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1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(3): 217-222, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623122

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Suicides of hospitalized patients present rare but very serious adverse events in healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe and analyse the facilities and material equipment of acute psychiatric settings in the Czech Republic and contrast these with recommendations for effective prevention of suicidal behaviour. Since there are currently no universally accepted protocols for risk assessment and prevention of suicides in hospital settings in the Czech Republic, these recommendations draw on international guidelines. Based on the outcomes of our study we provide recommendations for risk management and effective prevention of suicidal behaviour of patients hospitalized in acute care settings. METHODS: In order to describe and analyse the environment of acute psychiatric wards in the Czech Republic we have developed a questionnaire based on international recommendations for risk management and prevention of suicidal behaviour. We also collected data on the prevalence of attempted and completed suicides and their respective methods in these hospitals. RESULTS: We have established that acute psychiatric wards in the Czech Republic operate within insufficient safety regimes, especially with respect to the prevention of suicide by hanging and the accessibility of objects for cutting. Our findings demonstrate that only 75% of the wards are equipped with safety glass, and only 50% of the wards with safety mirrors. Only just over 40% of hospitals have safety door handles and shower heads. CONCLUSION: While it is impossible to entirely eliminate the risk of suicidal behaviour it is possible to manage it. The risk reduction is attainable by providing a safe-proofed environment and minimizing opportunities of suicide attempts by hanging and cutting. In order to effectively prevent suicides, it is essential to increase the awareness of the possibilities of safe proofing of the environment as well as standardization of risk assessment of potential suicidal behaviour of patients.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Psiquiatría en Hospital , Intento de Suicidio , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , República Checa , Hospitales , Humanos
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20191120, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586313

RESUMEN

This article presents the identification of soil use potential for different agropastoral and forest scenarios, using an indicator for erosion susceptibility from the spatialized Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). All USLE factors were spatialized using ArcGis 10.5 software, for the case study of the Cachoeira Cinco Veados Watershed-RS. To determine the R factor, we used the Cassol et al. 2007 equation and a 33-year series of rain data from six climatic stations. For the K factor, published values for the soil classes: Entisol, Ultisol, Oxisol, Molisols were used. From the DEM, the LS factor was obtained, considering six slope classes (0-3, 3-8, 8-20, 20-45, 45-75, >75%). In addition to the actual land use situation in the watershed, nine scenarios were proposed for the C factor. The value of 0.5 was used for the evaluation of conservation practices (P factor). Considering scenarios of current use situation along with the nine other scenarios, the results showed that, by identifying the most susceptible areas in each scenario, it is possible to construct an indicator map of soil compatibilities for each use, considering sustainable limits of soil losses. Therefore, this resulting map has potential use as instrument for land use planning and zoning studies.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Erosión del Suelo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Suelo
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518374

RESUMEN

Most endangered species exist today in small populations, many of which are isolated. Evolution in such populations is largely governed by genetic drift. Empirical evidence for drift affecting striking phenotypes based on substantial genetic data are rare. Approximately 37% of tigers (Panthera tigris) in the Similipal Tiger Reserve (in eastern India) are pseudomelanistic, characterized by wide, merged stripes. Camera trap data across the tiger range revealed the presence of pseudomelanistic tigers only in Similipal. We investigated the genetic basis for pseudomelanism and examined the role of drift in driving this phenotype's frequency. Whole-genome data and pedigree-based association analyses from captive tigers revealed that pseudomelanism cosegregates with a conserved and functionally important coding alteration in Transmembrane Aminopeptidase Q (Taqpep), a gene responsible for similar traits in other felid species. Noninvasive sampling of tigers revealed a high frequency of the Taqpep p.H454Y mutation in Similipal (12 individuals, allele frequency = 0.58) and absence from all other tiger populations (395 individuals). Population genetic analyses confirmed few (minimal number) tigers in Similipal, and its genetic isolation, with poor geneflow. Pairwise FST (0.33) at the mutation site was high but not an outlier. Similipal tigers had low diversity at 81 single nucleotide polymorphisms (mean heterozygosity = 0.28, SD = 0.27). Simulations were consistent with founding events and drift as possible drivers for the observed stark difference of allele frequency. Our results highlight the role of stochastic processes in the evolution of rare phenotypes. We highlight an unusual evolutionary trajectory in a small and isolated population of an endangered species.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Flujo Genético , Variación Genética , Genética de Población , Melanosis/genética , Fenotipo , Tigres/fisiología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Genoma , Genotipo , India , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Homología de Secuencia , Tigres/genética
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544851

RESUMEN

Across publicly owned natural resources, the practice of recovering financial compensation, commonly known as resource rent, from extractive industries influences wealth distribution and general welfare of society. Catch shares are the primary approach adopted to diminish the economically wasteful race to fish by allocating shares of fish quotas-public assets-to selected fishing firms. It is perceived that resource rent is concentrated within catch share fisheries, but there has been no systematic comparison of rent-charging practices with other extractive industries. Here, we estimate the global prevalence of catch share fisheries and compare rent recovery mechanisms (RRM) in the fishing industry with other extractive industries. We show that while catch share fisheries harvest 17.4 million tons (19% of global fisheries landings), with a value of 17.7 billion USD (17% of global fisheries landed value), rent charges occurred in only 5 of 18 countries with shares of fish quotas primarily allocated free of charge. When compared with other extractive industries, fishing is the only industry that consistently lacks RRM. While recovering resource rent for harvesting well-governed fishery resources represents a source of revenue to coastal states, which could be sustained indefinitely, overcharging the industry might impact fish supply. Different RRM occurred in extractive industries, though generally, rent-based charges can help avoid affecting deployment of capital and labor to harvest fish since they depend on the profitability of the operations. Our study could be a starting point for coastal states to consider adapting policies to the enhanced economic condition of the fishing industry under catch shares.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras/estadística & datos numéricos , Peces/fisiología , Modelos Biológicos , Dinámica Poblacional , Animales , Explotaciones Pesqueras/economía , Internacionalidad
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 680986, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568251

RESUMEN

The introduction of non-native species and deforestation are both important drivers of environmental change that can also facilitate the geographic spread of zoonotic pathogens and increase disease risk in humans. With ongoing trends in globalization and land-use conversions, introduced species and deforestation are ever more likely to pose threats to human health. Here, we used rat lungworm disease, an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis and maintained by invasive rats and snails, to explore how these two forms of environmental change can impact zoonotic disease risk. We used logistic regressions to examine the role of global trade in the introduction of A. cantonensis at a country level and used model estimates to predict the probability of introduction as a function of trade. We then used hurdle-based regression models to examine the association between deforestation and rat lungworm disease in two regions where A. cantonensis is already established: Hawaii and Thailand. At the global scale, we found the trade of horticultural products to be an important driver in the spread of A. cantonensis and that the majority of countries at high risk of future A. cantonensis introduction are islands. At country scales, we found deforestation to increase the per-capita risk of A. cantonensis exposure in Hawaii and Thailand. Our study provides a preliminary view of the associations between species introductions, deforestation, and risk of A. cantonensis exposure in people. Better understanding how these two widespread and overlapping forms of environmental change affect human health can inform international biosecurity protocols, invasive species management, and land-use policies.


Asunto(s)
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Hawaii/epidemiología , Ratas , Caracoles , Zoonosis/epidemiología
11.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113622, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479152

RESUMEN

Environmental compensation (EC) aims at addressing environmental losses due to development projects and involves a need to compare development losses with compensation gains using relevant metrics. A conceptual procedure for computing no net loss is formulated and used as a point of departure for a comparative analysis of metrics used by five Swedish municipalities as a part of their EC implementation in the spatial planning context of detailed development plans. While Swedish law does not require EC in this context, these municipalities have still decided to introduce EC requirements for development projects that occur on municipality-owned land and to promote voluntary EC among private actors in development projects on private land. There is substantial variation across the municipalities studied with respect to both metrics and attributes subject to measurement, but there are also similarities: The attributes considered when assessing the need for EC in conjunction with development are not only about nature per se, but also about recreational opportunities and other types ecosystem services; semi-quantitative metrics such as scores are common while quantitative or monetary metrics are rare; and metrics are rarely applied to assess compensatory gains, focusing instead on losses from development. Streamlining across municipalities might be warranted for increasing predictability and transparency for developers and citizens, but it also introduces considerable challenges such as a need for developing consistent guidelines for semi-quantitative metrics, and to handle substitutability issues if metrics are not only applied on individual attributes but also on groups of attributes. The broad scope of attributes used by the municipalities is in line with an international tendency to broaden EC to include not only biodiversity aspects but also ecosystem services. Moreover, the EC systems applied by the municipalities are of particular importance for highlighting the crucial role of environmental management for maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services not only in areas having formal protection status but also in the everyday landscape. The municipalities' experience and strengths and weaknesses associated with their EC systems are therefore relevant also in an international perspective.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Benchmarking , Biodiversidad , Ciudades , Suecia
12.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113660, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481371

RESUMEN

A clear quantification and spatial mapping between supply and demand of water provision service in relation to climate change and urban expansion can provide some guidance to water resources management. Nevertheless, so far, most researches ignored the dynamic changes and influences of supply-demand coupling correlations. In this study, water yield and water demand were quantified and mapped in the Xiangjiang River Basin (XRB) from 2000 to 2018 by using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) and water-demand models, then the spatial distribution characteristics and their matching relationship were identified by using the univariate local autocorrelation analysis and the common logarithm of water supply-demand ratio (WSDR). With that, the contributions of climate and socio-economic factors to the above-mentioned changes were explored by using geographic detector. Results showed that the annual water yield increased by 20.20% in 2000-2015 and decreased by 33.92% in 2015-2018 affected by precipitation and land use changes; Changsha-Zhuzhou- Xiangtan urban agglomeration (CZX) and Southwest of Yongzhou were the high value areas of water yield (>338 m3/hm2). Due to the urban expansion, the water demand increased by 40.50% from 2000 to 2005 and decreased by 36.39% after 2005; From 2000 to 2018, high value areas of water demand (>53566 m3/hm2) mainly appeared in midstream and downstream with high urbanization level, dense population and developed industry. Under the joint action of precipitation (prep) and urban expansion, the overall state of supply and demand in the upper reaches was surplus, and more than 90% of the regions in midstream and downstream were at the middle and high level of supply shortage, especially in Hengyang and Chenzhou. Consequently, the increasing needs of human beings should be emphasized from the overall perspective of the basin, the growth rate of construction land and the necessary green infrastructure should be controlled reasonably and configured for achieving win-win goals of coordinating environmental protection and urban development.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Agua , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Ríos , Urbanización , Abastecimiento de Agua
13.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113655, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488109

RESUMEN

Ecological environmental assessment is an indispensable part of the eco-environment protection system. As researchers have increasingly focused on ecological environment protection, the ecological environment evaluation system has been gradually improved. The enhancement of the ecological environment evaluation system provides more scientific and effective data support for ecological environment monitoring and governance. This article examines the Wuhan Urban Development Zone as an example, selects Landsat 8 (Operational Land Imager/Thermal Infrared Sensor (OLI/TIRS)) images of the study area from 2013 to 2019 at two-year intervals, and applies a new type of ecological environment evaluation index named the remote sensing ecological index with local adaptability (RSEILA) to assess the eco-environment. The RSEILA represents an improvement of the remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) proposed in 2013. The RSEILA enhancement is mainly reflected in the correlation and spatial distribution characteristics between geographical elements. The results reveal that 1) the overall urban ecological environment in the Wuhan Urban Development Zone demonstrates a downward trend from 2013 to 2019, and the rate of decline during the period varies. 2) RSEILA decline is mainly found in the far suburbs, and ecological environment degradation mainly occurs due to the change in land-use type caused by the suburbanization process of urban expansion. 3) Because of the implementation of urban greening projects, the phenomenon of ecological environment optimization (green recovery) is observed in the central urban area of Wuhan. 4) Land use exhibits a notable correlation with the ecological environment, and different land-use types exhibit distinct degrees of ecological environment deterioration. The order of deterioration is: bare soil/sand > building > cropland > forests.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Bosques
14.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113606, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523540

RESUMEN

Forest certification has emerged as a voluntary, market-driven tool for sustainable forest management (SFM). Its legitimacy depends on its ability to achieve its objectives and to retain the support of stakeholders such as NGOs and the companies that adopt it. This study presents a novel approach for assessing the contributions of forest certification to biodiversity conservation, based on Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification in four northern European countries (Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia). In each case, national FSC certification requirements related to specific biodiversity targets were compared with requirements in national legislation. Nearly 80% of the assessed certification requirements were more prescriptive than the national legislation. One-third of these requirements (3-8 per country) were assessed to have a positive contribution to biodiversity conservation, whereas four requirements (up to 2 per country) were assessed to have a low positive contribution. FSC requirements to protect Woodland Key Habitats were identified as having a positive contribution in all four countries, whereas requirements regarding live tree retention in harvests and preserving dead wood had a positive contribution in three countries each. Despite often prescribing similar measures, the other requirements with positive contributions varied between countries depending on the national legislative baseline. The remaining requirements could not be assessed through expert evaluation, indicating the need for additional empirical research to evaluate how the normative requirements translate to impacts in the field, and how the national context may affect their implementation. The approach is globally applicable, repeatable, and provides a basis for designing systematic empirical assessments of the certification impact.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Biodiversidad , Certificación , Bosques
15.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113536, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526281

RESUMEN

Habitat restoration is a key strategy for recovering imperiled species, and planning habitat restoration activities cost effectively can help advance recovery objectives. Habitat restoration planning involves decisions about where and when to undertake restoration, and what type of restoration to undertake. This article focuses on decisions about the amount of restoration to undertake for a given type, location, and time, termed intervention intensity. A return on investment framework is developed for incorporating intervention intensity into habitat restoration planning. The framework is then applied in the context of planning habitat restoration for Pacific salmon recovery as a case study. Results showed that no single intervention type or location dominated, and several returns to scale relationships emerged across the candidate interventions. Scenarios that considered interventions across multiple intensities outperformed single-intensity scenarios in terms of total benefits and cost effectiveness. These findings highlight the usefulness of exploratory return on investment analysis for prioritizing habitat restoration interventions, and underscore the importance of systematically considering how much restoration to undertake, in addition to what to do and where.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ríos , Animales , Ecosistema , Salmón
17.
Zoology (Jena) ; 148: 125959, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474331

RESUMEN

The mouflon (Ovis gmelini ophion) is the largest wild terrestrial mammal of Cyprus. Regarded as the local flagship species, its population range is limited to the mountainous Paphos Forest and adjacent areas including part of Troodos National Forest Park (> 700 Km2). This species, protected by both national and international legislation, is classified as Endangered by the IUCN, with livestock intrusion, poaching and habitat loss as the main threatening factors. We determined the spatial genetic structure by investigating sexes separately and shed further light on the Cyprus mouflon placement among Ovis haplogroups (HGs) to enforce its protection within an adaptive conservation framework. We genotyped 108 samples collected across the entire species' range at both14 loci of the microsatellite DNA and the mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR). Microsatellite genotyping indicated that the wild population retained low genetic variability, which, however, was not associated with a level of inbreeding raising particular concern (FIS = 0.12). An overall weak spatial genetic structure was disclosed, consistently with the limited extension of the mouflon range, the lack of significant physical barriers to dispersal and the intense gene flow mostly occurring along a northeast-southwest axis across the forest. Nevertheless, evidences of structure were found for females in compliance with their philopatric behaviour. The disclosure of unique features compared to Mediterranean and Near East conspecifics, such as the occurrence of a six-fold 76 bp-long repeated motif in the Cyprus mouflon CR, along with the outcome of a phylogenetic reconstruction (based on a far higher number of Ovis GenBank records and Cyprus haplotypes than in previous studies) inspired the proposal of a new haplogroup (HGC2) which included the Anatolian mouflon (O. g. anatolica, former HGX) as sister taxon. While both high habitat heterogeneity and low human disturbance were the main drivers in determining the overall spatial structure, future conservation efforts to preserve this valuable genetic resource should focus on avoiding possible introgressive hybridisation with co-grazing livestock to the edge of its range.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Variación Genética , Filogenia , Ovinos/genética , Distribución Animal , Animales , Chipre , Femenino , Especificidad de la Especie
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 658, 2021 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533627

RESUMEN

Population monitoring is fundamental for informing management decisions aimed at reducing the rapid rate of global biodiversity decline. Herpetofauna are experiencing declines worldwide and include species that are challenging to monitor. Raw counts and associated metrics such as richness indices are common for monitoring populations of herpetofauna; however, these methods are susceptible to bias as they fail to account for varying detection probabilities. Our goal was to develop a program for efficiently monitoring herpetofauna in southern Texas. Our objectives were to (1) estimate detection probabilities in an occupancy modeling framework using trap arrays for a diverse group of herpetofauna and (2) to evaluate the relative effectiveness of funnel traps, pitfall traps, and cover boards. We collected data with 36 arrays at 2 study sites in 2015 and 2016, for 2105 array-days resulting in 4839 detections of 51 species. We modeled occupancy for 21 species and found support for the hypothesis that detection probability varied over our sampling duration for 10 species and with rainfall for 10 species. For herpetofauna in our study, we found 14 and 12 species were most efficiently captured with funnel traps and pitfall traps, respectively, and no species were most efficiently captured with cover boards. Our results show that using methods that do not account for variations in detection probability are highly subject to bias unless the likelihood of false absences is minimized with exceptionally long capture durations. For monitoring herpetofauna in southern Texas, we recommend using arrays with funnel and pitfall traps and an analytical method such as occupancy modeling that accounts for variation in detection.


Asunto(s)
Anfibios , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Biodiversidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Probabilidad
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