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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMEN

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Aves , Biodiversidad , Estaciones del Año , Brasil , Bosques , Ecosistema
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

RESUMEN

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Escarabajos , Ecosistema , Estaciones del Año , Chile , Biodiversidad , Insectos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251733, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355875

RESUMEN

Abstract Mining is vital for human sustenance and a crucial sector in the state economy. However, its impacts on the environment and biodiversity cannot be underestimated. Which are potent to the attract government's attention. Environment and wildlife are subject to the harmful impacts of mining and its related activities. In this study, districts, namely Mardan and Mohmand have been targeted with respect to mining impacts. The assessment was carried out on wildlife adversely affected by the mining sector. The fauna has been keenly observed to bring the calculated risks and threat perception of the regional wildlife. Total 9 species of mammals, 21 species of birds, were recorded in District Mardan. While in District Mohmand 2 species of mammals, 9 species of birds, and 4 species of reptiles were studied. The Study explored that mining primarily responsible for land degradation. Which lead to food and agriculture losses. Several other factors like blasting, pollution, hunting, deforestation, habitat loss was also observed. Deforestation surfaced one of the major causes for extinction of fauna in the said region. preemptive measures are needed to seize the man-made catastrophe.


Resumo A mineração é vital para o sustento humano e um setor crucial na economia do Estado. No entanto, seus impactos sobre o meio ambiente e a biodiversidade não podem ser subestimados, visto serem potentes para atrair a atenção do governo. O meio ambiente e a vida selvagem estão sujeitos aos impactos prejudiciais da mineração e de suas atividades relacionadas. Neste estudo, os distritos, nomeadamente Mardan e Mohmand, foram selecionados ​​no que diz respeito aos impactos da mineração. A avaliação foi realizada em animais selvagens afetados negativamente pelo setor de mineração. A fauna tem sido observada atentamente para trazer os riscos calculados e a percepção de ameaça à vida selvagem regional. Um total de nove espécies de mamíferos, 21 espécies de pássaros, foi registrado no Distrito Mardan. Enquanto no Distrito Mohmand, duas espécies de mamíferos, nove espécies de pássaros e quatro espécies de répteis foram estudadas. O estudo explorou essa mineração que é principalmente responsável pela degradação do solo, acarretando perdas de alimentos e na agricultura. Vários outros fatores como explosões, poluição, caça, desmatamento, perda de habitat também foram observados. O desmatamento veio à tona como uma das principais causas de extinção da fauna da região, e tem-se que medidas preventivas são necessárias para dimensionar a catástrofe provocada pelo homem.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Animales Salvajes , Minería , Pakistán
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMEN

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Ecosistema , Invertebrados , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Biodiversidad , Ríos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

RESUMEN

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos , Manihot , Filogenia , Hojas de la Planta , Biodiversidad , Endófitos , Hongos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256817, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364511

RESUMEN

The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpson's diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpson's Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannon's index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices


O objetivo básico deste estudo foi determinar a diversidade ictiofaunística do rio Panjkora nos distritos de Lower e Upper de Dir, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de peixes foram coletadas com redes de arrasto de março a setembro de 2020. Foram coletados 724 espécimes, classificados em 5 famílias, 14 gêneros e 18 espécies. Os resultados gerais revelaram que a maioria da ictiofauna do rio Panjkora contém 8 espécies da família Cyprinidae (56,49%), seguidas por 4 espécies de Nemacheilidae (24,44%), 2 espécies de Channidae (10,63%) e Sisoridae (7,04%) e 1 espécie de Mastacembelidae (1,38%). Entre todas as espécies de peixes, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16,57%) foi altamente predominante, seguida por Carassius auratus (11,87%) e Racoma labiata (9,66%), e elas foram relatadas como altamente abundantes, especialmente nos meses de abril, maio e junho. As espécies menos abundantes foram Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii e Mastacembelus armatus, que constituíram 2,48%, 2,20% e 1,38%, respectivamente, do total de peixes amostrados. O índice de diversidade de Simpson (1-D = 0,919), o índice recíproco de Simpson (1/D = 12,3876) e o índice de Shannon (H = 2,68) indicaram que o rio Panjkora contém um grupo bastante rico e diversificado de espécies de peixes. Os microplásticos mais altos foram observados no local 7 em comparação com outra área de estudo. Medidas de conservação devem ser tomadas como prioridade máxima para proteger e conservar o ambiente marinho e o patrimônio natural de novas perdas e extinção e para parar ou minimizar as perdas ocorridas por práticas de pesca irresponsáveis.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Biodiversidad , Ríos , Contaminación Ambiental , Peces , Microplásticos , Pakistán
7.
Int J Biometeorol ; 67(2): 233-252, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595091

RESUMEN

Tropical inland capture fisheries are susceptible to a series of vulnerabilities such as habitat destruction, biodiversity loss, pollution, overfishing, invasive species and anthropogenic climate change. A comprehensive review of the impact of climatic uncertainties on Indian inland fisheries has not been adequately attempted yet. Recent approaches emphasizing ecosystem-based management in a regional context, specific to inland fisheries for combating climatic changes, have not been reported to date. The paper presents a critical bibliometric review of the climatic vulnerabilities faced by Indian inland fishery resources and various adaptive and mitigation strategies put forward by the country for the sustainability of the resources. In this communication, a systematic review of the impact of climate change and other stressors on various inland ecosystems of the subcontinent and the ecosystem-based management strategies adopted in India is presented and discussed.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Biodiversidad
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 180, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604526

RESUMEN

Environmental DNA (eDNA) approaches to monitoring biodiversity in terrestrial environments have largely focused on sampling water bodies, potentially limiting the geographic and taxonomic scope of eDNA investigations. We assessed the performance of two strictly terrestrial eDNA sampling approaches to detect arboreal mammals, a guild with many threatened and poorly studied taxa worldwide, within two central New Jersey (USA) woodlands. We evaluated species detected with metabarcoding using two eDNA collection methods (tree bark vs. soil sampling), and compared the performance of two detection methods (qPCR vs. metabarcoding) within a single species. Our survey, which included 94 sampling events at 21 trees, detected 16 species of mammals, representing over 60% of the diversity expected in the area. More DNA was found for the 8 arboreal versus 8 non-arboreal species detected (mean: 2466 vs. 289 reads/sample). Soil samples revealed a generally similar composition, but a lower diversity, of mammal species. Detection rates for big brown bat were 3.4 × higher for qPCR over metabarcoding, illustrating the enhanced sensitivity of single-species approaches. Our results suggest that sampling eDNA from on and around trees could serve as a useful new monitoring tool for cryptic arboreal mammal communities globally.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , ADN Ambiental , Animales , ADN Ambiental/genética , Árboles/genética , Suelo , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico/métodos , Biodiversidad , Mamíferos/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos
9.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 24(1): 6, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604610

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Living Atlas is an open source platform used to collect, visualise and analyse biodiversity data from multiple sources, and serves as the national biodiversity data hub in many countries. Although powerful, the Living Atlas has had limited functionality for species occurrence data derived from DNA sequences. As a step toward integrating this fast-growing data source into the platform, we developed the Amplicon Sequence Variant (ASV) portal: a web interface to sequence-based biodiversity observations in the Living Atlas. RESULTS: The ASV portal allows data providers to submit denoised metabarcoding output to the Living Atlas platform via an intermediary ASV database. It also enables users to search for existing ASVs and associated Living Atlas records using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, or via filters on taxonomy and sequencing details. The ASV portal is a Python-Flask/jQuery web interface, implemented as a multi-container docker service, and is an integral part of the Swedish Biodiversity Data Infrastructure. CONCLUSION: The ASV portal is a web interface that effectively integrates biodiversity data derived from DNA sequences into the Living Atlas platform.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , ADN , ADN/genética , Programas Informáticos , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico
10.
Lancet Planet Health ; 7(1): e77-e85, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608953

RESUMEN

Fuelled by the intersecting challenges of climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution, and profound social, economic, and environmental injustices, calls for new ways to work together for a healthy, just, and sustainable future are burgeoning. Consequently, there is a growing imperative and mandate across the higher education space for transformative, inclusive, integrative-and sometimes disruptive-approaches to learning that strengthen our capacity to work towards the goals and imperatives of planetary health. This educational transformation requires attention to pathways of societal, policy, and system change, prioritising different voices and perspectives across jurisdictions, cultures, and learning contexts. This Viewpoint seeks to explore the developing areas of education for planetary health, while additionally reflecting on a praxis for education in the Anthropocene that is rooted within the confluence of diverse knowledges and practice legacies that have paved the way to learning and relearning for planetary health.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Estado de Salud , Cambio Climático , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 275, 2023 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609891

RESUMEN

Human population is envisaged to continue to grow, with a tremendous contribution to land degradation and climate change. Climate change and land degradation are intertwined, thus tackling climate change means mitigating land degradation. Climate change is a worldwide problem that affects lives and livelihoods; henceforth, mitigating measures are urgently required. With their unique, rich biodiversity, mountain areas are severely sensitive to climate change and land degradation; therefore, a speedy need to curb land degradation in mountain areas is needed. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise different strategic methods used globally to minimise land degradation and sustain mountainous areas in a frequently changing climate. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was utilised in this systematic review. The Scopus data base was utilised for document search, with a selection of articles limited between the years 2012 and 2021. Only articles written in English were considered. After assessing the abstracts, 703 articles were retained for a full review, leading to the final selection of 84 articles. The results show that soil erosion, overgrazing and construction of infrastructure are major causes of land degradation. The human population increase is also an enormous contributing factor to activities leading to land degradation and climate change. A conspicuous intensification of agricultural activities is expected to continue due to rising food demand. Curbing land degradation and climate change in mountain areas can be enforced by the government through stricter regulations. However, regulations and policies must be locally initiated, instead of globally initiated, with local communities being the main stakeholders. Hence, bottom-up rather than top-down policies would encourage local communities to embrace mitigation policy initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Agricultura , Biodiversidad , Erosión del Suelo , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2211903120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623180

RESUMEN

Long-term data allow ecologists to assess trajectories of population abundance. Without this context, it is impossible to know whether a taxon is thriving or declining to extinction. For parasites of wildlife, there are few long-term data-a gap that creates an impediment to managing parasite biodiversity and infectious threats in a changing world. We produced a century-scale time series of metazoan parasite abundance and used it to test whether parasitism is changing in Puget Sound, United States, and, if so, why. We performed parasitological dissection of fluid-preserved specimens held in natural history collections for eight fish species collected between 1880 and 2019. We found that parasite taxa using three or more obligately required host species-a group that comprised 52% of the parasite taxa we detected-declined in abundance at a rate of 10.9% per decade, whereas no change in abundance was detected for parasites using one or two obligately required host species. We tested several potential mechanisms for the decline in 3+-host parasites and found that parasite abundance was negatively correlated with sea surface temperature, diminishing at a rate of 38% for every 1 °C increase. Although the temperature effect was strong, it did not explain all variability in parasite burden, suggesting that other factors may also have contributed to the long-term declines we observed. These data document one century of climate-associated parasite decline in Puget Sound-a massive loss of biodiversity, undetected until now.


Asunto(s)
Parásitos , Animales , Clima , Animales Salvajes , Biodiversidad , Peces , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(2): e2211974120, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595684

RESUMEN

Landscape dynamics are widely thought to govern the tempo and mode of continental radiations, yet the effects of river network rearrangements on dispersal and lineage diversification remain poorly understood. We integrated an unprecedented occurrence dataset of 4,967 species with a newly compiled, time-calibrated phylogeny of South American freshwater fishes-the most species-rich continental vertebrate fauna on Earth-to track the evolutionary processes associated with hydrogeographic events over 100 Ma. Net lineage diversification was heterogeneous through time, across space, and among clades. Five abrupt shifts in net diversification rates occurred during the Paleogene and Miocene (between 30 and 7 Ma) in association with major landscape evolution events. Net diversification accelerated from the Miocene to the Recent (c. 20 to 0 Ma), with Western Amazonia having the highest rates of in situ diversification, which led to it being an important source of species dispersing to other regions. All regional biotic interchanges were associated with documented hydrogeographic events and the formation of biogeographic corridors, including the Early Miocene (c. 23 to 16 Ma) uplift of the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira and the Late Miocene (c. 10 Ma) uplift of the Northern Andes and associated formation of the modern transcontinental Amazon River. The combination of high diversification rates and extensive biotic interchange associated with Western Amazonia yielded its extraordinary contemporary richness and phylogenetic endemism. Our results support the hypothesis that landscape dynamics, which shaped the history of drainage basin connections, strongly affected the assembly and diversification of basin-wide fish faunas.


Asunto(s)
Peces , Agua Dulce , Animales , Filogenia , Peces/genética , Ríos , América del Sur , Biodiversidad , Filogeografía
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(2): e2217303120, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595703

RESUMEN

There are growing calls for conservation frameworks that, rather than breaking the relations between people and other parts of nature, capture place-based relationships that have supported social-ecological systems over the long term. Biocultural approaches propose actions based on biological conservation priorities and cultural values aligned with local priorities, but mechanisms that allow their global uptake are missing. We propose a framework to globally assess the biocultural status of specific components of nature that matter to people and apply it to culturally important species (CIS). Drawing on a literature review and a survey, we identified 385 wild species, mostly plants, which are culturally important. CIS predominate among Indigenous peoples (57%) and ethnic groups (21%). CIS have a larger proportion of Data-Deficient species (41%) than the full set of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) species (12%), underscoring the disregard of cultural considerations in biological research. Combining information on CIS biological conservation status (IUCN threatened status) and cultural status (language vitality), we found that more CIS are culturally Vulnerable or Endangered than they are biologically and that there is a higher share of bioculturally Endangered or Vulnerable CIS than of either biologically or culturally Endangered CIS measured separately. Bioculturally Endangered or Vulnerable CIS are particularly predominant among Indigenous peoples, arguably because of the high levels of cultural loss among them. The deliberate connection between biological and cultural values, as developed in our "biocultural status" metric, provides an actionable way to guide decisions and operationalize global actions oriented to enhance place-based practices with demonstrated long-term sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Medio Social , Humanos , Animales , Pueblos Indígenas , Etnicidad , Biodiversidad , Especies en Peligro de Extinción
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2207832120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626561

RESUMEN

Microorganisms play essential roles in soil ecosystem functioning and maintenance, but methods are currently lacking for quantitative assessments of the mechanisms underlying microbial diversity patterns observed across disparate systems and scales. Here we established a quantitative model to incorporate pH into metabolic theory to capture and explain some of the unexplained variation in the relationship between temperature and soil bacterial diversity. We then tested and validated our newly developed models across multiple scales of ecological organization. At the species level, we modeled the diversification rate of the model bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens evolving under laboratory media gradients varying in temperature and pH. At the community level, we modeled patterns of bacterial communities in paddy soils across a continental scale, which included natural gradients of pH and temperature. Last, we further extended our model at a global scale by integrating a meta-analysis comprising 870 soils collected worldwide from a wide range of ecosystems. Our results were robust in consistently predicting the distributional patterns of bacterial diversity across soil temperature and pH gradients-with model variation explaining from 7 to 66% of the variation in bacterial diversity, depending on the scale and system complexity. Together, our study represents a nexus point for the integration of soil bacterial diversity and quantitative models with the potential to be used at distinct spatiotemporal scales. By mechanistically representing pH into metabolic theory, our study enhances our capacity to explain and predict the patterns of bacterial diversity and functioning under current or future climate change scenarios.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Suelo , Suelo/química , Microbiología del Suelo , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/metabolismo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Biodiversidad
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 474, 2023 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631512

RESUMEN

Many protected areas worldwide increasingly resemble habitat isolates embedded in human-modified landscapes. However, establishing linkages among protected areas could significantly reduce species-loss rates. Here we present a novel method having broad applicability for assessing enhanced regional connectivity on persistence of mammal diversity. We combine theoretically-derived species relaxation rates for mammal communities with empirically-derived pathways. We assess the value of enhanced regional connectivity for two hypothetical networks of national parks in western North America: the Yellowstone-Glacier network and the Mount Rainier-North Cascades network. Linking the Yellowstone and Glacier park assemblages by eliminating barriers to movement in identified mammal dispersal pathways and by incorporating adjacent wilderness areas and known ungulate migratory routes into a protected area network would greatly enlarge available habitat. This would enhance medium to large mammal species persistence time by factor of 4.3, on average, or ~ 682 generations relative to individual parks. Similarly, linking Mount Rainier and North Cascades park assemblages would enhance mammal species persistence time by a factor of 4.3, on average, or ~305 generations relative to individual parks. Enhancing regional connectivity among western North America parks could serve as an important template for landscape-scale conservation in the 21st century.


Asunto(s)
Mamíferos , Parques Recreativos , Animales , Humanos , Ecosistema , América del Norte , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Biodiversidad
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 561, 2023 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631629

RESUMEN

Predator-prey interactions are critical for understanding species composition and community assembly; however, there is still limited research on whether and how the prey species composition or community assembly in natural communities are mediated by predators. To address this question, we performed a field investigation to examine the influence of the presence of Lutra lutra on the diversity of fish communities of the Hunchun River Basin, Jilin Province, China. Our results indicate that L. lutra, as a potential umbrella species and generalist predator in the stream ecosystem, promotes the coexistence of a vast variety of fish taxa, which emphasizes the importance of top-down control in the ecological community. We suggest that L. lutra regulates the fish community assembly likely through the stochastic process. Although this was a pilot study regarding predator-prey interactions, the results highlight the effects of predators on the prey community assembly, and emphasize the role of predators on the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem function. Future conservation decisions involving ecosystem biodiversity should require the inclusion of predation intensity. The inclusion of scientific research and protection of umbrella species would thus constitute an additional and important step in biodiversity conservation.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Nutrias , Animales , Cadena Alimentaria , Ríos , Proyectos Piloto , Peces/fisiología , Biodiversidad , Conducta Predatoria/fisiología
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 295, 2023 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633699

RESUMEN

Citizen science (CS), as an enabler of open science (OS) practices, is a low-cost and accessible method for data collection in biodiversity monitoring, which can empower and educate the public both on scientific research priorities and on environmental change. Where OS increases research transparency and scientific democratisation; if properly implemented, CS should do the same. Here, we present the findings of a systematic review exploring "openness" of CS in biodiversity monitoring. CS projects were scored between - 1 (closed) and 1 (open) on their adherence to defined OS principles: accessible data, code, software, publication, data management plans, and preregistrations. Openness scores per principle were compared to see where OS is more frequently utilised across the research process. The relationship between interest in CS and openness within the practice was also tested. Overall, CS projects had an average open score of 0.14. There was a significant difference in open scores between OS principles (p = < 0.0001), where "open data" was the most adhered to practice compared to the lowest scores found in relation to preregistrations. The apparent level of interest in CS was not shown to correspond to a significant increase in openness within CS (p = 0.8464). These results reveal CS is not generally "open" despite being an OS approach, with implications for how the public can interact with the research that they play an active role in contributing to. The development of systematic recommendations on where and how OS can be implemented across the research process in citizen science projects is encouraged.


Asunto(s)
Ciencia Ciudadana , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Biodiversidad , Programas Informáticos
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 641, 2023 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635347

RESUMEN

Global climate changes affect biodiversity and cause species distribution shifts, contractions, and expansions. Climate change and disease are emerging threats to primates, and approximately one-quarter of primates' ranges have temperatures over historical ones. How will climate changes influence Atlantic Forest primate ranges? We used habitat suitability models and measured potential changes in area and distributions shifts. Climate change expected in 2100 may change the distribution area of Atlantic Forest primates. Fourteen species (74%) are predicted to lose more than 50% of their distribution, and nine species (47%) are predicted to lose more than 75% of their distribution. The balance was negative, indicating a potential future loss, and the strength of the reduction in the distribution is related to the severity of climate change (SSP scenarios). Directional shifts were detected to the south. The projected mean centroid latitudinal shift is ~ 51 km to the south for 2100 SSP5-8.5 scenario. The possibility of dispersal will depend on suitable routes and landscape configuration. Greenhouse gas emissions should be urgently reduced. Our results also emphasize that no more forest loss is acceptable in Atlantic Forest, and restoration, canopy bridges, friendly agroecosystems, and monitoring of infrastructure projects are urgent to enable dealing with climate change.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Bosques , Animales , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Primates
20.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 7(1): 102-112, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593294

RESUMEN

Animal-mediated pollination is a vital ecosystem service to crops and wild plants, and long-term stability of plant-pollinator interactions is therefore crucial for maintaining plant biodiversity and food security. However, it is unknown how the composition of pollinators and the structure of pollinator interactions have changed across longer time spans relevant to examining responses to human activities such as climate change. We resampled an historical dataset of plant-pollinator interactions across several orders of pollinating insects in a subarctic location in Finland that has already experienced substantial climate warming but little land use change. Our results reveal a dramatic turnover in pollinator species and rewiring of plant-pollinator interactions, with only 7% of the interactions shared across time points. The relative abundance of moth and hoverfly pollinators declined between time points, whereas muscoid flies, a group for which little is known regarding conservation status and responses to climate, became more common. Specialist pollinators disproportionately declined, leading to a decrease in network-level specialization, which could have harmful consequences for pollination services. Our results exemplify the changes in plant-pollinator networks that might be expected in other regions as climate change progresses.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Insectos , Animales , Humanos , Insectos/fisiología , Polinización/fisiología , Biodiversidad , Productos Agrícolas
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