Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.736
Filtrar
1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769684

RESUMEN

Economic crises cause significant shortages in disposable income and a sharp decline in the living conditions, affecting healthcare sector, hitting the profitability and sustainability of companies leading to raises in unemployment. At micro level, these sharp decreases in earnings associated with unemployment and furthermore with the lack of social protection will impact the quality of life and finally the health of individuals. In time of crisis, it becomes vital to support not only the critical sectors of the economy, the assets, technology, and infrastructure, but to protect jobs and workers. This health crisis has hit hard the jobs dynamics through unemployment and underemployment, the quality of work (through wages, or access to social protection), and through the effects on specific groups, with a higher degree of vulnerability to unfavorable labor market outcomes. In this context, providing forecasts as recent as possible for the unemployment rate, a core indicator of the Romanian labor market that could include the effects of the market shocks it becomes fundamental. Thus, the paper aims to offer valuable forecasts for the Romanian unemployment rate using univariate vs. multivariate time series models for the period 2021-2022, highlighting the main patterns of evolution. Based on the univariate time series models, the paper predict the future values of unemployment rate based on its own past using self-forecasting and implementing ARFIMA and SETAR models using monthly data for the period January 2000-April 2021. From the perspective of multivariate time series models, the paper uses VAR/VECM models, analyzing the temporal interdependencies between variables using quarterly data for the period 2000Q1-2020Q4. The empirical results pointed out that both SETAR and VECM provide very similar results in terms of accuracy replicating very well the pre-pandemic period, 2018Q2-2020Q1, reaching the value of 4.1% at the beginning of 2020, with a decreasing trend reaching the value of 3.9%, respectively, 3.6% at the end of 2022.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Desempleo , Economía , Empleo , Humanos , Renta , Rumanía , Factores Socioeconómicos
2.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021417, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739460

RESUMEN

Suicide risk and resilience strategies during the different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic are of great interest to researchers. At the pandemic onset, a dramatic suicides exacerbation was feared. Some authoritative authors warned the scientific and clinical community about this risk by pointing out that especially psychiatric, psychological, and social factors could interact with each other to create a vicious cycle. While worldwide case-reports and studies conducted at emergency departments did indeed find an increase in suicidal behavior, recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and time-series analyses could not confirm this for the first COVID-19 wave. Instead, it appears that the increased suicide risk outlasted the acute phase of the pandemic and thus affected people more during the pandemic following phases. One possible reason for this phenomenon may be a persistent state of insecurity regarding the economic crisis evolution with serious financial stressors in terms of income decrease, unemployment, repaying debts difficulty, home loss, one's social status derive, social hierarchy drop, and poverty. During the COVID-19 first wave, with particular regard to vulnerable populations, one of the postulated theories unifying different risk factors under a single frame was the "Interpersonal Theory of Suicide". Conversely, the "Interpersonal Trust" theory emerged as a protective factor even during an economic crisis. In a possible mirroring of the two theories, it seems to be feasible to find common themes between them and, above all, to gain relevant insights to devise effective prevention and supportive strategies for dealing with suicide risk challenges that COVID-19 will continue to pose in the foreseeable future. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidio , Recesión Económica , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Confianza
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4425-4437, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730633

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyze comparatively strategies and political actions adopted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany and Spain in 2020. Based on historical institutionalism, we focused on the institutionality of government action in five work dimensions. The results showed different state capacities in coordination, implementation, and effectiveness of strategies. Crisis management and governance strengths are related to recognizing its severity and negotiation skills; national production capacity of supplies and equipment; and broad targeting of fiscal and financial resources from central government to health, social, and economic areas. These aspects varied between cases, acting as a relevant differential in governmental response. Other differentials were health system's structure; availability of workers; and national science and technology system, highlighting the importance of medium and long-term investments.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Alemania , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , España
4.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Oct 22.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675179

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has tested the resilience and adaptability of governments, workers and companies. We have lived through very harsh circumstances, with social and economic consequences that we could never have imagined, but it has also been shown that civil society works and that it has been up to the task, with companies at the forefront. They have made a great effort to adapt to the new and exceptional situation, playing a very important role in preventing and slowing down the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace, and in establishing economic and social agreements to mitigate the effects of the crisis. This article describes how companies have had to face this situation in economic and preventive matters, the difficulties experienced due to the changing behavior of the pandemic, the agreements reached with the Government and other social partners in matters of employment and social reform and the important role of Spanish Confederation of Business Organizations Foundation (CEOE), Insurance associations and Prevention Services in the fight against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociedades , España
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-14.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54991

RESUMEN

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have produced this second joint report to update the situation on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications for health, society and the economy. This report defines potential scenarios for control of the pandemic in the short term as well as long-term action recommended to strengthen the response capacity of countries with regard to the health needs of their populations and determinants in the context of a transformative recovery.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Economía , Economía y Organizaciones para la Atención de la Salud , Problemas Sociales , Bienestar Social , Capital Social
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-14.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54990

RESUMEN

Más de un año después del inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, América Latina y el Caribe acumula un número desproporcionado de casos y muertes respecto de otras regiones del mundo y sufre la mayor contracción económica de los últimos 120 años. En este segundo informe conjunto de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud se actualizan la situación de la evolución de la pandemia y sus implicaciones sociales, económicas y para la salud. Para ello se abordan los principales impactos económicos y sociales de la pandemia en la región, junto con el papel central de la protección social y el Estado, y la necesidad de incrementar la inversión pública en salud y fortalecer la institucionalidad del sector de la salud. Por último, se analizan los posibles escenarios de supresión de la pandemia en el corto plazo y un conjunto de condiciones contextuales que inciden de forma directa en este objetivo. El informe se cierra con un apartado de recomendaciones que enfatizan la importancia de adoptar un abordaje integral para poner fin a la crisis de salud en el corto plazo, avanzar hacia una recuperación económica sostenible y con igualdad, y promover la salud universal mediante sistemas de salud resilientes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Sistemas de Salud , Salud Pública , Economía , Economía y Organizaciones para la Atención de la Salud , Problemas Sociales , Bienestar Social , Capital Social
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 699049, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552904

RESUMEN

The purpose of this article is to discuss poverty as a multidimensional factor influencing health. We will also explicate how racism contributes to and perpetuates the economic and financial inequality that diminishes prospects for population health improvement among marginalized racial and ethnic groups. Poverty is one of the most significant challenges for our society in this millennium. Over 40% of the world lives in poverty. The U.S. has one of the highest rates of poverty in the developed world, despite its collective wealth, and the burden falls disproportionately on communities of color. A common narrative for the relatively high prevalence of poverty among marginalized minority communities is predicated on racist notions of racial inferiority and frequent denial of the structural forms of racism and classism that have contributed to public health crises in the United States and across the globe. Importantly, poverty is much more than just a low-income household. It reflects economic well-being, the ability to negotiate society relative to education of an individual, socioeconomic or health status, as well as social exclusion based on institutional policies, practices, and behaviors. Until structural racism and economic injustice can be resolved, the use of evidence-based prevention and early intervention initiatives to mitigate untoward effects of socioeconomic deprivation in communities of color such as the use of social media/culturally concordant health education, social support, such as social networks, primary intervention strategies, and more will be critical to address the persistent racial/ethnic disparities in chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Salud Poblacional , Racismo , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , Pobreza , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Adv Mar Biol ; 89: 79-114, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583816

RESUMEN

It is axomatic that a system cannot be managed unless it is measured and that the measurements occur in a rigorous, defendable manner covering relevant spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, it is not possible to predict the future direction of a system unless any predictive approach or model is supported by empirical evidence from monitoring. The marine system is no different from any other system in these regards. This review indicates the nature and topics of marine monitoring, its constraints in times of economic austerity, the sequence of topics subject to monitoring and the amount of monitoring of various topics carried out as indicated by the number of publications and researchers. We discuss the way in which the nature of monitoring is decided and we use examples to comment on the way monitoring leads to and responds to marine management and governance.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Recesión Económica , Pandemias
9.
Yearb Med Inform ; 30(1): 226-232, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479394

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This survey article presents a literature review of relevant publications aiming to explore whether the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has held true during a time of crisis and the implications that arose during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHOD AND RESULTS: Based on the approach taken and the screening of the relevant articles, the results focus on three themes: a critique on GDPR; the ethics surrounding the use of digital health technologies, namely in the form of mobile applications; and the possibility of cross border transfers of said data outside of Europe. Within this context, the article reviews the arising themes, considers the use of data through mobile health applications, and discusses whether data protection may require a revision when balancing societal and personal interests. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, although it is clear that the GDPR has been applied through a mixed and complex experience with data handling during the pandemic, the COVID-19 pandemic has indeed shown that it was a test the GDPR was designed and prepared to undertake. The article suggests that further review and research is needed to first ensure that an understanding of the state of the art in data protection during the pandemic is maintained and second to subsequently explore and carefully create a specific framework for the ethical considerations involved. The paper echoes the literature reviewed and calls for the creation of a unified and harmonised network or database to enable the secure data sharing across borders.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Seguridad Computacional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Recolección de Datos/ética , Difusión de la Información/ética , Seguridad Computacional/ética , Confidencialidad , Recolección de Datos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Unión Europea , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/legislación & jurisprudencia
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578854

RESUMEN

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had serious repercussions on the global economy, work force, and food systems. In Lebanon, the pandemic overlapped with an economic crisis, which threatened to exacerbate food insecurity (FI). The present study aims to evaluate the trends and projections of FI in Lebanon due to overlapping health and economic crises. Data from Gallup World Poll (GWP) 2015-2017 surveys conducted in Lebanon on nationally representative adults (n = 3000) were used to assess FI trends and explore its sociodemographic correlates. Predictive models were performed to forecast trends in FI (2018-2022), using GWP data along with income reduction scenarios to estimate the impact of the pandemic and economic crises. Pre crises, trend analyses showed that FI could reach 27% considering wave year and income. Post crises, FI was estimated to reach on average 36% to 39%, considering 50-70% income reduction scenarios among Lebanese population. FI projections are expected to be higher among females compared to males and among older adults compared to younger ones (p < 0.05). These alarming findings call for emergency food security policies and evidence-based programs to mitigate the burden of multiple crises on the FI of Lebanese households and promote resilience for future shocks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Recesión Económica/tendencias , Inseguridad Alimentaria/economía , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/economía , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/economía , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/virología , Estudios Transversales , Recesión Económica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
11.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 32(2): 99-117, 2021 06 18.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553859

RESUMEN

Our aim is to study the Leopold-Potter relationship in order to draw lessons from it but also a judgement concerning the bioeconomy that the public authorities currently intend to set up (OECD, European Union…). It seems to us that articulating Leopold’s land ethic and Potter’s bioethics allows us to think of a bioeconomy embedded in a bioethics. Moreover, this bioeconomy can constitute an original benchmark against which to compare the bioeconomy that governments are implementing today. The bioeconomy as these authors present it therefore implicitly reveals the limits of the bioeconomy that we are seeking to apply today, and which we may fear will pose many problems in the context of the ecological crisis.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , Desarrollo Económico , Biotecnología , Unión Europea , Humanos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501787

RESUMEN

Policy reforms of 2012 introduced in Spain a set of austerity measures to emerge from the 2008 global recession. However, attaining the sustainability of the long-term care (LTC) system by reducing public spending overlooks the drawbacks of a lower demand to meet dependency needs. In this context, this study is intended to provide a deeper insight into the economic factors affecting the shifts in the industrial output sustained by LTC spending before and after the austerity measures adopted in 2012. To accomplish this, we first apply a model based on the Input-Output methodology to quantify the output arisen from the consumption demand to meet the dependency needs covered by LTC spending in 2009, 2012 and 2015. Using the results of this model, we carry out a Structural Decomposition Analysis to explore the main drivers of change in the Spanish economic production for 2009-2012 and 2012-2015. The findings reveal that LTC demand factors have proven more relevant than technology factors in increasing production for the two periods considered. Such findings might guide political decision-making on the management of the LTC system in Spain, showing that public LTC spending does not merely contribute to the welfare of dependents, but also may boost economic production.


Asunto(s)
Recesión Económica , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Humanos , España
13.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 10(3): 66-82, jul.-set.2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291454

RESUMEN

A pandemia de COVID-19, na tripla crise que desencadeou ­sanitária, económica e social ­, tem provocado o maior retrocesso na implementação dos Direitos Humanos de que há memória desde a sua Declaração Universal, em 1948. Esta avaliação decorre da amplitude e profundidade do recuo na realização dos direitos humanos que se verifica actualmente em três planos, correspondendo, de uma forma genérica, às três gerações de direitos: no plano individual, contemplando os direitos civis e políticos; no social, os direitos económicos e sociais; e no global, os direitos de titularidade colectiva ou de solidariedade. Deter-nos-emos, sucessivamente, nestes diferentes planos, considerando algumas das mais comuns e impactantes medidas sanitárias implementadas em cada um e que constituem transgressões aos direitos humanos, reflectindo sobre as eventuais condições de legitimação ética das medidas adoptadas. Paralelamente, importa considerar que as medidas sanitárias implementadas não só vêm atingindo o respeito pelos Direitos Humanos, mas têm igualmente originado áreas de conflito entre diferentes direitos, em relação aos quais não é eticamente legítimo optar por uns em detrimento de outros. Defende-se ser necessário avançar para uma nova abordagem dos direitos humanos, destacando a sua complementaridade e sustentabilidade nos deveres ­num modelo integrado ­o que, por sua vez, deverá contribuir para a articulação de todos os direitos e seu respectivo cumprimento.


The COVID-19 pandemic, in the triple crisis it triggered ­health, economic and social ­has caused the greatest setback in the implementation of Human Rights since its Universal Declaration, in 1948. This assessment stems from its amplitude and the depth of the reversion in the realization of human rights that is currently verified on three levels, corresponding, in a generic way, to the three generations of rights: on the individual level, contemplating civil and political rights; in the social, economic and social rights; and overall, collective ownership rights. We will successively focus on these different plans, considering some of the most common and impactful sanitary measures implemented in each one and which constitute human rights violations, reflecting on the possible conditions for the ethical legitimacy of the adopted measures.At the same time, it is important to consider that the sanitary measures implemented have not only negatively affected the due respect for Human Rights, but have also given rise to areas of conflict between different rights, in relation to which it is not ethically legitimate to opt for some to the detriment of others. It is argued that it is necessary to move towards a new approach to human rights, highlighting their complementarity and sustainability of duties ­in an integrated model ­which, in turn, should contribute to the articulation of all rights and their respective fulfillment.


La pandemia COVID-19, en la triple crisis que desencadenó -sanitaria, económica y social ­ha provocado el mayor retroceso en la implementación de los Derechos Humanos desde su Declaración Universal, en 1948. Esta apreciación se deriva de su amplitud y la profundidad del retroceso en la realización de los derechos humanos que actualmente se verifica en tres niveles, correspondientes, de manera genérica, a las tres generaciones de derechos: a nivel individual, contemplando los derechos civiles y políticos; en los derechos sociales, económicos y sociales; y, en general, derechos de propiedad colectiva. Nos centraremos sucesivamente en estos diferentes planes, considerando algunas de las medidas sanitarias más comunes e impactantes implementadas en cada uno y que constituyen violaciones a los derechos humanos, reflexionando sobre las posibles condiciones para la legitimidad ética de las medidas adoptadas.Al mismo tiempo, es importante considerar que las medidas sanitarias implementadas no solo hanlogrado afectar negativamente el respeto a los Derechos Humanos, sino que también han dado lugar a áreas de conflicto entre diferentes derechos, en relación con los cuales no es éticamente legítimo optar por algunos en detrimento de los demás. Se argumenta que es necesario avanzar hacia un nuevo enfoque de los derechos humanos, destacando su complementariedad y sostenibilidad de deberes -en un modelo integrado ­que, a su vez, debe contribuir a la articulación de todos los derechos y su respectivo cumplimiento.

14.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 879-883, jul.-set. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339963

RESUMEN

Resumen El desarrollo de la pandemia de la covid-19 ha motivado un renovado interés por la gripe de 1918-1919 para buscar elementos que facilitaran la comprensión de la experiencia presente, pero también como oportunidad para reevaluar la grave crisis sanitaria del siglo XX a la luz de lo que estamos viviendo. En este contexto y con ese objetivo se inserta esta reflexión histórica sobre estos dos fenómenos pandémicos, que muestra los paralelismos existentes y la necesidad de una toma de conciencia de que nuestro modelo de sociedad está en crisis y se requiere una transformación profunda.


Abstract The rise of the covid-19 pandemic has led to renewed interest in the 1918-1919 influenza in search of aspects that might help us understand the current situation, but also as an opportunity to re-evaluate the serious twentieth-century health crisis in light of what we are experiencing now. In this context and with that goal, this historical reflection shows the parallels that exist and the need for a realization that our model of society is undergoing a crisis and requires profound transformation.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Gripe Humana/historia , Pandemias/historia , COVID-19/historia , Vacunas contra la Influenza/historia , Higiene/historia , Negación en Psicología , Primera Guerra Mundial , Economía , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/historia , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/epidemiología , Personal Militar/historia
15.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 879-883, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346994

RESUMEN

The rise of the covid-19 pandemic has led to renewed interest in the 1918-1919 influenza in search of aspects that might help us understand the current situation, but also as an opportunity to re-evaluate the serious twentieth-century health crisis in light of what we are experiencing now. In this context and with that goal, this historical reflection shows the parallels that exist and the need for a realization that our model of society is undergoing a crisis and requires profound transformation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/historia , Gripe Humana/historia , Pandemias/historia , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/historia , Negación en Psicología , Economía , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Higiene/historia , Vacunas contra la Influenza/historia , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Personal Militar/historia , Primera Guerra Mundial
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149605, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426367

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing socioeconomic crisis has impeded progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs). This paper investigates the impact of COVID 19 on the progress of the SDGs and provides insight into how green recovery stimulus, driven by circular economy (CE)-based solid waste management (SWM) could assist in attaining the intended targets of UN-SDG. It was understood in this review that the guiding principles of the UN-SDGs such as, public health, environmental concerns, resource value and economic development are similar to those that have driven the growth of waste management activities; thus, in order to achieve the goals of UN-SDG, a circular economy approach in solid waste management system should be prioritized in the post-COVID economic agenda. However, policy, technology and public involvement issues may hinder the shift to the CE model; therefore, niche growth might come from developing distinctive waste management-driven green jobs, formalizing informal waste pickers and by focusing in education and training of informal worker. The review also emphasized in creating green jobs by investing in recycling infrastructure which would enable us to address the climate change related concerns which is one of the key target of UN- SDG. The CE-based product designs and business models would emphasize multifunctional goods, extending the lifespan of products and their parts, and intelligent manufacturing to help the public and private sectors maximise product utility (thus reducing waste generation) while providing long-term economic and environmental benefits. The study also recommended strong policies that prioritized investments in decentralization of solid waste systems, localization of supply chains, recycling and green recovery, information sharing, and international collaboration in order to achieve the UN-SDGs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Humanos , Pandemias , Reciclaje , SARS-CoV-2 , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Desarrollo Sostenible , Naciones Unidas
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371844

RESUMEN

Widespread food insecurity has emerged as a global humanitarian crisis during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In response, international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN) agencies have mobilized to address the food security needs among different populations. The objective of this review was to identify and describe food security interventions implemented by INGOs and UN agencies during the early stages of the pandemic. Using a rapid review methodology, we reviewed food security interventions implemented by five INGOs and three UN agencies between 31 December 2019 and 31 May 2020. Descriptive statistical and content analyses were used to explore the extent, range, and nature of these interventions. In total, 416 interventions were identified across 107 low- and middle-income countries. Non-state actors have developed new interventions to directly respond to the food security needs created by the pandemic. In addition, these humanitarian organizations have adapted (e.g., new public health protocols, use of technology) and reframed existing initiatives to position their efforts in the context of the pandemic. These findings provide a useful baseline to monitor how non-state actors, in addition to the food security interventions these organizations implement, continue to be influenced by the pandemic. In addition, these findings provide insights into the different ways in which INGOs and UN agencies mobilized resources during the early and uncertain stages of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Seguridad Alimentaria , Sistemas de Socorro , Seguridad Alimentaria/métodos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Organizaciones , Naciones Unidas
18.
Soins ; 66(858): 30-34, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462066

RESUMEN

Poverty is an absolute evil. It corrodes society. France is not the most affected country, because a social protection system allows the most vulnerable to avoid falling into extreme poverty. The current health crisis is, however, aggravating situations of exclusion. It is therefore urgent to question the effectiveness of public policies and to construct indicators capable of measuring the well-being of citizens who are both contributors and beneficiaries.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza , Política Pública , Francia , Humanos
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444557

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the trends in chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis mortality, and the associated socioeconomic inequalities, in nine European cities and urban areas before and after the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. METHODS: This is an ecological study of trends in three periods of time: two before (2000-2003 and 2004-2008), and one after (2009-2014) the onset of the economic crisis. The units of analysis were the geographical areas of nine cities or urban areas in Europe. We analysed chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis standardised mortality ratios, smoothing them with a hierarchical Bayesian model by each city, area, and sex. An ecological regression model was fitted to analyse the trends in socioeconomic inequalities, and included the socioeconomic deprivation index, the period, and their interaction. RESULTS: In general, chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis mortality rates were higher in men than in women. These rates decreased in all cities during the financial crisis, except among men in Athens (rates increased from 8.50 per 100,000 inhabitants during the second period to 9.42 during the third). Socioeconomic inequalities in chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis mortality were found in six cities/metropolitan areas among men, and in four among women. Finally, in the periods studied, such inequalities did not significantly change. However, among men they increased in Turin and Barcelona and among women, several cities had lower inequalities in the third period. CONCLUSIONS: There are geographical socioeconomic inequalities in chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis mortality, mainly among men, that did not change during the 2008 financial crisis. These results should be monitored in the long term.


Asunto(s)
Recesión Económica , Cirrosis Hepática , Teorema de Bayes , Ciudades , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Factores Socioeconómicos , España
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444482

RESUMEN

Italy, Greece, Spain, and Portugal have all been strongly affected by the 2008 financial crisis, which has had a negative impact on health. We systematically evaluated the effects of the crisis on lifestyle and socioeconomic inequalities. We conducted a literature search using MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and health economics databases for studies reporting quantitative comparisons before and after (or during) the crisis on the following risk behaviors: alcohol consumption, smoking habit, healthy diet, physical activity, and psychotropic drugs and substance abuse, without setting any age restrictions. We selected 34 original articles published between 2011 and 2020. During/after the crisis, alcohol consumption and substance abuse decreased, while psychotropic drug use increased. We also observed a deterioration in healthy eating behavior, with a reduction in fruit and vegetable consumption. Smoking habit and physical activity showed a more complex, controversial trend. Socioeconomic inequalities were affected by the recession, and the negative effects on unhealthy lifestyle tended to be more pronounced among the disadvantaged. These results suggest the need to implement health policies and interventions aimed at monitoring risk behaviors, with special regard to disadvantaged people, and considering the potential additional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Recesión Económica , Grecia , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Portugal/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , España/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...