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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401394

RESUMEN

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the research themes and hotspots of safety signs research between 1990 and 2019 through the scientometric analysis method. In total, 3102 articles of literature from the Web of Science core database were analyzed by the CiteSpace visualization tool and the results were displayed in mapping knowledge domains. The overall characteristics analysis showed that safety sign is an emerging research field in a rapid development stage-81.4% of the literature works were published in the past ten years, and the United States was in the leading position, followed by China and Canada. The keyword co-occurrence analysis indicated that traffic signs and driving safety were the most popular research topics and have been combined with simulation technology in recent years, whereby individual mental health has been added as an influential factor. The journals and category co-citation analysis showed that the safety signs research involved many subjects, mainly engineering, transportation and public safety. The results indicated that the safety signs research is multi-disciplinary, and it will continue to develop in various scientific domains in the future. The conclusions can provide help and reference for potential readers, as well as help with the sustainable development of safety signs research.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación , Seguridad , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0220219, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813699

RESUMEN

The location of defunct environmentally hazardous businesses like gas stations has many implications for modern American cities. To track down these locations, we present the directoreadr code (github.com/brown-ccv/directoreadr). Using scans of Polk city directories from Providence, RI, directoreadr extracts and parses business location data with a high degree of accuracy. The image processing pipeline ran without any human input for 94.4% of the pages we examined. For the remaining 5.6%, we processed them with some human input. Through hand-checking a sample of three years, we estimate that ~94.6% of historical gas stations are correctly identified and located, with historical street changes and non-standard address formats being the main drivers of errors. As an example use, we look at gas stations, finding that gas stations were most common early in the study period in 1936, beginning a sharp and steady decline around 1950. We are making the dataset produced by directoreadr publicly available. We hope it will be used to explore a range of important questions about socioeconomic patterns in Providence and cities like it during the transformations of the mid-1900s.


Asunto(s)
Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciudades , Análisis de Datos , Directorios como Asunto , Gasolina/provisión & distribución , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Rhode Island , Programas Informáticos/estadística & datos numéricos
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Apr 17.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382001

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new pathology, declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization, which can have negative consequences for pregnant women and their newborns. The aim of this study was to explore the available knowledge on the consequences of developing COVI-19 in pregnant women and their neonates. METHODS: Scoping Review, in which the search for articles was conducted using DeCS ("pregnancy", "coronavirus", "health") and MeSH ("pregnan*", "pregnant women", "coronavirus"), linking the terms with the Boolean AND operator. Databases used were Web of Science, Scopus, BVS, Scielo and CUIDEN. In addition, the PRISMA methodology was applied. RESULTS: Ten studies were identified that assessed maternal and neonatal health after maternal COVID-19 infection. Pregnant women seem to had no serious symptoms. Neonates appeared to be affected to a greater extent. A death was reported in a premature newborn whose mother had COVID-19 pneumonia. There did not appear to be vertical transmission from mother to child. Nevertheless, this information was not conclusive. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 appears to be more benign with pregnant women than with their neonates.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Madres , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Riesgo , España
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 140: 105511, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278939

RESUMEN

It has been suggested that Variable Message Signs (VMS) become less effective at communicating important traffic information when irrelevant information is also displayed on them. The purpose of this study was to examine if practice reading irrelevant information on a VMS influenced compliance with, and memory for a detour message. Thirty-nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups who drove a simulated road; one receiving only a detour message on the VMS, one group received irrelevant VMS messages before the detour message, and a third group received the same messages but the detour message was inconsistent with their destination. Of interest were both the participants' compliance with the target detour message, as well as their later recall and recognition of the message. The results suggested that, first and foremost, there was significantly lower compliance with the detour message when it had been preceded by irrelevant messages on the VMS. All of the groups showed reasonably good memory for the detour message. The implications of the present study are that presentation of irrelevant messages, including advertisements and safety slogans, may result in reduced compliance to traffic-relevant messages on VMSs.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Conducción Distraída , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación , Percepción Visual , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Distribución Aleatoria
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 138: 105479, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178794

RESUMEN

Research on the effect of advertising billboards on road safety has accumulated over the past seven decades, but has led to inconclusive data, which prevent clear-cut conclusions. To enhance road safety, it was suggested that researchers should shift their efforts to exploring which billboard characteristics are distracting by nature. This line of research may promote the establishment of concrete guidelines for the least distracting permissible billboards. A previous study classified billboards into three clusters: 1. Loaded (colorful billboards with small quantities of graphic elements and large quantities of text); 2. Graphical (colorful billboards with large quantities of graphic elements and small quantities of text); and 3. Minimal (billboards with few or no graphic elements, few colors, and a small amount of text). The current study systematically explores the effect of these three clusters on drivers' performance in a driving simulator. Eighteen participants drove in scenarios which systematically manipulated the following variables: the perceptual load on the road, the perceptual load on the sides of the road, location of preplanned critical events, and the presence of billboards from each one of the three previously identified clusters. The findings show that the presence of billboards from the Loaded and Minimal clusters significantly compromised road safety in various experimental conditions. However, the presence of billboards from the Graphical cluster significantly affected drivers' performance only in one experimental condition. The conclusion, for the time being, is that Graphical billboards, which include a large quantity of graphic elements with few or no textual elements, are the least harmful while driving.


Asunto(s)
Conducción Distraída/psicología , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación/clasificación , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Adulto , Publicidad/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 138: 105465, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050109

RESUMEN

Advance guide signs for exit ramps along urban expressways are increasingly critical, enhancing safety and mobility by improving the flow of vehicles exiting urban expressways. However, research has devoted scant attention to advance guide signs for exit ramps. This study aimed to identify and propose optimal design alternatives for exit ramp advance guide signs for different types of exit spacing. This study conducted a driving simulation experiment consisting of five design alternatives of advance guide signs and two exit ramp spacing variation. Eight indicators were measured. The repeated-measure analysis of variances (ANOVA) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) were performed for the influence analysis and efficiency evaluation of different schemes. Influence analysis results showed better design alternatives in five schemes of advance guide signs, enabling drivers to more easily locate destination exits and change lanes fewer times, in addition to reducing drivers' need to decelerate, and improving traffic flow in the key influence range of destination exit ramps. The percentage of drivers successfully locating the destination exits also increased with optimal design alternatives of advance guide signs. When the exit ramp spacing tightened, on the other hand, drivers had to make more lane changes and accelerate and decelerate more frequently in the key influence range. As a result, a lower percentage of drivers successfully located destination exits. Efficiency evaluation results were also obtained. In tight spacing, three advance guide signs are recommended to be placed at 1 km, 0.5 km and 0 km prior to the beginning of the tapered deceleration lane. If conditions are limited, at least two advance guide signs should be used. With greater spacing, four advance guide signs are recommended, located at 2 km, 1 km, 0.5 km, and 0 km prior to the beginning of the tapered deceleration lane. If road conditions are limited, three advance guide signs should be used.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Entorno Construido/normas , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación/normas , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Adulto , Simulación por Computador , Desaceleración/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 93, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) with which over 37 million peoples are living is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The rapid expansion of antiretroviral treatment has dramatically reduced HIV related deaths and transmissions. Patient satisfaction could be an indispensable parameter used to measure patients' desired fulfillment by the services. Hence, this study aimed to determine the level of patient satisfaction with antiretroviral therapy services and determinants at Gondar town health centers. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 1 to 30, 2018. The systematic random sampling technique was used to select 663 HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy follow-ups. Data were collected using a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and patient medical document reviews. Summary statistics such as means, medians and proportions were calculated and presented in the form of tables, graphs, and texts. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was fitted and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to assess the strength of association. Variables with p-value 0.05 at multivariable logistic regression considered significant determinants of patient satisfaction. RESULTS: The overall patient satisfaction with antiretroviral therapy services was 75.4% (95%CI, 71.9 to 79%). Patients' age 38-47 years (AOR = 5.90, 95%CI: 3.38,10.31) and ≥ 48 years (AOR = 2.66, 95%CI:1.38,5.12), absence of signs and directions to ART clinic (AOR = 0.53,95%CI:0.35,0.82), Azezo health center (AOR = 2.68,95%CI:1.47,4.66) and Teda health center (AOR = 4.44,95%CI:1.73,11.30), and travel that took more than 1 h (AOR = 0.56;95% CI:0.32,0.97) were determinants of patient satisfaction with the services. CONCLUSION: The overall patient satisfaction with antiretroviral therapy service was lower than the national target of 85% with the marked difference among health centers. Older age, absence of signs and directions to ART clinics, and longer travel from home to health centers were factors influencing patient satisfaction with antiretroviral treatments. This suggests that further improvement of accessibility is likely needed to increase patient satisfaction.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Satisfacción del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Centros Comunitarios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Femenino , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 050113

RESUMEN

Database or print publication with records of research projects in progress or completed.


Base de datos o publicación impresa con registro de proyectos de investigación en curso o ya concluidos.


Banco de dados ou publicação impressa com registros de projetos de pesquisa em andamento ou concluídos.

9.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 050114

RESUMEN

Database or print publication with records of researchers of an institution, a country, region or topic.


Base de datos o publicación impresa con registro de investigadores de una institución, de una región, país o tema.


Base de dados ou publicação impressa com registros de pesquisadores de uma instituição, região, país ou assunto.

10.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 050115

RESUMEN

Database or print publication with records of science and technology research institutions of a country, region or topic.


Base de datos o publicación impresa con registro de instituciones de investigación en ciencia y tecnología de un país, región o tema.


Base de dados ou publicação impressa com registros de instituções de pesquisa em ciência e tecnologia de um país, região ou assunto.

11.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 004241

RESUMEN

Works about lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations.


Trabajos sobre listas de personas u organizaciones, ordenadas sistemáticamente, generalmente en orden alfabético o clasificado, dando direcciones, afiliaciones, etc., de los individuos; y dando direcciones, funcionarios, funciones y datos similares de las organizaciones.


Trabalhos sobre listas de pessoas ou organizações, sistematicamente organizadas, normalmente em ordem alfabética ou classificada, que dão endereços, afiliações, etc., para indivíduos, e dão endereço, funcionários, funções e dados semelhantes para organizações.

12.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 008299

RESUMEN

Directory signs or listings of designated areas within or without a facility.


Señales de directorio o listados de áreas designadas dentro o fuera de una instalación.


Sinais diretórios ou listagens de áreas designadas dentro ou fora de uma instalação.

13.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 029631

RESUMEN

Work consisting of an alphabetical or classified list of names, organizations, subjects, etc., giving usually titles, addresses, affiliations, and other professional data.


Lista alfabética o clasificada de nombres, organizaciones, materias, etc., dando generalmente títulos, direcciones, afiliaciones y otros datos profesionales.


Trabalho que consiste em uma lista alfabética ou classificada de nomes, organizações, assuntos etc., geralmente dando títulos, endereços, afiliações e outros dados profissionais.

14.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(1): 33-38, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743390

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To provide a current directory of drug information centers (DICs) in the United States and present information about their characteristics, activities and services, and networking activities. METHODS: In February 2018, an electronic 23-question survey was delivered to 118 contacts on a distribution list compiled from previous directories of DICs, responses to listserv messages, and an Internet search. DICs, defined as formal centers dedicated to providing drug information services, including but not limited to responding to drug information requests, were asked questions about their characteristics, activities and services, drug information requests, and networking activities. RESULTS: The response rate was 79% (93 of 118 DICs). Of the 93 respondents, 82 (88%) met the definition of a DIC and were included in the directory. Of the 82 included DICs, 37 (45%) belonged to a university or college, while 36 (44%) belonged to a medical center or hospital. Seventy percent of the DICs (n = 57) had been in existence for more than 20 years. Of the 81 respondents reporting activities performed at the DICs, precepting pharmacy students (n = 79, 98%) and training pharmacy residents and/or fellows (n = 68, 84%) were most commonly reported. Nearly 90% reported that answering drug information questions was central to the DIC operations. Most DICs (n = 52, 65%) indicated receiving an average of 50 requests or less on a monthly basis. DICs reported a variety of electronic means of communicating with the DIC community, although 16 (21%) of the 77 respondents reported no need to do so. CONCLUSION: The survey identified 82 DICs that collectively provide a variety of services to their clienteles. The DIC directory published herein should facilitate networking among DICs.


Asunto(s)
Directorios como Asunto , Servicios de Información sobre Medicamentos/organización & administración , Servicios de Información sobre Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Centros Médicos Académicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 94: 0-0, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-187654

RESUMEN

FUNDAMENTOS: La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es una nueva patología, declarada emergencia de salud pública por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que puede tener consecuencias negativas en las embarazadas y sus recién nacidos. El objetivo fue explorar el conocimiento disponible sobre las consecuencias de desarrollar COVID-19 en las embarazadas y en los recién nacidos durante el embarazo. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una Scoping Review, en la que se usó la búsqueda de artículos en los directorios DeCS ("embarazo", "coronavirus", "salud") y MeSH ("pregnan*", "pregnant women", "coronavirus"), uniendo los términos con el operador booleano AND. Se buscó en las bases de datos Web of Science, Scopus, BVS, Scielo y CUIDEN. Además, se aplicó la metodología PRISMA. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 10 estudios en los que se evalúo la salud materna y neonatal tras infección materna por COVID-19. Las embarazadas parecían no presentar síntomas graves. Los neonatos se veían afectados en mayor medida. Se informó de un fallecimiento de un recién nacido prematuro cuya madre tuvo neumonía por COVID-19. No pareció haber transmisión vertical de madre a hijo, aunque esta información no era concluyente. CONCLUSIONES: El COVID-19 parece ser más benigno con las embarazadas que con sus recién nacidos


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new pathology, declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization, which can have negative consequences for pregnant women and their newborns. The aim of this study was to explore the available knowledge on the consequences of developing COVI-19 in pregnant women and their neonates. METHODS: Scoping Review, in which the search for articles was conducted using DeCS ("pregnancy", "coronavirus", "health") and MeSH ("pregnan*", "pregnant women", "coronavirus"), linking the terms with the Boolean AND operator. Databases used were Web of Science, Scopus, BVS, Scielo and CUIDEN. In addition, the PRISMA methodology was applied. RESULTS: Ten studies were identified that assessed maternal and neonatal health after maternal COVID-19 infection. Pregnant women seem to had no serious symptoms. Neonates appeared to be affected to a greater extent. A death was reported in a premature newborn whose mother had COVID-19 pneumonia. There did not appear to be vertical transmission from mother to child. Nevertheless, this information was not conclusive. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 appears to be more benign with pregnant women than with their neonates


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/microbiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Pandemias , Resultado del Embarazo , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
J Emerg Med ; 57(6): 805-811, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Within the emergency department (ED) setting, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is commonly misdiagnosed, leading to improper treatment and potential meniscal injury and total joint replacement. Utilizing traditional clinical tests to diagnosis ACL rupture leads to the correct diagnosis in about 30% of cases. The lever sign is a new and effective clinical test used to diagnose ACL rupture with 100% sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: We aim to study if the lever sign used in the ED setting is more sensitive to diagnose ACL rupture than traditional tests. METHODS: Patients between 12 and 55 years of age were examined utilizing either traditional methods or the lever sign. Diagnostic findings in the ED were compared with those of a sports medicine specialist using magnetic resonance imaging as the diagnostic standard. A survey was given to ED providers to collect data on diagnosis and physician confidence in diagnosis. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the lever sign was 100% (94.7% accuracy, 93.75% specificity), whereas the sensitivity of the anterior drawer/Lachman test was 40% (87.5% accuracy, 100% specificity). Physician confidence in diagnosis was higher utilizing the lever sign vs. the anterior drawer/Lachman test at 8.45 (±1.82) compared with 7.72 (±1.82) out of 10, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between diagnostic accuracy with either test and level of training of the ED provider. CONCLUSION: Implementation of the lever sign in the ED setting resulted in a higher sensitivity, higher physician confidence in screening test diagnosis, and a decrease in the number of undiagnosed ACL ruptures.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/anomalías , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatología , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatología , Niño , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Examen Físico/métodos , Proyectos Piloto , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597383

RESUMEN

Increased stair climbing reduces cardiovascular disease risk. While signage interventions for workplace stair climbing offer a low-cost tool to improve population health, inconsistent effects of intervention occur. Pedestrian movement within the built environment has major effects on stair use, independent of any health initiative. This paper used pooled data from UK and Spanish workplaces to test the effects of signage interventions when pedestrian movement was controlled for in analyses. Automated counters measured stair and elevator usage at the ground floor throughout the working day. Signage interventions employed previously successful campaigns. In the UK, minute-by-minute stair/elevator choices measured effects of momentary pedestrian traffic at the choice-point (n = 426,605). In Spain, aggregated pedestrian traffic every 30 min measured effects for 'busyness' of the building (n = 293,300). Intervention effects on stair descent (3 of 4 analyses) were more frequent than effects on stair climbing, the behavior with proven health benefits (1 of 4 analyses). Any intervention effects were of small magnitude relative to the influence of pedestrian movement. Failure to control for pedestrian movement compromises any estimate for signage effectiveness. These pooled data provide limited evidence that signage interventions for stair climbing at work will enhance population health.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación , Subida de Escaleras , Caminata/psicología , Caminata/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , España , Reino Unido
18.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20191000. 79 p. graf, ilus.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1005189

RESUMEN

La directiva está estructurada de manera jerárquica basándose en la funcionalidad de cada señalización, desde la identificación del establecimiento de salud, de cada uno de sus edificios y sus unidades funcionales, así como de las rutas principales y secundarias que las conectan, las señales orientadoras de ubicación a través de mapas y directorios, proporcionando información crucial, regulando comportamientos e identificando los servicios y ambientes en forma automática.


Asunto(s)
Guías como Asunto , Instituciones de Salud , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación
19.
Burns ; 45(8): 1918-1922, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351821

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: International burn societies in many parts of the world have created electronic registries of burn centers in their region. No such directory exists for the continent of Africa. OBJECTIVE: To create the first electronic directory of burn care providers in Africa. METHODOLOGY: Emails were sent out to attendees of the Pan African Burn Congress and members of the Pan African Burn Society (PABS) asking if they would like to participate in the directory. Basic information about each burn site were obtained from respondents and compiled into the directory. An online interactive map was created and made available to the public. RESULTS: 40 burn sites were identified across 14 different countries. The majority of burn sites are located in only 5 countries. The most common language spoken is English, followed by French, Amharic, and Afrikaans. CONCLUSION: This is the first known online directory of burn sites in Africa. Significant challenges exist identifying burn care providers in large portions of the continent.


Asunto(s)
Unidades de Quemados , Quemaduras , Directorios como Asunto , Internet , África , Etiopía , Mapeo Geográfico , Ghana , Humanos , Lenguaje , Mapas como Asunto , Nigeria , Sociedades Médicas , Sudáfrica , Tanzanía
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