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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238449

RESUMEN

John "Jack" Gofman's research career was characterized by skills across disciplines that gave him unique insights and opportunities. He was able to choose the research strategy-laboratory, clinical, or epidemiological-most suited to the state of the problem. But Gofman's curiosity and intensity, his integrity and courage, led to dual reputations-one as a "fair-haired boy," another as a "troublesome crank"-first in atomic science, then in cardiovascular medicine, and finally in radiation energy and health policy. Gofman's earliest success was in the 1940s as a University of California-Berkeley graduate student in physical chemistry with Glenn Seaborg. Using simple laboratory methods he innovated the isolation of radioactive elements ultracentrifugally and determined their fission rates. In 1943 he produced the single milligram of plutonium needed urgently by J. Robert Oppenheimer to confirm its candidacy to power the atomic device that would implode over Nagasaki. As a young medical researcher in the 1950s, Gofman was the first to successfully isolate blood lipoprotein (LP) fractions by simply adding saline solution to serum. This increased its density such that all the LP present would float, then separate into discrete fractions on ultracentrifugation. In pioneer serial studies, Gofman and colleagues explored serum LP distributions in healthy and patient populations, LP responses to contrasting diets, and LP power to predict coronary heart disease risk (CHD). Their findings formed the platform for Brown and Goldstein's Nobel Prize discovery of hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and thus, the mechanism of lipid transport between blood and tissues. Together these provided fuller understanding of the pathogenesis and possible prevention of atherosclerosis. From the 1960s, Gofman reengaged with nuclear science in mutidisciplined studies that found cell damage and health effects of ionizing radiation were proportionate to the dosage. His conclusion that there was "no safe level" of exposure conflicted with "safe levels" recommended by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Eventually, his findings, persistent questioning of policy, and effective advocacy against U.S. atomic energy programs resulted in the loss of both his AEC research funding and his leading national position in radiation and public health. He came to be viewed as "the enemy within." Gofman's research and activism were central to subsequent systemic reviews and constraints to what he called "U.S. adventurism:" in atom bomb testing, with "land engineering" using hydrogen bombs, and in the rapid build-up of nuclear energy for the U.S. electrical grid. Eventually, his body of evidence and recommendations about radiation effects on health were largely corroborated by the National Academy of Sciences and other authorities. They still influence planning for "clean energy" in today's global climate crisis.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067774

RESUMEN

The EAT-Lancet Commission has proposed a planetary health diet. We propose the development of the Planetary Health Diet Index (PHDI) based on this proposed reference diet. We used baseline dietary data obtained through a 114-item FFQ from 14,779 participants of the Longitudinal Study on Adult Health, a multicenter cohort study conducted in Brazil. The PHDI has 16 components and a score from 0 to 150 points. Validation and reliability analyses were performed, including principal component analyses, association with selected nutrients, differences in means between groups (for example, smokers vs. non-smokers), correlations between components and total energy intake, Cronbach's alpha, item-item correlations, and linear regression analysis between PHDI with carbon footprint and overall dietary quality. The mean PHDI was 60.4 (95% CI 60.2:60.5). The PHDI had six dimensions, was associated in an expected direction with the selected nutrients and was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in smokers (59.0) than in non-smokers (60.6). Cronbach's alpha value was 0.51. All correlations between components were low, as well as between components and PHDI with total energy intake. After adjustment for age and sex, the PHDI score remained associated (p < 0.001) with a higher overall dietary quality and lower carbon footprint. Thus, we confirmed the PHDI validity and reliability.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta Saludable/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Nutricional , Encuestas Nutricionales/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil , Huella de Carbono/normas , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta Saludable/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Componente Principal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Water Environ Res ; 93(1): 94-111, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401378

RESUMEN

Over the past 20 years, various new filter technologies have been developed that can be used to (a) enhance the performance of or (b) replace conventional primary treatment facilities. To enhance the performance of a primary sedimentation facility, primary effluent is filtered to further reduce the constituent concentrations discharged to the secondary treatment facilities. This form of primary enhancement is known as primary effluent filtration (PEF). In the second case, where some type of filter technology is used to replace primary sedimentation, the process application is known as primary filtration (PF). The principal focus of this paper is on the performance of the first full-scale PF project using a fine pore cloth media disk filter to maximize the diversion of carbon for the production of energy and to reduce energy usage. Performance data from related pilot-scale cloth disk primary filter (CDPF) systems are included for process verification. The removal performance for total suspended solids (TSS) from the three CDPF installations varied from 83% to 85%, as compared to 55%-60% typically achieved with primary sedimentation. The total overall TSS removal performance achieved with PF is essentially the same as that achieved with PEF, without the need for a primary sedimentation tank. The removal performance for five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 ) from the three CDPF installations varied from 46% to 58%, as compared to 32%-38% BOD removal typically achieved with primary sedimentation. The full-scale CDPF results reported in this paper are from an on-going research and demonstration project, conducted for the California Energy Commission (CEC), to demonstrate the potential energy savings that can be achieved through the implementation of PF. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The performance of the first full-scale primary filtration system using a fine pore cloth disc filter is evaluated in this project. Design and operational criteria of the primary filtration technology were established in this project to implement in full scale installations. Primary filtration was demonstrated to increase the diversion of carbon for the production of energy and to reduce energy usage. Significant decrease in aeration power requirement and increase in digester gas production are possible with primary filtration. Footprint reduction (both for primary and secondary treatment) are other important attributes of primary filtration.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Purificación del Agua , Carbono , Medios de Cultivo , Filtración
4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(5): e6-e17, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003626

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Because of the high density of fat, high-fat diets are perceived as likely to lead to increased bodyweight, hence health-care providers are reluctant to recommend them to overweight or obese individuals. We assessed the long-term effects of ad libitum, high-fat, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diets on bodyweight and waist circumference in older people at risk of cardiovascular disease, most of whom were overweight or obese. METHODS: PREDIMED was a 5 year parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial done in primary care centres affiliated to 11 hospitals in Spain. 7447 asymptomatic men (aged 55-80 years) and women (aged 60-80 years) who had type 2 diabetes or three or more cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with a computer-generated number sequence to one of three interventions: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (n=2543); Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (n=2454); or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat; n=2450). Energy restriction was not advised, nor was physical activity promoted. In 2016, we reported the 5 year changes in bodyweight and waist circumference, but because of a subsequently identified protocol deviation (including enrolment of household members without randomisation, assignment to a study group without randomisation of some participants at one of 11 study sites, and apparent inconsistent use of randomisation tables at another site; 866 [11·6%] participants were affected in total), we have withdrawn our previously published report and now report revised effect estimates based on reanalyses that do not rely exclusively on the assumption that all the participants were randomly assigned. In this analysis of the trial, we measured bodyweight and waist circumference at baseline and yearly for 5 years in the intention-to-treat population. The PREDIMED trial is registered with ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN35739639. FINDINGS: After a median 4·8 years (IQR 2·8-5·8) of follow-up, participants in all three groups had marginally reduced bodyweight and increased waist circumference. After multivariable adjustment, including adjustment for propensity scores and use of robust variance estimators, the difference in 5 year changes in bodyweight in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group was -0·410 kg (95% CI -0·830 to 0·010; p=0·056) and in the nut group was -0·016 kg (-0·453 to 0·421; p=0·942), compared with the control group. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in waist circumference was -0·466 cm (-1·109 to 0·176; p=0·154) in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group and -0·923 cm (-1·604 to -0·241; p=0·008) in the nut group, compared with the control group. INTERPRETATION: A long-term intervention with an unrestricted-calorie, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diet was associated with no significant difference in bodyweight and some evidence of less gain in central adiposity compared with a control diet. These results lend support to advice not restricting intake of healthy fats for bodyweight maintenance. FUNDING: Spanish Government, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Hojiblanca, Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero, California Walnut Commission, Borges SA, and Morella Nuts.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Dieta Mediterránea , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Angiopatías Diabéticas/prevención & control , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Grasas de la Dieta/farmacología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevención Primaria/métodos , España , Resultado del Tratamiento , Circunferencia de la Cintura/efectos de los fármacos
5.
Glob Environ Change ; 592019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108818

RESUMEN

Climate change necessitates major changes in infrastructure siting, design, and operations. Successful adaptation of infrastructure management requires overcoming thorny institutional challenges including path dependency and isomorphic pressures that inhibit major shifts in norms and practices. Hazards have been posited as a potential trigger for changing long-standing institutions because they can upend stable system states. However, research on the ability of hazards to shift norms and practices is still nascent and focuses on rapid-onset disasters like floods, hurricanes, or fires. This paper uses the 2012-2016 California drought to assess the potential for slow-onset hazards to lead to institutional change. We assess whether it yielded a shift in institutional norms, namely agency application of existing regulations toward enhanced socio-ecological resilience in the face of climate change. We focus on the environmental impact assessment process under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's process for licensing hydropower dams. Using computational text analysis of Environmental Impact Statements and participant observation of infrastructure licensing negotiations, we assess whether, over the years of the drought, agencies placed more emphasis on drought issues or climate resilience in analyzing infrastructure siting and design. In EIS documents, we observe a short-term spike in consideration of drought-related impacts and a longer-term increase in water security, suggesting some shifts in institutional practice; however, consideration of climate impacts decreased over the time period. In FERC licensing, there was no consideration of future climate impacts, despite managers' recognition that this posed a problem for projects' future operations. Although these results do not preclude the ability of slow-onset hazards to shift institutional norms, they suggest that doing so is challenging.

6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 4(8): 666-676, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27283479

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Because of the high density of fat, high-fat diets are perceived as likely to lead to increased bodyweight, hence health-care providers are reluctant to recommend them to overweight or obese individuals. We assessed the long-term effects of ad libitum, high-fat, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diets on bodyweight and waist circumference in older people at risk of cardiovascular disease, most of whom were overweight or obese. METHODS: PREDIMED was a 5 year parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial done in primary care centres affiliated to 11 hospitals in Spain. 7447 asymptomatic men (aged 55-80 years) and women (aged 60-80 years) who had type 2 diabetes or three or more cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with a computer-generated number sequence to one of three interventions: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (n=2543); Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (n=2454); or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat; n=2450). Energy restriction was not advised, nor was physical activity promoted. In this analysis of the trial, we measured bodyweight and waist circumference at baseline and yearly for 5 years in the intention-to-treat population. The PREDIMED trial is registered with ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN35739639. FINDINGS: After a median 4·8 years (IQR 2·8-5·8) of follow-up, participants in all three groups had marginally reduced bodyweight and increased waist circumference. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in bodyweight in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group was -0·43 kg (95% CI -0·86 to -0·01; p=0·044) and in the nut group was -0·08 kg (-0·50 to 0·35; p=0·730), compared with the control group. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in waist circumference was -0·55 cm (-1·16 to -0·06; p=0·048) in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group and -0·94 cm (-1·60 to -0·27; p=0·006) in the nut group, compared with the control group. INTERPRETATION: A long-term intervention with an unrestricted-calorie, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diet was associated with decreases in bodyweight and less gain in central adiposity compared with a control diet. These results lend support to advice not restricting intake of healthy fats for bodyweight maintenance. FUNDING: Spanish Government, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Hojiblanca, Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero, California Walnut Commission, Borges SA, and Morella Nuts.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Dieta Alta en Grasa/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta Mediterránea/estadística & datos numéricos , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nueces , Aceite de Oliva
7.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 28(6): 613-22, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173552

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infant complementary food can be home-made or bought as ready-to-eat commercial products. The nutrient composition of commercial products is regularised in a European Commission guideline, whereas the preparation of home-made complementary meals is the responsibility of caregivers. In the present study, the composition of commercial and home-made complementary meals as eaten by healthy German infants was compared. METHODS: Of 8226 complementary meals (74% commercial and 26% home-made) recorded in 1083, 3-day weighed dietary records from 396 participants (6-12 months old) of the German DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study were analysed. RESULTS: Median energy density (kcal 100 g(-1)) was highest in commercial and home-made cereal-milk meals (89 kcal 100 g(-1)). In home-made savoury and cereal-fruit meals, the energy density was significantly higher compared to their commercial counterparts. Median protein contents were highest in savoury and cereal-milk meals (>2.5 g 100 g(-1)) and dairy-fruit meals (2-4 g 100 g(-1)). Added sugars were found in less than a quarter of meals. Highest median sodium contents were found not only in commercial savoury meals (median 38 mg 100 g(-1)) and vegetable meals (32 mg 100 g(-1)), but also in home-made cereal-milk meals (36 mg 100 g(-1)). Both median fat and iron contents were higher in home-made meals compared to commercial savoury and cereal-fruit meals. CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of the higher sodium content in commercial savoury meals for older infants, the lower fat content in commercial savoury and cereal-fruit meals, and the added sugar content in some commercial dairy-fruit meals, a comparison of commercial and home-made complementary meals did not reveal any serious inadequacy.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/métodos , Alimentos Infantiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Valor Nutritivo , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 45(12): 5323-31, 2011 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21591615

RESUMEN

With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and at what concentrations. In this study we surveyed baby products containing polyurethane foam to investigate how often flame retardants were used in these products. Information on when the products were purchased and whether they contained a label indicating that the product meets requirements for a California flammability standard were recorded. When possible, we identified the flame retardants being used and their concentrations in the foam. Foam samples collected from 101 commonly used baby products were analyzed. Eighty samples contained an identifiable flame retardant additive, and all but one of these was either chlorinated or brominated. The most common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; detection frequency 36%), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercial mixture (detection frequency 17%). Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated with PentaBDE, suggesting products with PentaBDE are still in-use. Two chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) not previously documented in the environment were also identified, one of which is commercially sold as V6 (detection frequency 15%) and contains tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as an impurity. As an addition to this study, we used a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to estimate the bromine and chlorine content of the foam and investigate whether XRF is a useful method for predicting the presence of halogenated flame retardant additives in these products. A significant correlation was observed for bromine; however, there was no significant relationship observed for chlorine. To the authors knowledge, this is the first study to report on flame retardants in baby products. In addition, we have identified two chlorinated OPFRs not previously documented in the environment or in consumer products. Based on exposure estimates conducted by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), we predict that infants may receive greater exposure to TDCPP from these products compared to the average child or adult from upholstered furniture, all of which are higher than acceptable daily intake levels of TDCPP set by the CPSC. Future studies are therefore warranted to specifically measure infants exposure to these flame retardants from intimate contact with these products and to determine if there are any associated health concerns.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Equipo Infantil , Poliuretanos/química , Bromo/análisis , Cloro/análisis , Salud Ambiental , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Lactante , Bifenilos Polibrominados/química , Espectrometría por Rayos X
9.
Psychiatr Pol ; 42(1): 5-15, 2008.
Artículo en Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18567399

RESUMEN

This article provides a condensed discussion and explanation of the Delphi method. This technique is used for problem solving and decision making. The Delphi Method was originally developed during the cold war by the U.S. Intelligence think tank, the RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California in the 1950's and 1960's. It was designed for use on complex or ambiguous problems that exceed the capabilities of a single person. Most researchers make distinctions between the conventional Delphi and the policy Delphi. The last decades have seen increasing interest in the use of Delphi in a wide range of health-care applications. The Delphi method has been applied in a wide range of European Commission funded research projects, e.g. in EUNOMIA and DEMoB.inc projects. The Delphi method is characterized by the following features: anonymity of responses from panel experts, asynchronicity, controlled feedback and statistical description of responses. The objective of most Delphi applications is the reliable and creative exploration of problems or the production of suitable information for decision making.


Asunto(s)
Técnica Delfos , Investigación Empírica , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Toma de Decisiones en la Organización , Unión Europea , Procesos de Grupo , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/normas , Humanos , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/normas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas
10.
Eur J Public Health ; 13(2): 108-14, 2003 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12803408

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are an estimated one million completed suicides per year worldwide. As a response to increasing concern about suicide within Europe, the EUROSAVE (European Review of Suicide and Violence Epidemiology) study was undertaken to examine recent trends in the epidemiology of suicide and self-inflicted injury mortality in the European Union (EU). METHODS: Suicide and self-inflicted injury mortality data for the 15 EU countries for the years 1984-1998 were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO), the European Statistical Office of the European Commission (EUROSTAT) and national statistical agencies. Data were also obtained for a second group of deaths classified as 'undetermined' or 'other violence'. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated and examined for trends over time. RESULTS: Finland had the highest suicide rate, while Greece had the lowest for the latest available year (1997). Age-standardized suicide rates tended to be lowest in the Mediterranean countries. Significant downward linear time trends in suicide mortality were observed in most countries, although rates varied markedly between countries. Both Ireland and Spain displayed significant upward linear trends in suicide mortality. Portugal had the highest rate of undetermined deaths both in 1984 and 1998 while Greece had the lowest in both 1984 and 1997. Five countries (including Ireland and Spain) showed significant downward trends in deaths due to undetermined causes whereas Belgium and Germany showed borderline significant upward linear trends in deaths due to undetermined causes. CONCLUSIONS: Although suicide rates in most countries seem to be decreasing, the validity of the data is uncertain. Misclassification may contribute to the geographical and temporal variation in suicide rates in some EU countries but it does not explain the phenomenon. More detailed research comparing suicide-recording procedures and practices across the EU is required. In the absence of adequate EU wide data on suicide epidemiology, effective prevention of this distressing phenomenon is likely to remain elusive.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Unión Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Suicidio/tendencias
11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 56(7): 629-37, 2002 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12080402

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum cholesterol, apolipoproteins and LDL oxidizability in young Japanese women and men during walnut consumption and to evaluate its active principle. DESIGN: Experimental study with a randomized design. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy women and 20 healthy men. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomly assigned to consume each of two mixed natural diets for 4 weeks in a cross-over design. Reference and walnut diets were designed and the walnut diet had 12.5% of the energy derived from walnuts (44-58 g/day). RESULTS: The total cholesterol and serum apolipoprotein B concentrations, and the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol was significantly lowered in women and men when fed on the walnut diet, than when on the reference diet (P

Asunto(s)
Apolipoproteínas B/sangre , Colesterol/sangre , Nueces , Adulto , Ésteres del Colesterol/química , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxidación-Reducción , Factores Sexuales , Método Simple Ciego , Triglicéridos/sangre
12.
Environ Manage ; 28(5): 561-75, 2001 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11568839

RESUMEN

Resource managers are increasingly being challenged by stakeholder groups to consider dam removal as a policy option and as a tool for watershed management. As more dam owners face high maintenance costs, and rivers as spawning grounds for anadromous fish become increasingly valuable, dam removal may provide the greatest net benefit to society. This article reviews the impact of Endangered Species Act listings for anadromous fish and recent shifts in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's hydropower benefit-costs analysis and discusses their implications for dam removal in California. We propose evaluative criteria for consideration of dam removal and apply them to two case studies: the Daguerre and Englebright Dams on the Yuba River and the Scott and Van Horne Dams on the South Eel River, California.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Ecosistema , Agua Dulce , Abastecimiento de Agua , Animales , California , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Agua Dulce/análisis , Dinámica Poblacional , Política Pública , Salmón/crecimiento & desarrollo , Abastecimiento de Agua/economía
14.
J Calif Dent Assoc ; 24(4): 63-6, 68, 1996 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9063204

RESUMEN

The application of ergonomics to dentistry, or dento-ergonomics, can increase efficiency and prevent injury. Among the factors that need to be considered are the height and reach of staff members, the equipment being used and the distribution of tasks. By implementing the theories of ergonomics, dental care providers can prolong their interest and commitment to dentistry by making difficult or even painful tasks less stressful.


Asunto(s)
Consultorios Odontológicos , Ergonomía , Salud Laboral , California , Trastornos de Traumas Acumulados/prevención & control , Equipo Dental , Eficiencia , Humanos , Salud Laboral/legislación & jurisprudencia , Postura , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration
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