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1.
Can Rev Sociol ; 58(2): 186-206, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942530

RESUMEN

This paper examines the 33 year-long jurisdictional dispute between immigration lawyers and immigration consultants over the right to practice immigration law in Canada. Immigration consultants began to play a role in the immigration law field of practice in the 1980s. Their entry into this field of practice has not gone unnoticed by immigration lawyers. The paper focuses on two moments in this jurisdictional dispute; the events surrounding the Supreme Courts' 2001 decision in the case of the Law Society of British Columbia v Mangat and the 2017 hearings of the Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration. Using an ecological framework to understanding the professions, and professional boundary disputes, this paper examines the reasons why the profession of law has not been able to exert monopolistic closure and prevent immigration consultants impinging on one of their traditional fields of practice. Part of the explanation, I suggest, is that immigration lawyers did not speak with one voice about immigration consultants at the 2017 Standing Committee hearings. The Canadian Bar Association's preferred settlement outcome was for the state to prevent immigration consultants from practicing immigration law. Other lawyers who appeared before the Committee advocated a boundary blurring outcome that would allow immigration consultants to practice immigration law, albeit under somewhat more restricted conditions than were then in place. The state rejected a 'full and final settlement' in favor of lawyers and eventually adopted a boundary 'blurring settlement' outcome to this jurisdictional dispute.

2.
J Neurol ; 262(7): 1724-7, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25957637

RESUMEN

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by progressive childhood-onset cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis and telangiectasias of the conjunctivae. Further symptoms may be immunodeficiency and frequent infections, and an increased risk of malignancy. As well as this classic manifestation, several other non-classic forms exist, including milder or incomplete A-T phenotypes caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ATM gene. Recently, ATM mutations have been found in 13 Canadian Mennonites with early-onset, isolated, predominantly cervical dystonia, in a French family with generalized dystonia and in an Indian family with dopa-responsive cervical dystonia. In this article, we will describe a Turkish family with three affected sibs. Their phenotypes range from pure cervical dystonia associated with hand tremor to truncal and more generalized dystonic postures. Exome sequencing has revealed the potentially pathogenic compound heterozygous variants p.V2716A and p.G301VfsX19 in the ATM gene. The variants segregated perfectly with the phenotypes within the family. Both mutations detected in ATM have been shown to be pathogenic, and the α-fetoprotein, a marker of ataxia telangiectasia, was found to be increased. This report supports recent literature showing that ATM mutations are not exclusively associated with A-T but may also cause a more, even intra-familial variable phenotype in particular in association with dystonia.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de la Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutada/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Salud de la Familia , Mutación/genética , Adulto , Secuencia de Bases , Exoma/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Turquia
4.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 10: 19, 2013 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23391296

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students' lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. METHODS: Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students' self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. RESULTS: For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1-2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3-4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1-2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3-4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). CONCLUSIONS: There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students' lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Dieta , Ambiente , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Almuerzo , Restaurantes , Instituciones Académicas , Adolescente , Intervalos de Confianza , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/etiología , Oportunidad Relativa
5.
Physiol Behav ; 101(1): 108-16, 2010 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20434473

RESUMEN

Operant conditioning is a common tool for studying cognitive aspects of brain functions. As the first step toward understanding those functions in simple invertebrate microbrains, we tested whether operant conditioning could be applied to train American lobster Homarus americanus that has been extensively adopted as an animal model for neurophysiological analyses of nervous system functions and behavioral control. The animal was trained by food rewarding for gripping of a sensor bar as the operant behavior. Lobsters were first reinforced when they acted on the bar with a stronger grip than a pre-set value. After this reinforcement, the animal learnt to grip the bar for food pellets. The yoked control experiment in which the animal received action-independent reinforcement excluded the possibility of pseudoconditioning that the food simply drove the animal to frequent gripping of the sensor bar. The association of the bar-grip with food was extinguished by rewarding nothing to the operant behavior, and was restored by repeating the reinforcement process as before. In addition, lobsters successfully carried out differential reinforcement regarding the gripping force: their gripping force changed depending on the increased force threshold for food reward. These data demonstrate that lobsters can be trained by operant conditioning paradigms involving acquisition and extinction procedures with the precise claw gripping even under the force control.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje por Asociación/fisiología , Condicionamiento Operante/fisiología , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Nephropidae/fisiología , Animales , Investigación Conductal/métodos , Femenino , Masculino
6.
BMC Cancer ; 6: 230, 2006 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17010193

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) is a member of the PIK-related family which plays, along with ATM, a central role in cell-cycle regulation. ATR has been shown to phosphorylate several tumor suppressors like BRCA1, CHEK1 and TP53. ATR appears as a good candidate breast cancer susceptibility gene and the current study was designed to screen for ATR germline mutations potentially involved in breast cancer predisposition. METHODS: ATR direct sequencing was performed using a fluorescent method while widely available programs were used for linkage disequilibrium (LD), haplotype analyses, and tagging SNP (tSNP) identification. Expression analyses were carried out using real-time PCR. RESULTS: The complete sequence of all exons and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed in DNA samples from 54 individuals affected with breast cancer from non-BRCA1/2 high-risk French Canadian breast/ovarian families. Although no germline mutation has been identified in the coding region, we identified 41 sequence variants, including 16 coding variants, 3 of which are not reported in public databases. SNP haplotypes were established and tSNPs were identified in 73 healthy unrelated French Canadians, providing a valuable tool for further association studies involving the ATR gene, using large cohorts. Our analyses led to the identification of two novel alternative splice transcripts. In contrast to the transcript generated by an alternative splicing site in the intron 41, the one resulting from a deletion of 121 nucleotides in exon 33 is widely expressed, at significant but relatively low levels, in both normal and tumoral cells including normal breast and ovarian tissue. CONCLUSION: Although no deleterious mutations were identified in the ATR gene, the current study provides an haplotype analysis of the ATR gene polymorphisms, which allowed the identification of a set of SNPs that could be used as tSNPs for large-scale association studies. In addition, our study led to the characterization of a novel Delta33 splice form, which could generate a putative truncated protein lacking several functional domains. Additional studies in large cohorts and other populations will be needed to further evaluate if common and/or rare ATR sequence variants can be associated with a modest or intermediate breast cancer risk.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , ADN de Neoplasias/genética , Mutación de Línea Germinal , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicos Hereditarios/genética , Neoplasias Ováricas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Empalme Alternativo , Proteínas de la Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutada , Secuencia de Bases , Neoplasias de la Mama/etnología , Secuencia de Consenso , ADN/genética , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Exones/genética , Femenino , Francia/etnología , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Haplotipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Persona de Mediana Edad , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Síndromes Neoplásicos Hereditarios/etnología , Neoplasias Ováricas/etnología , Quebec/epidemiología , ARN Mensajero/biosíntesis , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Neoplásico/biosíntesis , ARN Neoplásico/genética , Riesgo , Alineación de Secuencia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Eliminación de Secuencia
7.
J Exp Biol ; 209(Pt 17): 3429-39, 2006 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16916978

RESUMEN

Seabass were fed for 4 months with diets where the lipid was provided as either canola oil (CO), palm oil (PO) or fish oil (FO), to generate diversity in their tissue fatty acid (FA) composition and investigate how this influenced major traits of exercise performance, cardiac performance and respiratory metabolism. In particular, based upon previous observations, we investigated the hypothesis that enriching the fish tissues with oleic and linoleic acids (OA, 18:1n-9 and LA, 18:2n-6, respectively) from the CO and PO diets would improve maximum exercise and cardiac performance, and increase aerobic metabolic scope. This proved to be the case; exercise respirometry on bass fitted with cardiac flow probes revealed that those fed CO and PO diets had a significantly higher critical swimming speed (U(crit)) than those fed the FO diet. The improved swimming performance in the CO and PO groups was accompanied by a higher maximum cardiac output (Q) and net cardiac scope, and a higher active metabolic rate (AMR) and aerobic scope (AS) than in the FO group. Analysis of tissue FA composition revealed that the fish fed the CO and PO diets had accumulated significantly higher levels of OA and LA in their heart and muscle than the fish from the FO group, which had significantly higher levels of highly unsaturated FA of the n-3 series, such as EPA and DHA (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, respectively). Principal components analysis revealed significant positive associations between tissue OA and LA content and U(crit), maximum Q, the increase in Q during exercise, AMR and aerobic scope. There was a negative association between these physiological traits and tissue content of EPA. Therefore, diet composition is an environmental factor that can generate significant phenotypic diversity in major physiological traits of performance and metabolism in the seabass, with increased intake of FAs such as OA and LA leading to improved cardiorespiratory performance.


Asunto(s)
Lubina/fisiología , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Aciltransferasas/metabolismo , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Lubina/metabolismo , Gasto Cardíaco/fisiología , Cromatografía de Gases , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Ácidos Grasos Monoinsaturados , Aceites de Pescado , Aceite de Palma , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Aceites Vegetales , Análisis de Componente Principal , Aceite de Brassica napus , Respiración
8.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Francés | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-17222

RESUMEN

Dedicando-se a todos os aspectos da lei nacional canadense referente a cuidados instituições e profissionais da saúde, traz seu texto completo; noticia eventos e relaciona órgãos afins.


Asunto(s)
Derecho Sanitario , Abogados
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 92(5): 873-7, 1998 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9794686

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to report on application patterns for residency positions in obstetrics and gynecology. METHODS: The Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) records each application for a position in a participating residency program. In the 1996-97 application cycle, all but 16 obstetrics and gynecology residency programs participated. Electronic records were analyzed to obtain a statistical picture of the residency application process. RESULTS: Applications for residency positions in obstetrics and gynecology were processed for 1607 graduates of US medical schools, including 110 graduates of osteopathic medical schools. Canadian applicants were six, and other foreign applicants numbered 524. More than two-thirds of US applicants were women, and nine of ten were citizens or permanent residents. Most applicants sent official United States Medical Licensure Examination (USMLE) transcripts to all programs to which they applied. Ninety-five percent of applicants supplied an e-mail address. CONCLUSION: The introduction of ERAS has been successful for obstetrics and gynecology and has provided new information about patterns of applications. The ease of application using the electronic system did not lead to a substantial increase in numbers of applications. Statistics regarding the number of applicants, ratio of women to men, and participation of foreign medical graduates will be of interest to manpower planners.


Asunto(s)
Procesamiento Automatizado de Datos , Ginecología/educación , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Obstetricia/educación , Femenino , Médicos Graduados Extranjeros , Ginecología/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Obstetricia/estadística & datos numéricos , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Estados Unidos
11.
Heart ; 77(4): 350-2, 1997 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9155615

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of a cutting balloon to overcome aorto-ostial lesions before stent implantation and thereby reduce the restenosis rate. DESIGN: Observational follow up study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: Eight patients (two female, six male) aged 58.2 (SD 10.1) years with Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) grade II-IV angina were recruited. They each had a single target lesion (three in native coronaries, five in vein grafts). INTERVENTION AND RESULTS: After high pressure angioplasty (18 (3.8) bar), there was only a small reduction in the luminal stenosis, from 82 (9)% to 68 (10)%, as assessed by on line quantitative coronary angiography. However, using the cutting balloon there was a marked reduction in the luminal stenosis to 44 (15)%, facilitating stent insertion. Subsequent high pressure dilatation resulted in a final stenosis of 10 (7)%. At 6 (2) months' follow up the marked symptomatic improvement, to CCS angina grade 0-II, was maintained and there were no further cardiac events or interventions. CONCLUSION: Cutting balloon angioplasty followed by stent insertion is a feasible technique for the treatment of aorto-ostial lesions, meriting further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Angioplastia Coronaria con Balón/métodos , Enfermedad Coronaria/terapia , Stents , Terapia Combinada , Angiografía Coronaria , Enfermedad Coronaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad Coronaria/cirugía , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
12.
Northwest Dent ; 75(2): 45-9, 1996.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9487891

RESUMEN

A reduction of healthcare costs is an important part of the reform our society is demanding. We cannot ignore this. Lowering administrative costs is a particularly good way to reduce health care expenditures since this decreases the cost without compromising the quality of services. Implementing an EDI structure for submitting claims and receiving claim remittance advice is one way to significantly reduce the cost of health care by lowering administrative costs. EDI allows the consumer to receive the same level of health care at a lower cost. To accomplish this goal, the industry must accept some standardization. While providers, dental software vendors, and clearinghouses request an electronic claims system that is uniform-payers (insurance companies, State-administered Medicaid programs, etc.) often insist on proprietary formats that fit their own requirements. This impedes the implementation of a successful electronic interchange of data. Under the leadership of the Canadian Dental Association, payers and dentists in Canada were able to create a superior electronic claim processing network, CDAnet. Providers and payers using CDAnet agree that the system works very well. The Canadian dentist does not pay for this service, and insurance companies benefit significantly. Dentists in the USA do not have a universal electronic claim processing network. A USA dentist who wants to send claims electronically has limited selections and often pays additional fees. Organized dentistry has the best opportunity of establishing electronic data interchange between providers and payers in the USA. The first step is creating a universal electronic claim processing system. This system must protect confidentiality by maintaining data that keeps anonymous provider and patient data. It is the dentist who produces the claim. Dentists must become involved in the decisions affecting electronic claim processing. The proper guidance from organized dentistry will enable providers, payers, software vendors, and clearinghouses to cooperate together in creating a cost effective electronic communication network.


Asunto(s)
Procesamiento Automatizado de Datos , Formulario de Reclamación de Seguro , Seguro Odontológico , Canadá , Redes de Comunicación de Computadores , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Consultorios Odontológicos/economía , Procesamiento Automatizado de Datos/economía , Procesamiento Automatizado de Datos/instrumentación , Formulario de Reclamación de Seguro/economía , Formulario de Reclamación de Seguro/normas , Automatización de Oficinas/economía , Estados Unidos
13.
CMAJ ; 154(6): 887-8, 1996 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8634966

RESUMEN

Few issues raise more questions for physicians than the resuscitation of seriously ill patients. In the following exchange of letters, Dr. John Quinlan discusses two difficult cases involving patient resuscitation, while Dr. William Cook responds by referring to the Joint Statement on Resuscitative Interventions that was approved last year by the CMA and several other health care organizations.


Asunto(s)
Reanimación Cardiopulmonar , Ética Médica , Incertidumbre , Adulto , Anciano , Coma/terapia , Consenso , Paro Cardíaco/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Valores Sociales , Intento de Suicidio
14.
CMAJ ; 153(11): 1641-2, 1995 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7489557

RESUMEN

A joint policy statement on the resuscitation of patients is published in this issue of CMAJ. Dr. John Williams, the CMA's director of ethics and legal affairs, discusses how it differs from the joint statement published last year.


Asunto(s)
Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Resucitación/métodos , Canadá , Conferencias de Consenso como Asunto , Humanos , Resucitación/normas
15.
CMAJ ; 153(11): 1652A-1652F, 1995 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés, Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7489560

RESUMEN

This joint statement includes: guiding principles for health care facilities when developing cardiopulmonary-resuscitation (CPR) policy; CPR as a treatment option; competence; the treatment decision, its communication, implementation and review; and palliative care and other treatment. This joint statement was approved by the Canadian Healthcare Association, the CMA, the Canadian Nurses Association and the Catholic Health Association of Canada and was developed in cooperation with the Canadian Bar Association.


Asunto(s)
Resucitación/métodos , Resucitación/normas , Canadá , Humanos , Resucitación/educación , Sociedades Hospitalarias , Sociedades Médicas , Sociedades de Enfermería , Cuidado Terminal
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