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1.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(3): 399-422, 2021. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340190

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: la enfermedad renal crónica y la hemodiálisis generan cambios en el estado físico y psíquico de las personas, debido a las alteraciones somáticas influenciadas por: las limitaciones, los procederes invasivos, el abandono familiar, el estado de dependencia y el deterioro de la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Objetivo: describir el estado emocional de los pacientes incluidos en el Programa de hemodiálisis crónica. Métodos: se realizó una investigación cuali-cuantitativa, descriptiva y transversal en el servicio de Hemodiálisis del Hospital Universitario Clínico-Quirúrgico «Arnaldo Milián Castro¼, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, en el período marzo - mayo 2019. La muestra estuvo conformada por 116 pacientes hemodialíticos luego de aplicar muestreo no probabilístico intencional. Se utilizó el test de Zung y el cuestionario EE-D (evaluación del malestar emocional para pacientes renales en diálisis) como instrumentos psicológicos, además de la triangulación de datos según métodos y técnicas. Resultados: predominaron: el sexo masculino, la fístula arteriovenosa, el tiempo en hemodiálisis de 1 a 5 años y la presencia de nefropatía vascular hipertensiva. Entre los estados de ánimo prevalecieron la depresión leve y moderada; la media en percepción individual obtuvo una evaluación de 3 puntos e igual rango de depresión y ansiedad. La media para la edad, hemoglobina y albúmina tuvieron valores de 55,66 años, 11,9 g/dl y 37 g/dl, respectivamente. Las alteraciones detectadas se establecieron como reacción ante la crisis y el tratamiento, y afrontamiento de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: se concluyó que existe una alta prevalencia de alteración del estado emocional en los pacientes estudiados.


ABSTRACT Introduction: chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis generate changes in physical and mental state of people, due to somatic alterations influenced by limitations, invasive procedures, family abandonment, dependency status and deterioration in the quality of life of patients. Objective: to describe the emotional state of the patients included in the chronic hemodialysis Program. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional, qualitative and quantitative research was carried out in the Hemodialysis service at "Arnaldo Milián Castro" Clinical and Surgical University Hospital, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, from March to May 2019. The sample consisted of 116 hemodialysis patients after applying intentional and non-probability sampling. The Zung test and the EE-D questionnaire (evaluation of emotional distress for kidney patients on dialysis) were used as psychological instruments, in addition to the triangulation of data according to methods and techniques. Results: male gender, arteriovenous fistula, time on hemodialysis from 1 to 5 years and presence of hypertensive vascular nephropathy predominated. Mild and moderate depression prevailed among mood states; the mean of individual perception obtained an evaluation of 3 points and a same range of depression and anxiety. The mean for age, hemoglobin and albumin had values ​​of 55.66 years, 11.9 g / dl and 37 g / dl, respectively. The detected alterations were established as a reaction to crisis and treatment, and coping with the disease.

2.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 18(1)2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260832

RESUMEN

Worldwide, more than one billion people live with a disability (World Health Organization. (2011). World report on disability. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report/en/). People with a disability (PWD) have unmet needs with the delivery of health care, secondary to nursing student's negative attitudes, knowledge, and skill deficits. This integrative literature review evaluated nursing student's education and attitudes towards PWD. Deficient education, attitudes, knowledge, and skills are addressed. Combined search terms utilized included: healthcare students; healthcare education; nursing students; clinical experience; clinical rotation; attitude of health care students; and exposure to PWD. Thirty articles were analyzed with common themes identified. Educational methods that produced improved attitudes, knowledge and skills included standardized patients with disabilities; phenomenological approaches; curriculum enhancement; empathy exercises and clinical experiences (Anderson, E. S., Ford, J., & Thorpe, L. (2011). Learning to listen: Improving students' communication with disabled people. Medical Teacher, 33(1), 44-52. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2010.498491; Castro, S. S., Rowe, M., Andrade, L. F., & Cyrino, E. G. (2018). Developing competencies among health professions students related to the care of people with disabilities: A pilot study. Interface: Comunicacao, Saude, Educacao, 22(65), 551-563. doi: 10.1590/1807-57622016.0684; Hensel, D., Malinowski, C., & Watts, P. A. (2015). Implementing a pediatric camp clinical for pre-licensure education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 36(1), 60-61. doi: 10.5480/12-871.1; Levett-Jones, T., Lapkin, S., Govind, N., Pich, J., Hoffman, K., Jeong, S. Y., . . . Everson, N. (2017). Measuring the impact of a 'point of view' disability simulation on nursing students' empathy using the comprehensive state empathy scale. Nurse Education Today, 59, 75-81. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2017.09.007; Smith, P., Ooms, A., & Marks-Maran, D. (2016). Active involvement of learning disabilities service users in the development and delivery of a teaching session to pre-registration nurses: Students' perspectives. Nurse Education in Practice, 16(1), 111-118. doi: 10.1016/j.nepr.2015.09.010). Nursing schools must incorporate disability education to fully realize its impact and eliminate barriers to transform care.

3.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819103

RESUMEN

Colocasia esculenta, taro (T), is a major staple food crop in the tropics, including Brazil. Rumohra adiantiformis, leatherhead fern (LF), is broadly cultivated for its ornamental fronds that are used as a component of flower arrangements. Soft root rot of T and LF, and accompanying rapid plant wilt and death, was observed in plantations in Espírito Santo (Brazil), at Venda Nova do Imigrante, in April 2014 (LF) and July 2015 (T). Great losses were observed. Firstly, a few individual scattered plants showed symptoms of disease in the plantations, then aggregates of plants and, after a few seasons, the majority of the plants in the field died before harvest, leading to the abandonment of the activity by farmers. A white mycelial matt was observed on the crown and roots ofying T and LF plants. Infected corms become necrotic and dark brown mycelial strands were observed internally in tissues. Diseased organs were carefully washed and surface sterilized in 10% sodium hypochlorite. Samples of tissue were removed from the boundary of necrotic tissues and placed on potato dextrose-agar (PDA) plates and incubated at 23±2 C in the dark. Homogeneous mycelial colonies were isolated from both T and LF and, upon observation of microscope mounts under an Olympus BX 53 light microscope, pear-shaped hyphal swellings at the septae (Castro et al. 2013) were observed. . A representative isolate from each host was deposited in the local culture collection as COAD 2911 (LF isolate) and COAD 2912 (T isolate). Additionally, DNA was extracted from each culture using the Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega) and the internal transcriptional spacer region was PCR amplified using the primers ITS5 and ITS1 (White et al. 1990). The amplicons were sequenced by MACROGEN (http://www.macrogen.com). Consensus sequences were deposited in GenBank: MW561595 (LF), MW561596 (T). Consensus regions were compared against other sequences available in Genbank. A BLASTn analysis resulted in LF and T sequences respectively 99% (526/531bp) and 98% (412/420 bp) identity with that of Dematophora bunodes (MN984619). Additionally, a phylogenetic analysis of a selected sequence alignment was performed on the CIPRES webportal (Miller et al., 2010) using MrBayes v.3.1.1 (Ronquist & Huelsenbeck, 2003). A phylogenetic tree was generated showing that the placement of LF and T isolates is in D. bunodes (Wittstein et al. 2020). Pathogenicity tests were performed for LF and T isolates against their original hosts. For inoculum, bags of twice-autoclaved parboiled rice were seeded separately with each isolate, which were allowed to colonize the rice for two weeks. Four healthy young LF and T plants were utilized. Two extra healthy plants grown in the same conditions, but not inoculated, served as controls. Thirty g of Dematophora-colonized rice was placed in direct contact with stems or roots of each LF or T plant. Plants were maintained in a dew chamber for 48 h after inoculation and then transferred to a greenhouse bench. All inoculated plants developed wilt and root rot and died after 15-20 days. Controls remained healthy. White mycelial colonies were formed over tissues of diseased LF and T and upon observation under the microscope, typical pear-shaped swellings were observed in slides prepared from newly obtained pure cultures from LF and T. Dematophora bunodes (formerly Rosellinia bunnodes) has a worldwide distribution and is well known as a polyphagous plant pathogen (Farr and Rossman, 2020) but has never been reported as a pathogen either of LF or T before in Brazil and worldwide. Its report on LF and T further expands an already large host-range and resolves the etiology of the disease on LF and T.

5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(8): 2347-2351, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735428

RESUMEN

Nunes, JP, Costa, BDV, Kassiano, W, Kunevaliki, G, Castro-e-Souza, P, Rodacki, ALF, Fortes, LS, and Cyrino, ES. Different foot positioning during calf training to induce portion-specific gastrocnemius muscle hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2347-2351, 2020-The aim of this study was to compare the changes in gastrocnemius muscle thickness (MT) between conditions such as which foot was pointed outward (FPO), foot was pointed inward (FPI), or foot was pointed forward (FPF). Twenty-two young men (23 ± 4 years) were selected and performed a whole-body resistance training program 3 times per week for 9 weeks, with differences in the exercise specific for calves. The calf-raise exercise was performed unilaterally, in a pin-loaded seated horizontal leg-press machine, in 3 sets of 20-25 repetitions for training weeks 1-3 and 4 sets for weeks 4-9. Each subject's leg was randomly assigned for 1 of the 3 groups according to the foot position: FPO, FPI, and FPF. Measurements with a B-mode ultrasound were performed to assess changes in MT of medial and lateral gastrocnemius heads. After the training period, there were observed increases in MT of both medial (FPO = 8.4%, FPI = 3.8%, and FPF = 5.8%) and lateral (FPO = 5.5%, FPI = 9.1%, and FPF = 6.4%) gastrocnemius heads, and significant differences for magnitude of the gains were observed between FPO and FPI conditions (p < 0.05). Positioning FPO potentiated the increases in MT of the medial gastrocnemius head, whereas FPI provided greater gains for the lateral gastrocnemius head. Our results suggest that head-specific muscle hypertrophy may be obtained selectively for gastrocnemius after 9 weeks of calf training in young male adults.


Asunto(s)
Pie/fisiología , Hipertrofia/fisiopatología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Entrenamiento de Fuerza/métodos , Levantamiento de Peso/fisiología , Adulto , Humanos , Pierna , Masculino , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Adulto Joven
6.
Immunity ; 50(4): 1029-1031, 2019 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995495

RESUMEN

Genome-wide association studies in ulcerative colitis point to a role for FcγRIIA, a receptor for IgG. Castro-Dopico et al. (2019) find a profound induction of anti-commensal IgG in the colonic mucosa of UC patients and outline a pathway whereby FcγR activation by IgG triggers IL-1ß production, type 17 immunity, and the exacerbation of inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa , Colitis , Colon , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , Inflamación , Mucosa Intestinal
7.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 29(5): 538, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851432

RESUMEN

Boquete-Castro A, Gómez-Moreno G, Aguilar-Salvatierra A, Delgado-Ruiz RA, Romanos GE, Calvo-Guirado JL. Influence of the implant design on osseointegration and crestal bone resorption of immediate implants: a histomorphometric study in dogs. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2014;26: 876-881. The above article, published online on 26 March 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 26, pp. 876-881, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, L Heitz-Mayfield, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to numerical discrepancies in Tables 1-4, resulting in unreliable data. Reference Boquete-Castro A, Gómez-Moreno G, Aguilar-Salvatierra A, Delgado-Ruiz RA, Romanos GE, Calvo-Guirado JL. Influence of the implant design on osseointegration and crestal bone resorption of immediate implants: a histomorphometric study in dogs. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2014;26: 876-881. https://doi.org/10.1111/clr.12381.

9.
Syst Parasitol ; 95(2-3): 173-200, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264867

RESUMEN

Tripaphylus Richiardi in Anonymous, 1878 is one of the genera of the Sphyriidae Wilson, 1919 and it currently accommodates ten species. Only scanty descriptions are available for the females and some males of the species. Tripaphylus specimens, described and illustrated in this paper, were collected from elasmobranch hosts off the South African coast or came from the private collection of the late Dr G. Benz. Collected specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol, examined by light - and scanning electron microscopy, and compared with the known species. Descriptions and illustrations are provided for the transformed adult females and males of T. elongatus (Wilson, 1932) and T. versicolor (Wilson, 1919) while illustrated descriptions of the transformed adult females are also provided for T. ferox (Wilson, 1919) and T. vaissierei (Delamare Deboutteville & Nuñes-Ruivo, 1954). Additionally, the material previously reported as T. ferox is considered to represent T. elongatus and that reported as T. lobatus (Kirtisinghe, 1964) is considered a junior synonym of T. vaissierei. Based on the collected material the transformed adult female and male of T. lewisi n. sp. are described as well as the adult transformed females of T. benzi n. sp., T. hoi n. sp., and T. beatricae n. sp. A summarised review of the main features is provided for each of the previously described T. musteli (van Beneden, 1851), T. hemigalei Kirtisinghe, 1964, T. australis (Kabata, 1993), T. triakis (Castro Romero, 2001) and T. asymboli (Turner, Kyne & Bennett, 2003). Furthermore, reasons are provided for the recommendation that T. hemigalei be considered a species inquirenda. An identification key to the transformed adult females of all species of Tripaphylus is provided and the host records are also updated.


Asunto(s)
Copépodos/clasificación , Copépodos/ultraestructura , Animales , Copépodos/anatomía & histología , Elasmobranquios/parasitología , Femenino , Masculino , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Especificidad de la Especie
10.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 3(2): 1193-1194, 2018 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474462

RESUMEN

In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of band-rumped Storm-petrel, Hydrobates castro, was determined through sequencing of PCR fragments. The complete mitochondrial genome of H. castro was 17,065 bp in length and encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. The overall nucleotide composition is: 30.4% A, 24.5% T, 30.9% C, and 14.2% G, with a total G + C content of 45.1%. By phylogenetic analysis using Bayes method, H. castro showed the closest relationship with the white-faced storm petrel (Pelagodroma marina).

11.
J Sex Med ; 14(7): 918-927, 2017 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28673434

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite a common misconception, older adults engage in sexual behavior. However, there is limited sexual behavior research in older adults, which is often restricted to small samples, to cohorts recruiting adults from 45 years old, and to questions regarding only sexual intercourse. AIM: To assess the cross-sectional prevalence of and characteristics associated with sexual activity and physical tenderness in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: From the Rotterdam Study, sexual activity and physical tenderness were assessed in 2,374 dementia-free, community-dwelling men and women at least 65 years old from 2009 through 2012 in the Netherlands. Analyses were stratified by sex and partner status. OUTCOMES: Sexual activity and physical tenderness (eg, fondling or kissing) in the last 6 months. Potential associated characteristics included measurements of demographics, socioeconomic position, health behavior, and health status. RESULTS: The vast majority of partnered participants (men, n = 858; women, n = 724) had experienced physical tenderness in the previous 6 months (83.7% of men and 82.9% of women) and nearly half had engaged in sexual activity (49.5% and 40.4% respectively). Very few unpartnered women (n = 675) had engaged in sexual activity (1.3%) or physical tenderness (5.2%), whereas prevalence rates were slightly higher for unpartnered men (n = 117; 13.7% or 17.1%). Engaging in sexual behavior was generally associated with younger age, greater social support, healthier behaviors, and better physical and psychological health. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Findings show that older adults engage in sexual activity. It is important not to assume that an older person is not interested in sexual pleasure or that an older person is unhappy with not having a sexual partner. Offering an opportunity for open discussion of sexuality and medical assistance without imposing is a difficult balance. We encourage health care professionals to proactively address sexuality and extend knowledge about safe sex and sexual function to older adults. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Thus far, this is one of the largest samples of sexual behavior assessment in adults older than 60 years. Limitations of this study are common in sexual behavior research, including low sexual behavior engagement among unpartnered older adults and a small sample of unpartnered men, which restricted sex- and age-specific implications. CONCLUSION: Almost half of partnered older adults engaged in sexual activity and more than two thirds engaged in physical tenderness, but very few unpartnered older adults engaged in these behaviors. The greatest barrier to being sexually active at an older age is lack of a partner, which particularly affects women. Sexuality is an important aspect of active aging. Freak-Poli R, Kirkman M, De Castro Lima G, et al. Sexual Activity and Physical Tenderness in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Prevalence and Associated Characteristics. J Sex Med 2017;14:918-927.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Conducta Sexual , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos , Examen Físico , Prevalencia , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Parejas Sexuales
12.
Chemistry ; 20(32): 10005-10, 2014 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25042813

RESUMEN

The mechanism of copper-mediated Sonogashira couplings (so-called Stephens-Castro and Miura couplings) is not well understood and lacks clear comprehension. In this work, the reactivity of a well-defined aryl-Cu(III) species (1ClO4) with p-R-phenylacetylenes (R = NO2, CF3, H) is reported and it is found that facile reductive elimination from a putative aryl-Cu(III)-acetylide species occurs at room temperature to afford the Caryl-Csp coupling species (IR), which in turn undergo an intramolecular reorganisation to afford final heterocyclic products containing 2H-isoindole (P NO2, P CF3, PHa) or 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline (PHb) substructures. Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies support the postulated reductive elimination pathway that leads to the formation of C sp2-Csp bonds and provide the clue to understand the divergent intramolecular reorganisation when p-H-phenylacetylene is used. Mechanistic insights and the very mild experimental conditions to effect Caryl-Csp coupling in these model systems provide important insights for developing milder copper-catalysed Caryl-Csp coupling reactions with standard substrates in the future.


Asunto(s)
Alquinos/química , Derivados del Benceno/química , Cobre/química , Isoindoles/síntesis química , Isoquinolinas/síntesis química , Catálisis , Modelos Moleculares , Oxidación-Reducción
13.
Ren Fail ; 34(3): 394-5, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22250791

RESUMEN

Pruritus is an alarming symptom in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) accompanied by sleep disturbances and physical and mental disorders. Although its prevalence is very high among hemodialysis patients (90%), its etiology and its successful treatment have been unconfirmed (Melo N, Elias R, Castro M, Romao G, Abensur H. Pruritus in hemodialysis patients: The problem still remains. Hemodial Int. 2009;13:38-42.). Common pruritus etiologies, such as high parathyroid hormone levels, dialysis inadequacy, and iron deficiency are matters of conflict. The case of a hemodialysis patient with consistent itching and a variety of cutaneous eruptions, which after performing skin biopsy were explored and cured, is described. This article addresses the possibility of other causes of pruritus in ESRD and encourages watchful waiting with simple medical interventions, which would relieve patients' symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Fallo Renal Crónico/complicaciones , Prurito/etiología , Diálisis Renal , Piel/patología , Biopsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prurito/patología
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 84(2 Suppl): 58-63, 2011 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21292879

RESUMEN

Frequency and levels of IgG antibodies to an N-terminal fragment of the Plasmodium vivax MSP-1 (Pv200L) protein, in individuals naturally exposed to malaria in four endemic areas of Brazil, were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma samples of 261 P. vivax-infected individuals from communities of Macapá, Novo Repartimento, Porto Velho, and Plácido de Castro in the Amazonian region with different malaria transmission intensities. A high mean number of studied individuals (89.3%) presented with antibodies to the Pv200L that correlated with the number of previous malaria infections; there were significant differences in the frequency of the responders (71.9-98.7) and in the antibody levels (1:200-1:51,200) among the four study areas. Results of this study provide evidence that Pv200L is a naturally immunogenic fragment of the PvMSP-1 and is associated with the degree of exposure to parasites. The fine specificity of antibodies to Pv200L is currently being assessed.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Malaria Vivax/epidemiología , Proteína 1 de Superficie de Merozoito/inmunología , Plasmodium vivax/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/biosíntesis , Brasil/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/biosíntesis , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Malaria Vivax/inmunología , Malaria Vivax/parasitología , Proteína 1 de Superficie de Merozoito/química
15.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 61(2): 149-57, 2006 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16313987

RESUMEN

We have recently obtained evidence for complex multifocal, individually variable generators of slow cortical potentials, elicited during performance of visual tasks involving expecting attention, comparison and memory [Basile, L.F.H., Ballester, G., Castro, C.C., and Gattaz, W.F., 2002. Multifocal slow potential generators revealed by high-resolution EEG and current density reconstruction. Int. J. Psychophysiol., 45 (3), 227-240; Basile, L.F.H, Baldo, M.V., Castro, C.C., and Gattaz, W.F. 2003. The generators of slow potentials obtained during verbal, pictorial and spatial tasks. Int. J. Psychophysiol., 48, 55-65]. The cue-target aspect of traditional paradigms for attention studies is equivalent to 'warning S1'-'imperative S2' in slow potential designs. We simplified Posner's spatial cueing task [Posner, M.I. 1980. Orienting of attention.Q. J. Exp. Psychol. Feb;32 (1), 3-25; Posner, M.I., Snyder, C.R., Davidson, B.J. 1980. Attention and the detection of signals. J Exp Psychol. Jun; 109 (2), 160-174] to temporal cuing only, by using visual cues to indicate the mere presence, on a known central position, of the eventual target (17 ms duration, +/-0.3 degrees grey circle). We recorded slow potentials on 12 healthy subjects, by 124-channel EEG system (Neuroscan Inc.), and modeled their generators using current density reconstruction (CDR) by L(p) 1.2 norm minimization ("Curry V4.6", Neurosoft Inc.) applied to the target onset time. MRIs were obtained for each subject for constraining source models to individual brain anatomy. Average slow potentials were computed from above 60 artifact-free EEG-epochs (ISI=1.6 s, average ITI=2.5 s). We tabulated individual cortical current distributions by cytoarchitectonic area of Brodmann, after scaling into negligible, low, moderate and strong local density, based on percentile bands with respect to absolute maximum current. Despite the task's simplicity, the main result was individual variability and complexity in both scalp voltage and cortical current distributions. As observed in our previous studies, there was strong intersubject variability in the exact distribution of task-related cortical activity. Only parietal area 7 bilaterally was non-negligibly active in all subjects (currents above 10% maximum). As opposed to drawing conclusions based on group averaged data, we propose that activity by cytoarchitectonic area be ranked and statistically analysed only after being scaled on each individual. Based on the present results, the concept of a universal attention-related set of cortical areas if restricted to common areas across subjects is challenged, since even area 7 may no longer be common when the sample size becomes larger. We discuss the fact that group averaging may de-emphasize weakly but consistently active areas, and emphasize strongly but inconsistently active ones.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Electroencefalografía , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Imagenología Tridimensional , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Disposición en Psicología , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Adulto , Mapeo Encefálico , Dominancia Cerebral/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Orientación/fisiología , Aprendizaje por Probabilidad , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología
16.
J Comp Neurol ; 494(3): 435-59, 2006 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16320255

RESUMEN

The distribution of calretinin (CR) in the forebrain and the olfactory system of the adult zebrafish was studied by using immunocytochemical techniques. Previous studies in trout forebrain have indicated that CR-immunoreactive neurons acquire this phenotype rather early in development (Castro et al., J. Comp. Neurol. 467:254-269, 2003). Thus, precise knowledge of CR-expressing neuronal populations in adult zebrafish may help to decipher late stages of forebrain morphogenesis. For analysis of some forebrain nuclei and regions, CR distribution was compared with that of various ancillary markers: choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and galanin. The results reveal that calretinin is a specific marker of olfactory receptor neurons and of various neuronal populations distributed throughout the telencephalon and diencephalon. In addition, CR immunocytochemistry revealed characteristic patterns of fibers and neuropil in several telencephalic and diencephalic regions, indicating that it is a useful marker for characterizing a number of neural centers, pathways, and neuronal subpopulations in the zebrafish forebrain. Some ancillary markers also showed a distinctive distribution in pallial and subpallial regions, revealing additional aspects of forebrain organization. Comparison of the distribution of CR observed in the forebrain of zebrafish with that reported in other teleosts revealed a number of similarities and also some interesting differences. This indicates that various neuronal populations have maintained the CR phenotype in widely divergent teleost lines and suggests that CR studies may prove very useful for comparative analysis.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/metabolismo , Vías Olfatorias/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína G de Unión al Calcio S100/metabolismo , Proteínas de Pez Cebra/metabolismo , Pez Cebra/metabolismo , Animales , Calbindina 2 , Colina O-Acetiltransferasa/metabolismo , Galanina/metabolismo , Glutamato Descarboxilasa/metabolismo , Inmunohistoquímica , Neuropéptido Y/metabolismo , Vías Olfatorias/citología , Organogénesis , Prosencéfalo/citología , Hormona Liberadora de Tirotropina/metabolismo , Distribución Tisular , Tirosina 3-Monooxigenasa/metabolismo , Pez Cebra/anatomía & histología
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 46(1): 55-8, 1995 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7475123

RESUMEN

Propolis, a bee product, can be regarded as one of the potential natural sources in folk medicine, displaying strong antimicrobial activity. Previous work showed that propolis extracts exhibited in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi (Higashi and de Castro, 1994). Different formulations of propolis were administered to experimentally Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice and the parasitemia kinetics and survival rate were monitored. The oral administration of ethanolic extracts up to 1.2 g propolis/kg per day or propolis offered ad libitum in the drinking water (up to 4 g/kg per day) or added to the food (up to 5 g/kg per day) did not interfere with both parameters. The differences between in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of propolis and future perspectives are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/tratamiento farmacológico , Parasitemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Própolis/uso terapéutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efectos de los fármacos , Administración Oral , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Etanol/química , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Própolis/administración & dosificación , Própolis/aislamiento & purificación , Própolis/farmacología
18.
Biochem J ; 305 ( Pt 3): 953-8, 1995 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7848296

RESUMEN

The requirement for a normal insulin response in mediating the starved-to-refed transition, with respect to the partitioning of hepatic fatty acids between beta-oxidation and esterification to glycerol, was studied. Diabetic rats were starved for 24 h and refed ad libitum for various periods of time. There was no increase in plasma insulin in response to the meal. However, the fatty acid oxidation:esterification ratio was very rapidly decreased from the starved to the fed value, most of the transition being achieved within the first hour of refeeding. There was a 2 h lag in the response of hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, such that this rapid switch from oxidation to esterification could not be explained on the basis of changes in the absolute concentration of this inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I). Hepatic pyruvate and lactate concentrations both increased by several-fold upon refeeding and peaked after 1 h and 3 h, respectively. The hepatic lactate:pyruvate ratio increased 3.2-fold during the first 3 h of refeeding, suggesting that the cytosolic NAD(+)-NADH couple became much more highly reduced during the lag-period between the onset of inhibition of flux of fatty acids towards oxidation and the rise in malonyl-CoA concentration. This may be indicative of a lowering of intracellular pH, which would amplify greatly the sensitivity of CPT I to the inhibitor. In view of the very rapid and high food intake by these diabetic rats, the possibility is also considered that portal concentrations of amino acids and other metabolites could give rise to an increase in liver cell-volume that would inhibit CPT I acutely by an as yet unknown mechanism [M. Guzman, G. Velasco, J. Castro and V. A. Zammit (1994) FEBS Lett. 344, 239-241].


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacología , Hígado/metabolismo , Inanición/metabolismo , Animales , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferasa/metabolismo , Ésteres del Colesterol/metabolismo , Esterificación , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/sangre , Femenino , Alimentos , Glicerofosfatos/metabolismo , Insulina/sangre , Lactatos/sangre , Lactatos/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico , Malonil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Malonil Coenzima A/farmacología , Mitocondrias Hepáticas/efectos de los fármacos , Mitocondrias Hepáticas/enzimología , Oxidación-Reducción , Piruvatos/sangre , Piruvatos/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
19.
Biochemistry ; 33(22): 6981-5, 1994 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7515687

RESUMEN

The ability of mouse anti-apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) monoclonal antibodies to recognize pre-beta-HDL species in native plasma was determined. An antibody identifying residues 137-144 of the mature protein uniquely recognized pre-beta-1 HDL, an HDL species of low molecular weight implicated in early cholesterol transport from cell membranes to plasma [Castro, G. R., & Fielding, C. J. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 25-29]. Incubation of plasma with this antibody significantly inhibited the efflux of labeled cholesterol from cultured fibroblast monolayers. A second antibody, binding to residues 93-99 of apo A-I, recognized a second pre-beta-HDL species (pre-beta-2 HDL) but not pre-beta-1 HDL and did not inhibit cholesterol efflux. Several other antibodies had broad specificity for HDL (including pre-beta-1 HDL). This research suggests that apo A-I residues 137-144 are adjacent to or part of a structural site in pre-beta-1 HDL active in promoting the efflux of cellular cholesterol and that this site is not exposed in other HDL species.


Asunto(s)
Apolipoproteína A-I/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/química , Lipoproteínas HDL/fisiología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Apolipoproteína A-I/inmunología , Catálisis , Células Cultivadas , Epítopos/análisis , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas de Alta Densidad Pre-beta , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/inmunología , Datos de Secuencia Molecular
20.
Biochemistry ; 31(45): 11112-7, 1992 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1445850

RESUMEN

A minor fraction of plasma high-density lipoprotein (pre beta-1 HDL) has been shown to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cell membranes [Castro, G. R., & Fielding, C. J. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 25-29]. When isolated native plasma is incubated at 37 degrees C, this fraction is specifically decreased. On the other hand, the level of plasma pre beta-1 HDL is fully protected in the presence of even very low levels of fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells, or macrophages. Blood cells were completely inactive in maintaining plasma pre beta-1 HDL levels in the absence of peripheral cells, even at the relatively high levels present in whole blood. The loss of pre beta-1 observed in isolated plasma was dependent upon lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. These data suggest that reverse cholesterol transport catalyzed by pre beta-1 HDL, and subsequent LCAT-mediated cholesterol esterification, is directly dependent upon the interaction between this HDL species and competent peripheral cells.


Asunto(s)
Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolina-Esterol O-Aciltransferasa/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Electroforesis en Gel de Agar , Electroforesis en Gel Bidimensional , Lipoproteínas de Alta Densidad Pre-beta , Humanos
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