. Particle-induced X-ray emission was used to analyze these samples. The Statistical Package for the Social Science and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were also used for analysis. Based on the results, Hg, Pb, As, and Zn had a concentration of 0-334 µg/g, 5.5-1930 µg/g, 0-18,900 µg/g, and 0-4923.2 µg/g, respectively, which exceeded limits recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency consensus (1991) and the Indonesian Government Regulation Number 38, 2011. Furthermore, Igeo showed the order of the pollution degree Hg < Zn < Pb < As and reflected an environment contaminated by heavy metals, ranging from unpolluted to extremely polluted areas. Therefore, sediments contaminated by Hg, Pb, As, and Zn could be found along the river basin of mining areas.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Oro/análisis , Indonesia , Plomo/análisis , Mercurio/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería , Ríos , Estados Unidos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 1): 155877, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569654

RESUMEN

The demand for construction-grade sand is growing at a tremendous rate and the world is expected to run out of this resource by 2050. Construction-grade sand, hereafter referred to as 'sand', can be found in (former) aquatic environments, such as rivers and is a provisioning ecosystem service. Even under controlled circumstances, the practice of extracting the sand from the riverbed and -banks impacts the environment. Unfortunately, many countries lack sand mining regulation policies and in combination with a high demand, this results in indiscriminate and illegal mining. To create effective policies for sustainable extraction of river sand, there is a need for both qualitative and quantitative data on the effects of river sand mining. This paper brings together the effects of river sand mining on the physical, biological, chemical, and anthropogenic environment through a systematic literature review. The effects found are widespread and often cumulative. In the physical environment, the primary effects are riverbed widening and lowering. In the biological environment, the overarching effect is a reduced biodiversity and stretches from the aquatic and shoreline flora and fauna to the whole floodplain area. The effects on the chemical environment are a reduced water, air and soil quality through pollution. The effects on the anthropogenic environment comprise of damaged infrastructure, bad working circumstances for workers, limited access to water and agricultural losses. The findings of this research emphasize the complexity and cascading nature of the effects of river sand mining, as well as the severity and urgency of the problem. Based on the effects found and the four environments, a set of guidelines are proposed at the end of this paper to be used for global agenda making regarding sustainable sand extraction. Future research should prioritise quantifying the observed effects and developing science-based policies for sustainable mining.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Minería , Ríos/química , Arena , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
19.
Environ Pollut ; 306: 119370, 2022 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526646

RESUMEN

On November 5th, 2015, the Fundão dam collapsed in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, releasing millions of cubic meters of mud containing mining residue into the Doce River. Two weeks later, the mud arrived to the marine environment, triggering changes in franciscana dolphin habitat, Pontoporia blainvillei, from Franciscana Management Area Ia. This is an isolated population of the most endangered cetacean species in the South Atlantic Ocean. Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) may pose a threat to this endangered population because of their endocrine disrupting properties. Hence, this study sought to determine if there were differences in the bioaccumulation profile of OHC (PCBs, DDTs, Mirex, HCB, HCHs, PBDEs, PBEB, HBBZ and MeO-BDEs) in franciscana dolphins before and after dam collapse and to build a temporal trend. Blubber of 33 stranded individuals was collected in Espírito Santo state for organohalogen assessment between 2003 and 2019. Differences were found between franciscana dolphins collected prior to and after the disaster. Additionally, significant temporal trends for organochlorine pesticides and natural and anthropogenic organobromine were detected. The increase in pesticide concentrations after 2015 is suggestive of their reavailability in the environment. The decline in organobromine over time could be due to their debromination in the marine environment and alterations in the composition of their natural producers. PCBs remained stable during the period of the study. Our findings show an increase in endocrine disruptor concentrations, which is of great concern for this endangered population.


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Delfines , Plaguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Minería , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 2): 135003, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595112

RESUMEN

The knowledge of size-distribution and lability of metals and nutrients in freshwater systems is important for estimation of the ecological effects of mining. However, it is still limited in several mining areas such as the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil) which was severely polluted by the collapse of the Fundão tailings dam in November 2015. In this study, results of an investigation from 2014 using a neural network named self-organising map (SO-Map) into the conditions of selected trace metals that are of particular importance to mining areas (Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) are presented. Additionally, P was considered by its high importance as a nutrient and sites later affected by the dam burst were also included by chance. Water samples were collected at six sites in dry and rainy seasons and filtered and ultrafiltered for determination of total dissolved (<0.45 µm) and truly dissolved (<1 kDa) fractions. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) devices were deployed in situ for determination of the DGT-labile fraction. All data were analysed using SO-Map and Spearman's rank correlation. Phosphorus in the Carmo River occurred mainly in the truly dissolved and DGT-labile fractions. The higher amounts of this element in the river water (up to 263 µg L-1 of total P) might be related to untreated sewage discharge. Moreover, the concentrations of other trace metals (Mn, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn) were high, even under the "natural" conditions (before the dam failure) due to natural and anthropogenic factors such as local lithology and mining.


Asunto(s)
Oligoelementos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Metales/análisis , Minería , Fósforo/análisis , Oligoelementos/análisis , Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
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