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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 110: 129-139, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593184

RESUMEN

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model was applied to investigate the relationship between economic growth and water environment quality based on panel data of Taicang during 2010-2017. The typical inversed-U shaped relationship has been obtained between GDP (gross domestic product) and indicators of ammonia, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), respectively. The EKC turning point appeared when the GDP per capita was around US$2270, which was much lower than those in some developed countries (US$11,200). However, the decoupling between chemical oxygen demand (COD) and GDP per capita occurred even before this period, which should be attributed to the strict COD emission regulation being implemented since 2010. Further, analysis based on the Tapio decoupling coefficient elasticity model analyzed the ammonia nitrogen and economic development of each industry. We found that the agriculture no-point was strong decoupling in 2011-2014, then came to Recessive decoupling. The domestic wastewater had been in a strong decoupling state; Both urban non-point and industry experienced expansive negative decoupling, due to strict policy that prioritizes the environment over development and the investment in improvement of environment and techniques, both of them gradually came to strong decoupling. The result demonstrated that the EKC turning point could be appear in earlier economic stage and the decoupling coefficient elasticity could be improved through taking strong regulation measures.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Desarrollo Sostenible , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Producto Interno Bruto , Agua
2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593751

RESUMEN

The objective of this work was to describe the implantation project presented by the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital (Granada, Spain) to be selected as a candidate for "Best Practice Spotlight Organization"® (in Spain CCEC®) program in the cohort (2015-2017) to implement three guidelines for Nurses Association of Canada Ontario (RNAO) clinical practice of care. The methodology used was the model called "knowledge for action" and the actions developed for each of the phases of the action cycle for applying knowledge to practice were described: 1) identification of the problem, 2) adaptation to the local context, 3) evaluation of facilitators and barriers, 4) adaptation and implementation of interventions, 5) monitoring and evaluation of results and 6) sustainability. This work adds to the set of studies that address the improvement and maintenance of evidence-based practice programs in nursing, and in health services in general. It shows the application of a framework for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines for care in a specific health environment for its replication in other different health settings. It has been shown that it is essential to dedicate efforts to planning the implementation of this type of programs, taking into account the context in which they are developed, the specific characteristics of the population being served, identifying the different barriers and facilitators that may affect during the course of the program. process and defining actions to make the changes in practice sustainable.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Hospitales Universitarios , Desarrollo de Programa , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/organización & administración , Hospitales Universitarios/organización & administración , Humanos , España
3.
Int J Educ Vocat Guid ; : 1-19, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642592

RESUMEN

An online group of career counseling for unemployed young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic was developed. Twelve participants were involved in online group career counseling intervention, based on the Life Design for an inclusive and sustainable future. Results indicated at post-test on increased scores on career adaptability, resilience, future orientation, and propensity to identify inclusive and sustainable actions for the future than pre-test. Overall, the online group career counseling intervention effectively promoted particular aspects of young adults' life design for an inclusive e-sustainable future.

4.
Cuidad de México; OPS; 2021-10-15. (OPS/MEX/21-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55000

RESUMEN

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Prioridades en Salud , Políticas, Planificación y Administración en Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Sistemas de Salud , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Sistemas Nacionales de Salud , Cobertura de los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Salud Mental , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Administración en Salud Pública , América del Norte , México
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-14.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54990

RESUMEN

Más de un año después del inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, América Latina y el Caribe acumula un número desproporcionado de casos y muertes respecto de otras regiones del mundo y sufre la mayor contracción económica de los últimos 120 años. En este segundo informe conjunto de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud se actualizan la situación de la evolución de la pandemia y sus implicaciones sociales, económicas y para la salud. Para ello se abordan los principales impactos económicos y sociales de la pandemia en la región, junto con el papel central de la protección social y el Estado, y la necesidad de incrementar la inversión pública en salud y fortalecer la institucionalidad del sector de la salud. Por último, se analizan los posibles escenarios de supresión de la pandemia en el corto plazo y un conjunto de condiciones contextuales que inciden de forma directa en este objetivo. El informe se cierra con un apartado de recomendaciones que enfatizan la importancia de adoptar un abordaje integral para poner fin a la crisis de salud en el corto plazo, avanzar hacia una recuperación económica sostenible y con igualdad, y promover la salud universal mediante sistemas de salud resilientes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Sistemas de Salud , Salud Pública , Economía , Economía y Organizaciones para la Atención de la Salud , Problemas Sociales , Bienestar Social , Capital Social
6.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54989

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in alcohol per capita consumption from 1990 to 2016 in the Region of the Americas, covering 35 Member States. Data from the WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health were used to calculate the annual percent change of alcohol per capita consumption in each of the 35 countries of the Americas. The Americas as a whole showed no change in the total period, with a slight decrease in the period 2010–2016. From 1990 to 2016, all the countries that presented a trend of annual increase in annual percent change of alcohol per capita consumption were in the Caribbean and Central America. Large increases were found in the recent years in Cuba, Colombia, Uruguay, El Salvador, and several countries of the Non-Latin Caribbean. In conclusion, alcohol use remains a significant obstacle to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 3.5. To date, the policy response has been inadequate in protecting the people in the Americas from alcohol-attributable harms. Improving country capacity to collect and analyze data on alcohol per capita consumption is urgently needed to monitor progress on the Sustainable Development Goals and to serve to promote proven alcohol policies for reducing the harmful use of alcohol.


[RESUMEN]. El objetivo de este estudio es estimar las tendencias en el consumo per cápita de alcohol desde 1990 hasta el 2016 en 35 Estados Miembros de la Región de las Américas. Se emplearon datos del Sistema Mundial de Información sobre el Alcohol y la Salud de la OMS para calcular la variación porcentual por año del consumo per cápita de alcohol en cada uno de los 35 países de la Región. En general, la Región no mostró cambio en todo el período, salvo una disminución leve entre el 2010 y el 2016. De 1990 al 2016, todos los países que registraron una tendencia al alza en la variación anual porcentual del consumo per cápita de alcohol se encontraban en el Caribe y Centroamérica. En los últimos años se observó un aumento importante en Cuba, Colombia, Uruguay, El Salvador y varios países del Caribe no latino. En conclusión, el consumo de alcohol sigue siendo un obstáculo significativo para lograr el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible 3.5. Hasta la fecha, la respuesta de las políticas ha sido inadecuada para proteger a la población de la Región de los daños atribuibles al alcohol. Es necesario mejorar de manera urgente la capacidad a nivel de país para recopilar y analizar datos sobre el consumo per cápita de alcohol a fin de monitorear el progreso de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y promover políticas relativas al alcohol cuya eficacia en cuanto a la reducción del consumo nocivo ha sido comprobada.


[RESUMO]. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar as tendências do consumo de álcool per capita de 1990 a 2016 na Região das Américas, cobrindo os 35 Estados Membros. Dados do Sistema Mundial de Informação sobre Álcool e Saúde da OMS foram usados para calcular a mudança percentual anual do consumo de álcool per capita de cada um dos 35 países das Américas. As Américas, como um todo, não mostraram mudança alguma no período total, com uma diminuição leve no período entre 2010 e 2016. De 1990 a 2016, todos os países que apresentaram uma tendência de aumento anual na mudança percentual anual do consumo de álcool per capita estão no Caribe e na América Central. Um grande aumento foi encontrado nos anos recentes em Cuba, Colômbia, Uruguai, El Salvador e vários países não latinos do Caribe. Em conclusão, o consumo de álcool continua sendo um obstáculo significativo para o cumprimento do Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3.5. Até o momento, a resposta política foi inadequada para proteger a população nas Américas dos danos atribuíveis ao álcool. Melhorar a capacidade dos países de coletar e analisar dados sobre o consumo de álcool per capita é urgentemente necessário para monitorar o progresso dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável e para promover políticas comprovadas de redução do consumo nocivo de álcool.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Salud Pública , Américas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Salud Pública , Américas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Salud Pública , Américas
7.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54977

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Alcanzar la equidad en salud y abordar los determinantes sociales de la salud son aspectos fundamentales para alcanzar las metas en materia de salud y relacionadas con la salud de la Agenda para el Desarrollo Sostenible 2030 y sus Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. Los marcos de referencia para la salud, como la Agenda de Salud Sostenible para las Américas 2018-2030, hacen hincapié en la reducción de las desigualdades en salud y en “no dejar a nadie atrás” en el desarrollo sostenible a nivel nacional. La equidad en salud incluye la promoción de la salud universal y el enfoque de atención primaria de salud, con un acceso equitativo de todas las personas a servicios de salud oportunos, de calidad, integrales y centrados en las personas y la comunidad que no ocasionen empobrecimiento. La rendición de cuentas por esos avances es igualmente importante, y un signo distintivo de una gobernanza adecuada. Los gobiernos tienen la responsabilidad primordial de reducir las desigualdades en salud y deben rendir cuentas de sus políticas y su desempeño. La sociedad civil es una parte interesada fundamental para promover un desarrollo nacional sostenible y equitativo, y debe formar parte de los mecanismos eficaces de rendición de cuentas. La Coalición Caribe Saludable —la única alianza regional del Caribe de organizaciones de la sociedad civil dedicada a prevenir y controlar las enfermedades no transmisibles, una prioridad de sanitaria importante acrecentada por las desigualdades— ha desempeñado un papel importante en hacer que los gobiernos rindan cuentas de la promoción de la equidad en salud. En este estudio se examinan los factores que han contribuido al éxito de la Coalición Caribe Saludable, con énfasis en la labor realizada en el marco de sus cinco pilares estratégicos —rendición de cuentas, promoción de la causa, desarrollo de capacidad, comunicación y sostenibilidad— así como los retos, las enseñanzas extraídas y otras consideraciones para lograr una mayor eficacia.


[ABSTRACT]. Achieving health equity and addressing the social determinants of health are critical to attaining the health and health-related targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals. Frameworks for health, including the Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas 2018 – 2030, emphasize reduction of health inequities and “leaving no one behind” in national sustainable development. Health equity includes advancing universal health and the primary health care approach, with equitable access for all people to timely, quality, comprehensive, people- and community-centered services that do not cause impoverishment. Equally important, and a hallmark of good governance, is accountability for such advances. Governments have primary responsibility for reducing health inequities and must be held accountable for their policies and performance. Civil society has been recognized as a key partner in advancing sustainable and equitable national development. Effective accountability mechanisms should include civic engagement. The Healthy Caribbean Coalition (HCC), the only Caribbean regional alliance of civil society organizations working to prevent and control noncommunicable diseases—a major health priority fueled by inequities—has played a significant role in holding governments accountable for advancing health equity. This case study examines factors contributing to the success of the HCC, highlighting work under its five strategic pillars— accountability, advocacy, capacity development, communication, and sustainability—as well as challenges, lessons learned, and considerations for greater effectiveness.


[RESUMO]. Conquistar a equidade em saúde e abordar os determinantes sociais da saúde são essenciais para atingir as metas de saúde e as relacionadas à saúde da Agenda 2030 para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e seus Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável. As estruturas para a saúde, incluindo a Agenda de Saúde Sustentável para as Américas 2018-2030, enfatizam a redução das iniquidades em saúde “sem deixar ninguém para trás”, quando se trata do desenvolvimento sustentável nacional. A equidade em saúde inclui impul-sionar a saúde universal e a abordagem da atenção primária à saúde, habilitando o acesso equitativo por todas as pessoas a serviços oportunos, de qualidade, integrais, centrados no atendimento às pessoas e às comunidades de maneira a não causar o empobrecimento. A questão da responsabilidade por tais avanços é igualmente importante, e é um selo de distinção de boa gestão. Os governos são os principais responsáveis pela redução das iniquidades em saúde e precisam ser responsabilizados por suas políticas e por seu desempenho. Reconheceu-se que a sociedade civil desempenha um papel essencial na promoção do desenvolvimento nacional sustentável e equitativo. Para que sejam eficazes, os mecanismos de responsabilização devem incluir a participação cívica. A Coalizão do Caribe Saudável (HCC), a única aliança de organizações da sociedade civil que trabalha na prevenção e no controle de doenças não transmissíveis na região do Caribe — uma grande prioridade de saúde movida pelas iniquidades — tem desempenhado uma função significativa na responsabilização dos governos pelo avanço da equidade em saúde. Este estudo examina os fatores que contribuem para o sucesso da HCC e destaca o trabalho da perspectiva dos cinco pilares estratégicos — responsabilidade, promoção de causa, desenvolvimento das capacidades, comunicação e sustentabilidade —, bem como os desafios, as lições aprendidas e as considerações para que se torne ainda mais eficaz.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Sociedad Civil , Gobernanza , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Región del Caribe , Equidad en Salud , Sociedad Civil , Gobernanza , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Región del Caribe , Equidad en Salud , Sociedad Civil , Gobernanza , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Región del Caribe
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-06.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54953

RESUMEN

En el Informe anual del Director de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana correspondiente al 2021 sobre la labor de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para las Américas, se pone de relieve la cooperación técnica que prestó la Oficina en el período comprendido entre julio del 2020 y junio del 2021, en el marco del Plan Estratégico de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud 2020-2025. Este informe, cuyo tema central es "Seguir trabajando para superar la pandemia de COVID-19", abarca el período más difícil que la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) haya tenido que enfrentar jamás. La pandemia, y sus devastadoras consecuencias en los ámbitos de la economía y la salud, ha tenido un impacto profundo en la vida y los medios de subsistencia de las personas, y ha causado graves trastornos en los países, la sociedad, la economía y el desarrollo. Esto ha ocurrido a la par de los desafíos inevitables en el camino hacia un desarrollo equitativo y sostenible, y hacia el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible fijados para el 2030 y los objetivos de la Agenda de Salud Sostenible para las Américas 2018-2030.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Pandemias , Epidemias , Control de Infecciones , Desarrollo Sostenible , Desarrollo Sostenible , Estrategias de Salud Globales , Estrategias de Salud Globales
9.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-01.
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54947

RESUMEN

La hoja de ruta para las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas, publicada por la OMS en el 2012, estableció dos metas para el control de las geohelmintiasis para el 2020, a saber: suministrar tratamiento regular a 75% de los niños en edad preescolar y escolar que lo requirieran y lograr la cobertura de 75% con la quimioterapia preventiva en los niños en edad preescolar y escolar en 100% de los países. En el 2017, los datos recopilados de los 103 países donde las geohelmintiasis son endémicas mostraban que era factible alcanzar esas dos metas. En octubre del 2018, un grupo de representantes de esos países, junto con asociados de otras instituciones que apoyan las actividades de control, se reunió en Basilea para proponer nuevas metas que orientaran la quimioterapia preventiva y otras actividades de control una vez alcanzadas las metas para el 2020. Los indicadores establecidos por el grupo de trabajo y que se presentan en esta publicación pueden considerarse recomendaciones de los expertos dirigidas al Departamento de la OMS de Control de Enfermedades Tropicales Desatendidas, para distribuir a su vez a las oficinas regionales y en los países de la OMS, los funcionarios del ministerio de salud y los responsables de los programas en los países con endemicidad, a fin de sustentar la lista definitiva de los indicadores en materia de geohelmintiasis que deberán alcanzarse para el 2030.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Salud del Niño , Lactante , Quimioterapia , Enfermedades Endémicas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Desarrollo Sostenible , Cambio Climático , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública
10.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e95, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621301

RESUMEN

Objective: To determine the impact of household out-of-pocket health spending, financial protection levels, and their inequality according to relevant variables in the countries of the Region; to investigate their evolution and relationship with health system services utilization. Methods: Comparative descriptive information was compiled on out-of-pocket spending, its incidence in the population, and its weight and contribution to household consumption. Financial protection indicators for the national level and their distribution by quintiles of total household consumption and by gender are presented, and compared to an indicator of service coverage. Results: Out-of-pocket spending and financial protection indicators are deficient but demonstrate differences among countries. The composition of health expenditure is identified for a subset of countries and significant gradients are seen when inequalities are studied. Changes over time and possible associations with service coverage levels are shown for several cases. Discussion: Lack of financial protection affects a large part of the population. Additionally, there are groups of countries with greater difficulties than others, where a preponderance of spending is on medicines, and there is greater exposure of groups in conditions of vulnerability, such as the poorest and women, indicating great inequity. Policies of some countries that can be associated with improvement in financial protection are identified. To replace out-of-pocket spending, which is a barrier to access, countries need to increase public spending by financing health systems undergoing transformation toward universal health.

11.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665555

RESUMEN

The article analyzes modern approaches to the rating of medical organizations based on national and foreign publications. The study identified groups of indices that are responsible for effectiveness of health care organizations from the point of view of consumers of medical services and state boards of public health management. According analyzed publications, rating values consider effectiveness of particular processes, rather than organization as a whole. This became the basis for scientific search for assessment system that can reflect the performance of medical organization contributing into its sustainable development. In 2012-2018, the Novosibirsk State Medical University carried out the study of potential of sustainable development of health care organizations. On the basis of normative legal analysis, sociological and expert survey of opinions of managers, the key areas of activities that contributed to improving efficiency of medical organizations were identified. The article presents the original approach to comparative assessment of health care organizations that provide various types of care of population based on concept of sustainable development using the T. L. Saati hierarchy analysis methodology. The strategy of sustainable development presumes achievement of long-term goals of medical organization, including not only indices of patient satisfaction with quality of medical care and organization of safe environment for their stay in health care institution, but also optimization of all processes, rational resource support, monitoring and analysis of internal environment of organization for continuous development of functioning, personnel training, implementation of organizational innovations. The medical organizations implementing strategy of sustainable development demonstrated the best results in such areas as resource management, increasing consumer satisfaction with quality and safety of medical care, optimization of processes of increasing number of treated patients. Thus, health care organizations having clear-cut plan of actions and set of management practices to achieve long-term goals acquire ability to improve both medical social indices and population health indices.


Asunto(s)
Organizaciones , Desarrollo Sostenible , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Satisfacción del Paciente
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112881, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634737

RESUMEN

Geological disasters seriously threaten the safety of human life, property, ecological resources, and the environment. Effective control of geological disasters is the focus of achieving sustainable social development. The Helong City (Jilin Province, China) was selected as the case study. Combined with GIS technology, a new integrated prediction model of geological disaster susceptibility was developed to improve the accuracy of geological disaster assessment, reduce the cost of geological disaster treatment, and ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment. The research results showed that elevation and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were the key factors affecting susceptibility. Compared with the conventional model, the accuracy of the developing integrated model FR-DT and FR-RF was improved by more than 6%, and the disaster points were more concentrated in the high susceptibility zone. Statistical results of disaster treatment cost estimation and gross domestic product (GDP) value showed that the integrated model can save about 10% of treatment cost, and the ratio of total GDP/disaster governance cost was higher. The performance of the integrated model FR-DT and FR-RF had obvious advantages over the conventional model in terms of prediction accuracy, prevention pertinence, and prevention cost. These research results promote the advancement of geological disaster prevention and control technology, ensure the safety of the geological environment, and are of great significance to the sustainable development of the regional economy.


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , China , Ciudades , Ambiente , Humanos , Desarrollo Sostenible
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2773-2782, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664450

RESUMEN

The comprehensive evaluation of terrestrial biodiversity is a key basic work for biodiversity protection. Clarifying the status, trend, and driving factors of biodiversity is premise and necessary for formulating policies and measures of biodiversity protection. At present, there is no unified indicator system for the comprehensive assessment of terrestrial biodiversity in China. We constructed a comprehensive assessment indicator system of terrestrial biodiversity in China, by combining the Aichi biodiversity targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the sustainable development goals of the United Nations, learning from the development trend of biodiversity assessment in the world, and following the Pressure-State-Response framework. A total of 22 indicators were obtained, including eight status indicators, seven pressure indicators, and seven response indicators. The correlation and accessibility of the indicators were analyzed. These indicators could be applied to not only an independent assessment for biodiversity status, threatened and protection effectiveness, but also for the comprehensive assessment of terrestrial biodiversity to optimize and adjust priority protection areas and protection measures. Our results would provide a technical support for calculating green GDP and formulating regional ecological compensation policies.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , China , Desarrollo Sostenible
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3177-3184, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658203

RESUMEN

Ecological security is an important guarantee for the sustainable development of regional economy and society. We analyzed the change characteristics of fraction vegetation coverage (FVC) and remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) of four irrigated agriculture regions of the Loess Plateau (Yinchuan Plain, Hetao Plain, Fenhe River Valley and Weihe River Plain) based on the remote sensing data from 2000 to 2018. The results showed that the FVC decreased in the study area from 2000 to 2018. The variation trend of FVC differed among the four irrigated agricultural distribution areas. The RSEI of the whole area showed an overall downward trend, the RSEI of Yinchuan Plain (down 0.06) and Weihe River Plain (down 0.07) decreased significantly, and the RSEI of Hetao Plain remained stable. The RSEI of Fenhe River Valley showed an increased trend. The ecological stability of Yinchuan Plain and Fenhe River Valley was relatively low, the ecological environment of Hetao Plain was relatively stable, and the ecological environment of Weihe River Plain continued to degrade. The results were important for regional ecological environment protection and agricultural sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Agricultura , Ríos , Desarrollo Sostenible
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(80): 10277-10291, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533545

RESUMEN

The extensive use of plastic and the absence of efficient and sustainable methods for its degradation has raised critical concerns about its disposal and degradation. Furthermore, the escalated use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and masks during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has put us under tremendous pressure of generating huge amounts of plastic waste. Traditional plastic waste disintegration protocols, while effective, pose additional inevitable environmental risks. Owing to this, almost all the used plastic is directly discarded into the marine and terrestrial bodies, causing great harm to the flora and fauna. Plastic has even started entering the food chain in the form of micro- and nano-plastics, leading to deleterious effects. Considering the global need for finding sustainable ways to degrade plastic, several approaches have been developed. Herein we highlight and rationally compare the recent reports on the development of benign alternatives for the sustainable disintegration of plastic detritus into value-added products. Here we discuss, in depth, photoreforming of a variety of polymers to liquid fuels under natural conditions; enzyme-based deconstruction of polymeric materials via microorganisms and their engineered mutants into useful virgin monomers at ambient temperature; and pyrocatalytic degradation of polyethylene through efficient synthetic materials into valuable fuels and waxes. By critically analyzing the methods, we also provide our opinion on such sustainable techniques and discuss newer approaches related to bioinspired and biomimetic chemistry principles for the management of plastic waste.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/química , Plásticos/química , Polímeros/química , Desarrollo Sostenible , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Biodegradación Ambiental , Humanos
19.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(5): 339-348, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569742

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: One of the Millennium Development Goals is to reduce the child mortality rate (CMR), an indicator still present in the Sustainable Development Goals (2015-2030). At the same time, scientific investigations and reports were necessary to assess the behavior of the infant mortality rate (IMR) and the effectiveness of interventions to approach it. OBJECTIVE: To describe IMR behavior in Chile and how it has been reflected in the scientific publications made in the 1980-2019 period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Implementation of the multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) method in relation to IMR between 1980 and 2016, and search for related articles published between 1980 and 2019 in SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. The analysis included IMR behavior and its reflection in the publications made in that period. RESULTS: IMR decreased from 28 % to 7.2 % per 1000 live births between 1980 and 2016 (-74 %) and 82 publications were identified in this period. Two types of studies about IMR were reported as of the cutoff point of 1996. In the first period, studies focused on preventable diseases and interventions, while IMR showed a slowing down in its reduction. After the cutoff point, studies focused on non-preventable diseases and factors related to inequalities and inequities. CONCLUSIONS: IMR prevails as a synthetic indicator of health conditions. Changes in its evolution and causes have been reflected in publications, which have shifted their focus and areas of interest in accordance with the changes in this indicator.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Infantil , Niño , Chile , Humanos , Lactante
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): e391-e399, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478675

RESUMEN

The number of patients with cancer in Africa has been predicted to increase from 844 279 in 2012 to more than 1·5 million in 2030. However, many countries in Africa still lack access to radiotherapy as a part of comprehensive cancer care. The objective of this analysis is to present an updated overview of radiotherapy resources in Africa and to analyse the gaps and needs of the continent for 2030 in the context of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Data from 54 African countries on teletherapy megavoltage units and brachytherapy afterloaders were extracted from the Directory for Radiotherapy Centres, an electronic, centralised, and continuously updated database of radiotherapy centres. Cancer incidence and future predictions were taken from the GLOBOCAN 2018 database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Radiotherapy need was estimated using a 64% radiotherapy utilisation rate, while assuming a machine throughput of 500 patients per year. As of March, 2020, 28 (52%) of 54 countries had access to external beam radiotherapy, 21 (39%) had brachytherapy capacity, and no country had a capacity that matched the estimated treatment need. Median income was an important predictor of the availability of megavoltage machines: US$1883 (IQR 914-3269) in countries without any machines versus $4485 (3079-12480) in countries with at least one megavoltage machine (p=0·0003). If radiotherapy expansion continues at the rate observed over the past 7 years, it is unlikely that the continent will meet its radiotherapy needs. This access gap might impact the ability to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, particularly the target to reduce preventable, premature mortality by a third, and meet the target of the cervical cancer elimination strategy of 90% with access to treatment. Urgent, novel initiatives in financing and human capacity building are needed to change the trajectory and provide comprehensive cancer care to patients in Africa in the next decade.


Asunto(s)
Recursos en Salud/tendencias , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Radioterapia/tendencias , África/epidemiología , Predicción , Recursos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Agencias Internacionales , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radioterapia/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Sostenible
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