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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118356, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653582

RESUMEN

The inorganic components of particulate matter (PM), especially transition metals, have been shown to contribute to PM toxicity. In this study, the spatial distribution of PM elements and their potential sources in the Greater Los Angeles area were studied. The mass concentration and detailed elemental composition of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles were assessed at 46 locations, including urban traffic, urban community, urban background, and desert locations. Crustal enrichment factors (EFs), roadside enrichments (REs), and bivariate correlation analysis revealed that Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Sb, Zn, and Zr were associated with traffic emissions in both PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, while Fe, Li, Mn, and Ti were affected by traffic emissions mostly in PM2.5. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mo, Sb, Zr (brake wear tracers), Pd (tailpipe tracer), and Zn (associated with tire wear) were higher at urban traffic sites than urban background locations by factors of 2.6-4.6. Both PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 elements showed large spatial variations, indicating the presence of diverse emission sources across sampling locations. Principal component analysis extracted four source factors that explained 88% of the variance in the PM2.5 elemental concentrations, and three sources that explained 86% of the variance in the PM2.5-10 elemental concentrations. Based on multiple linear regression analysis, the contribution of traffic emissions (27%) to PM2.5 was found to be higher than mineral dust (23%), marine aerosol (18%), and industrial emissions (8%). On the other hand, mineral dust was the dominant source of PM2.5-10 with 45% contribution, followed by marine aerosol (22%), and traffic emissions (19%). This study provides novel insight into the spatial variation of traffic-related elements in a large metropolitan area.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Los Angeles , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118468, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748887

RESUMEN

Maternal exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy, but little is known about which constituents and sources are most relevant to glycemic effects. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1148 pregnant women to investigate associations of PM2.5 chemical components with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and to identify the most harmful sources in Heshan, China from January 2015 to July 2016. We measured PM2.5 using filter-based method and analyzed them for 28 constituents, including carbonaceous species, water-soluble ions and metal elements. Contributions of PM2.5 sources were assessed by positive matrix factorization (PMF). Logistic regression model was used to estimate composition-specific and source-specific effects on GDM/IGT. Random forest algorithm was applied to evaluate the relative importance of components to GDM and IGT. PM2.5 total mass and several chemical constituents were associated with GDM and IGT across the early to mid-gestation periods, as were the PM2.5 sources fossil fuel/oil combustion, road dust, metal smelting, construction dust, electronic waster, vehicular emissions and industrial emissions. The trimester-specific associations differed among pollutants and sources. The third and highest quartile of elemental carbon, ammonium (NH4+), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) across gestation were consistently associated with higher odds of GDM/IGT. Maternal exposures to zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti) and vehicular emissions during the first trimester, and vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), road dust and fossil fuel/oil combustion during the second trimester were more important for GDM/IGT. This study provides important new evidence that maternal exposure to PM2.5 components and sources is significantly related to elevated risk for abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Intolerancia a la Glucosa , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Glucemia , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150214, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571223

RESUMEN

Fuel exhaust particulate matter (FEPM) is an important source of air pollution worldwide. However, the comparative and mechanistic toxicity of FEPMs emitted from combustion of different fuels is still not fully understood. This study employed pathway-based approaches via human cells to evaluate mechanistic toxicity of FEPMs. The results showed that FEPMs caused concentration-dependent (0.1-200 µg/mL) cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. FEPMs at low concentration (10 µg/mL) induced cell cycle arrest in S and G2 phases, while high level of FEPMs (200 µg/mL) caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Different FEPMs induced distinct expression profiles of toxicity-related genes, illustrating different toxic mechanisms. Furthermore, FEPMs inhibited the phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA), which related with reproductive toxicity. Spearman rank correlations among the chemicals carried by FEPMs and the toxic effects revealed that PAHs and metals promoted cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and suppressed PKA activity. Furthermore, PAHs (Nap and Acy) and metals (Al and Pb) in FEPMs were highly and positively correlated with the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, ER stress, metal stress and inflammation. Our findings offered more mechanistic information of FEPMs at the level of subcellular toxicity and help to better understand their potential health effects.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/toxicidad
4.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132309, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601373

RESUMEN

This study aims to determine the inorganic and carbonaceous components depending on the seasonal variation and size distribution of urban air particles in Kuala Lumpur. Different fractions of particulate matter (PM) were measured using a Nanosampler from 17 February 2017 until 27 November 2017. The water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) and carbonaceous components in all samples were analysed using ion chromatography and carbon analyser thermal/optical reflectance, respectively. Total PM concentration reached its peak during the southwest (SW) season (70.99 ± 6.04 µg/m3), and the greatest accumulation were observed at PM0.5-1.0 (22%-30%, 9.55 ± 1.03 µg/m3) and PM2.5-10 (22%-25%, 10.34 ± 0.81 µg/m3). SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were major contributors of WSIIs, and their formation was favoured mainly during SW season (80.5% of total ions). PM0.5-1.0 and PM2.5-10 exhibited the highest percentage of WSII size distribution, accounted for 28.4% and 13.5% of the total mass, respectively. The average contribution of carbonaceous species (OC + EC) to total carbonaceous concentrations were higher in PM0.5-1.0 (35.2%) and PM2.5-10 (26.6%). Ultrafine particles (PM<0.1) consistently indicated that the sources were from vehicle emission while the SW season was constantly dominated by biomass burning sources. Using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, secondary inorganic aerosol and biomass burning (30.3%) was known as a significant source of overall PM. As a conclusion, ratio and source apportionment indicate the mixture of biomass burning, secondary inorganic aerosols and motor vehicle contributed to the size-segregated PM and seasonal variation of inorganic and carbonaceous components of urban air particles.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Malasia , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118303, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626703

RESUMEN

Fine particulate matter cause profound adverse health effects in Iran. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter (PM) in urban areas, and has a large contribution in PM2.5 and organic carbon concentration, in Tehran, Iran. The composition of fine PM vehicle emission is poorly known, so this paper aims to determine the mixed fleet source profile by using the analysed data from the two internal stations and the emission factor for PM light-duty vehicles emission. Tunnels are ideal media for extraction vehicle source profile and emission factor, due to vehicles are the only source of pollutant in the urban tunnels. In this study, PM samples were collected simultaneously in two road tunnel stations and at a background site in Niyayesh tunnel in Tehran, Iran. The tunnel samples show a large contribution for some elements and ions, such as Fe (0.23 µg µg-1 OC), Al (0.02 µg µg-1 OC), Ca (0.055 µg µg-1 OC), SO4 (0.047 µg µg-1 OC), Docosane (0.0017 µg µg-1 OC), Triacontane (0.016 µg µg-1 OC), Anthracenedione (0.0003 µg µg-1 OC) and Benzo-perylene (0.0002 µg µg-1 OC). In overall, on-road gasoline vehicle fleets source profile extracted in this study is similar to composite profiles derived from roadside tunnel measurment performed in other countries during the last decades. The PM2.5 emission factor for Tehran's light-duty vehicle fleet has been extracted 16.23 mg km-1. vehicle-1and 0.09 g kg-1. The profile would be used for Chemical Mass Balance Model studies for Iran and other countries with a similar road traffic fleet mix. Also, it would be very suitable for use in emission inventories improvement. The results of this study can be used for choosing the best management strategies and provide comperhensive insight to fine PM traffic emission in Tehran.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Gasolina , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Gasolina/análisis , Irán , Vehículos a Motor , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
6.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118278, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634405

RESUMEN

SOx Emissions Control Areas (SECAs) have been established to reduce harmful effects of atmospheric sulfur. Typical technological changes for ships to conform with these regulations have included the combustion of low-sulfur fuels or installment of SOx scrubbers. This paper presents experimental findings from high-end real-time measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants onboard a Roll-on/Roll-off Passenger ship sailing inside a SECA equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a scrubber as the exhaust aftertreatment. The ship operates between two ports and switched off the SOx scrubbing when approaching one of the ports and used low-sulfur fuel instead. Measurement results showed that the scrubber effectively reduced SO2 concentrations with over 99% rate. In terms of fuel, the engine-out PM was higher for heavy fuel oil than for marine gas oil. During open sea cruising (65% load) the major chemical components in PM having emission factor of 1.7 g kgfuel-1 were sulfate (66%) and organics (30%) whereas the contribution of black carbon (BC) in PM was low (∼4%). Decreased engine load on the other hand increased exhaust concentrations of BC by a factor exceeding four. As a novel finding, the secondary aerosol formation potential of the emitted exhaust measured with an oxidation flow reactor and an aerosol mass spectrometer was found negligible. Thus, it seems that either DOC, scrubber, or their combination is efficient in eliminating SOA precursors. Overall, results indicate that in addition to targeting sulfur and NOx emissions from shipping, future work should focus on mitigating harmful particle emissions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerosoles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Gasolina/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Navíos , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149832, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525712

RESUMEN

The share of non-exhaust particles, including tire wear particles (TWP), within the airborne dust and particularly within PM10 has increased in recent years due to a significant reduction of other particles including exhaust road traffic emissions. However, the quantification of TWP is a demanding task due to the non-specificity of tracers, and the fact that they are commonly contained in analytically challenging low concentrations (e.g. Zn, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, vinylcyclohexene). This difficulty is amplified by the chemical and morpho-textural heterogeneity of TWP resulting from the interaction between the tires and the road surface. In contrast to bulk techniques, automated single particle SEM/EDX analysis can benefit from the ubiquitous heterogeneity of environmental TWP as a diagnostic criterion for their identification and quantification. For this purpose, we follow a machine-learning (ML) approach that makes use of an extensive number (67) of morphological, textural (backscatter-signal based) and chemical descriptors to differentiate environmental particles into the following classes: TWP, metals, minerals and biogenic/organic. We present a ML-based model developed to classify airborne samples (trained by >100,000 environmental particles including 6841 TWP), and its application within a one-year monitoring campaign at two Swiss sites. In this study, the mass concentrations of TWP in the airborne fractions PM80-10, PM10-2.5 and PM2.5-1 were determined. Furthermore, the particle size distribution and shape characteristics of 5621 TWP were evaluated. A cut through a TWP by means of FIB-SEM evidences that the mineral and metal particles typically found in TWP are not only present on the particle surface but also throughout the complete TWP volume. At the urban background site, the annual average mass fraction of TWP and micro-rubber in PM10 was 1.8% (0.28 µg/m3) and 0.9%, respectively. At the urban kerbside site, the corresponding values were 6 times higher amounting to 10.5% (2.24 µg/m3) for TWP, and 5.0% for micro-rubber.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Polvo , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aprendizaje Automático , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Imagen Individual de Molécula , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150255, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818776

RESUMEN

Air quality deterioration due to vehicular emissions in smaller Indian cities and rural areas remains unacknowledged, even though the situation is alarmingly similar to megacities. The resulting lack of knowledge on travel behavior and vehicle characteristics impacts accuracy of emission studies in these regions. This study uses a novel approach and appropriate primary and secondary data sets to allocate vehicular activities (vehicle population and vehicle kilometer travelled) and associated emissions at a high spatial resolution for estimation and dispersion analysis of vehicular exhaust and non-exhaust PM2.5 emission in an Indian urban-rural landscape. The study indicates that using approaches that do not allocate vehicles kilometers travelled to areas of their expected travel results in underestimating the percent share of PM2.5 emissions from rural roads and motorways while overestimating overall PM2.5 emissions. Particulate matter resuspension is the dominant form of PM2.5 emissions from the vehicular sector on all road types, constituting an even higher fraction on rural roads. Two-wheelers contribute a high fraction of PM2.5 emissions (exhaust and non-exhaust combined), followed by heavy commercial vehicles and four-wheelers on urban roads. Light commercial vehicles, especially agricultural tractors dominate these emissions on rural roads. PM2.5 hotspots are prevalent in urban areas, but several rural areas also experience heavy particulate matter concentrations. Thus, vehicle movement incorporation results in more accurate emission estimation, especially in an urban-rural landscape.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
9.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118285, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634409

RESUMEN

Air pollution has become a major issue in China, especially for traffic-related pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Current studies in China at the national scale were less focused on NO2 exposure and consequent health effects than fine particulate exposure, mainly due to a lack of high-quality exposure models for accurate NO2 predictions over a long period. We developed an advanced modeling framework that incorporated multisource, high-quality predictor data (e.g., satellite observations [Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2, TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument NO2, and Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction aerosol optical depth], chemical transport model simulations, high-resolution geographical variables) and three independent machine learning algorithms into an ensemble model. The model contains three stages: (1) filling missing satellite data; (2) building an ensemble model and predicting daily NO2 concentrations from 2013 to 2019 across China at 1×1 km2 resolution; (3) downscaling the predictions to finer resolution (100 m) at the urban scale. Our model achieves a high performance in terms of cross-validation to assess the agreement of the overall (R2 = 0.72) and the spatial (R2 = 0.85) variations of the NO2 predictions over the observations. The model performance remains moderately good when the predictions are extrapolated to the previous years without any monitoring data (CV R2 > 0.68) or regions far away from monitors (CV R2 > 0.63). We identified a clear decreasing trend of NO2 exposure from 2013 to 2019 across the country with the largest reduction in suburban and rural areas. Our downscaled model further improved the prediction ability by 4%-14% in some megacities and captured substantial NO2 variations within 1-km grids in the urban areas, especially near major roads. Our model provides flexibility at both temporal and spatial scales and can be applied to exposure assessment and epidemiological studies with various study domains (e.g., national or citywide) and settings (e.g., long-term and short-term).


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150171, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537714

RESUMEN

Different powertrains passenger cars, homologate in compliance with Euro 6 standard, were compared in a life cycle perspective for assessing both environmental and human health impacts. For this latter aspect, some correlation between the emission of heavy metals, elemental carbon, organic carbon, the oxidative potential of particulate matter and the adverse effect on human health were also analyzed and discussed. Battery electric vehicle (BEV) showed the lower greenhouse gases emissions, from 0.1 kgCO2eq/km to 0.2 kgCO2eq/km but were charged by the higher emissions of freshwater eutrophication and freshwater ecotoxicity, about 6 × 10-6 kgPeq/km and 4 CTUe/km, respectively. Lower resource depletion was detected for cars powered by internal combustion and hybrid powertrains. Amount of particulate matter (PM) emitted resulted lower for petrol-hybrid electric vehicles (Petrol-HEV), of about 5 × 10-5 kgPM2.5eq/km. BEV were charged by the higher values of human toxicity cancer, from about 2 × 10-5 CTUh/km to about 5 × 10-5 CTUh/km whereas Petrol-HEV were credited by the lower impact on human health (DALY/km). The large contribution to PM emission from all the analyzed cars was from tyre and brake wear. Main PM components were elemental (ElC) and organic carbon (OC) compounds. ElC is also a specific marker of PM emitted from traffic. Both ElC and OC were characterized by a strong correlation with the oxidative potential of PM, indicating a threat for human respiratory tract only marginally decreased by the transition from conventional to electric poweretrains vehicles.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Animales , Automóviles , Gasolina , Humanos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Vehículos a Motor , Estrés Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
11.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118206, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740290

RESUMEN

Vehicle emissions are an important source of particulate matter (PM) in urban areas and have well-known adverse health effects on human health. Oxidative potential (OP) is used as a quantification metric for indexing PM toxicity. In this study, by using a liquid spot sampler (LSS) and the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, the diurnal OP variation was assessed at a ground-level urban monitoring station. Besides, since the monitoring station was adjacent to the main road, the correlation between OP and traffic volume was also evaluated. PM components, including metals, water-soluble inorganic aerosols (WSIAs), black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were also simultaneously monitored. The daytime and evening mean ±â€¯std volume-normalized OP (OPv) were 0.46 ±â€¯0.27 and 0.48 ±â€¯0.26 nmol/min/m3, and exhibited good correlations with PM1.0 and BC; however, these concentrations were only weakly correlated with mass-normalized OP (OPm). The mean ±â€¯std OPm was higher in the daytime (41.3 ±â€¯13.8 pmol/min/µg) than in the evening (36.1 ±â€¯11.5 pmol/min/µg). According to the PMF analysis, traffic emissions dominated the diurnal OP contribution. Organic matter and individual metals associated with non-exhaust traffic emissions, such as Mn, Fe, and Cu, contributed substantially to OP. Diurnal variations of PAH concentrations suggest that photochemical reactions could enhance OP, highlighting the importance of atmospheric aging on PM toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Oxidación-Reducción , Estrés Oxidativo , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/toxicidad
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770121

RESUMEN

The development of infrastructure, a rapidly increasing population, and urbanization has resulted in increasing air pollution levels in the African city of Addis Ababa. Prior investigations into air pollution have not yet sufficiently addressed the sources of atmospheric particulate matter. This study aims to identify the major sources of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its seasonal contribution in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Twenty-four-hour average PM2.5 mass samples were collected every 6th day, from November 2015 through November 2016. Chemical species were measured in samples and source apportionment was conducted using a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model that uses particle-phase organic tracer concentrations to estimate source contributions to PM2.5 organic carbon (OC) and the overall PM2.5 mass. Vehicular sources (28%), biomass burning (18.3%), plus soil dust (17.4%) comprise about two-thirds of the PM2.5 mass, followed by sulfate (6.5%). The sources of air pollution vary seasonally, particularly during the main wet season (June-September) and short rain season (February-April): From motor vehicles, (31.0 ± 2.6%) vs. (24.7 ± 1.2%); biomass burning, (21.5 ± 5%) vs. (14 ± 2%); and soil dust, (11 ± 6.4%) vs. (22.7 ± 8.4%), respectively, are amongst the three principal sources of ambient PM2.5 mass in the city. We suggest policy measures focusing on transportation, cleaner fuel or energy, waste management, and increasing awareness on the impact of air pollution on the public's health.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Etiopía , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770082

RESUMEN

We appraise newly accumulated evidence of the impact of particle pollution on the brain, the portals of entry, the neural damage mechanisms, and ultimately the neurological and psychiatric outcomes statistically associated with exposures. PM pollution comes from natural and anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, engineered nanoparticles (NP ≤ 100 nm), wildfires, and wood burning. We are all constantly exposed during normal daily activities to some level of particle pollution of various sizes-PM2.5 (≤2.5 µm), ultrafine PM (UFP ≤ 100 nm), or NPs. Inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption are key portals of entry. Selected literature provides context for the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) ambient air quality standards, the conclusions of an Independent Particulate Matter Review Panel, the importance of internal combustion emissions, and evidence suggesting UFPs/NPs cross biological barriers and reach the brain. NPs produce oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, neurovascular unit, mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and DNA damage, protein aggregation and misfolding, and other effects. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 concentrations at or below current US standards can increase the risk for TIAs, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, cognitive deficits, dementia, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Residing in a highly polluted megacity is associated with Alzheimer neuropathology hallmarks in 99.5% of residents between 11 months and ≤40 y. PD risk and aggravation are linked to air pollution and exposure to diesel exhaust increases ALS risk. Overall, the literature supports that particle pollution contributes to targeted neurological and psychiatric outcomes and highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the marked differences in pollution profiles inducing neural damage. Factors such as emission source intensity, genetics, nutrition, comorbidities, and others also play a role. PM2.5 is a threat for neurological and psychiatric diseases. Thus, future research should address specifically the potential role of UFPs/NPs in inducing neural damage.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Polvo , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 764, 2021 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729663

RESUMEN

High concentration of particulates in the university and research institutional campus can affect cognitive performance of students and researchers. However, studies on ambient particulate concentration in the campus of universities or research institutes are scarce. The ambient concentration of PM10 was measured in the campus of Jadavpur University, Kolkata, during two different seasons (S1: Post-monsoon; S2: Winter) to identify major sources of pollutant here. Significant seasonal variation of ambient PM10 was recorded in the campus. The average ambient PM10 concentration was recorded higher in S2 compared to S1 of the study period. Morphological characteristics of PM10 during the study period suggest that the roundness of particles was in the range of 0.66 to 0.68, whilst the mean spherical diameter suggests most of the PM10 particles were < 2.5 µ diameter. Based on factorial analysis, three factors were generated which includes factor 1: soil, building material and coal burning particles (53.76% of the variance); factor 2: particles from coal combustion (29.89% of the variance) and factor 3: particles from transport emission (16.33% of the variance). The study suggests that it is important to stop burning coal, reduce vehicular emission and reduce road dust resuspension around the campus to maintain the ambient PM10 concentration within the university campus during the post-monsoon and winter months.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Universidades , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(22): 15031-15039, 2021 11 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734701

RESUMEN

This study aims to investigate the effect of the stepwise marine fuel oil regulations on the concentrations of vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni) in ambient air based on a 4-y (2017-2020) online measurement in Shanghai, a coastal city in China. The annual concentration of V was reduced by 58% due to the switch from Domestic Emission Control Area (DECA) 1.0 to DECA 2.0 and further by 74% after the implementation of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) 2020 regulation, while the reduction rate for Ni was only 27% and then 18% respectively. Consistently, a reduction of 84% in V content and a negligible change in Ni content were measured in 180cst ship oil samples from 2010 to 2020. The similar increasing trend of Ni/V ratios (from <0.4 to >2.0) in both ambient measurement and heavy fuel oil samples suggests that the DECA and IMO 2020 regulations effectively reduced the ambient V. However, nickel content is still enriched in the in-use desulfurized residual oils and ship-emitted particles in coastal China. Meanwhile, the previous ratio between V and Ni cannot be used as a tracer for identifying ship-emitted particles due to its large variation in oils. Further updating of the source profile of ship traffic emissions in coastal cities is necessary in the future.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Aceites Combustibles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , China , Níquel , Material Particulado/análisis , Navíos , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 834, 2021 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799792

RESUMEN

Atmospheric contaminants severely impact air quality in large global urban centers. The emergence of COVID-19 in China in December 2019 and its expansion around the world reduced human activities on account of the implementation of a social isolation policy. In Brazil, COVID-19 arrived in February 2020, and a policy of social isolation was adopted in March by state governments; this work aimed to evaluate pollutant gas emissions in Brazil in the face of the pandemic. In the city of São Paulo, the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were analyzed at three automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo (CETESB). In this way, reductions in concentrations of these gases were observed after the decree of social isolation on March 24, due to a noticeable drop in vehicle traffic in the city. A reduction in concentrations of NO2, between 53.6 and 73%, and a decrease in concentrations of CO, from 50 to 66.7%, were obtained at the monitoring stations. Another impact caused by COVID-19 was the increase in deforestation and fires was identified in the Brazilian Legal Amazon after social isolation, due to the decrease in the inspection of environmental agencies. The fires produce thermal degradation of the biomass, generating polluting gases and material particulate. These atmospheric contaminants are extremely harmful to the health of Amazonian populations. Summed to the expansion of COVID-19 in this region, all these factors combined cause the public health system to collapse. CO2eq emissions increase estimates, according to the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation System technical report, ranged from 10 to 20% in 2020, compared to those from 2018. If Brazil maintains deforestation at this pace, it will be difficult to meet the emission reduction targets agreed at COP21.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Gases/análisis , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 716, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637007

RESUMEN

In Pretoria South Africa, we looked into the origins of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), based on 1-year sampling campaign carried out between April 18, 2017, and April 17, 2018. The average PM2.5 concentration was 21.1 ± 15.0 µg/m3 (range 0.7-66.8 µg/m3), with winter being the highest and summer being the lowest. The XEPOS 5 energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis, and the US EPA PMF 5.0 program was used for source apportionment. The sources identified include fossil fuel combustion, soil dust, secondary sulphur, vehicle exhaust, road traffic, base metal/pyrometallurgical, and coal burning. Coal burning and secondary sulphur were significantly higher in winter and contributed more than 50% of PM2.5 sources. The HYSPLIT model was used to calculate the air mass trajectories (version 4.9). During the 1-year research cycle, five transportation clusters were established: North Limpopo (NLP), Eastern Inland (EI), Short-Indian Ocean (SIO), Long-Indian Ocean (LIO), and South Westerly-Atlantic Ocean (SWA). Local and transboundary origin accounted for 85%, while 15% were long-range transport. Due to various anthropogenic activities such as biomass burning and coal mining, NLP clusters were the key source of emissions adding to the city's PM rate. In Pretoria, the main possible source regions of PM2.5 were discovered to be NLP and EI. Effective control strategies designed at reducing secondary sulphur, coal burning, and fossil fuel combustion emissions at Southern African level and local combustion sources would be an important measure to combat the reduction of ambient PM2.5 pollution in Pretoria.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Sudáfrica , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14515-14525, 2021 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652131

RESUMEN

Complying with stricter emissions standards, a new generation of heavy-duty trucks (HDTs) has gradually increased its market share and now accounts for a large percentage of on-road mileage. The potential to improve air quality depends on an actual reduction in both emissions and subsequent formation of secondary pollutants. In this study, the emissions in real-world traffic from Euro VI-compliant HDTs were compared to those from older classes, represented by Euro V, using high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Gas-phase primary emissions of several hundred species were observed for 70 HDTs. Furthermore, the particle phase and secondary pollutant formation (gas and particle phase) were evaluated for a number of HDTs. The reduction in primary emission factors (EFs) was evident (∼90%) and in line with a reduction of 28-97% for the typical regulated pollutants. Secondary production of most gas- and particle-phase compounds, for example, nitric acid, organic acids, and carbonyls, after photochemical aging in an oxidation flow reactor exceeded the primary emissions (EFAged/EFFresh ratio ≥2). Byproducts from urea-selective catalytic reduction systems had both primary and secondary sources. A non-negative matrix factorization analysis highlighted the issue of vehicle maintenance as a remaining concern. However, the adoption of Euro VI has a significant positive effect on emissions in real-world traffic and should be considered in, for example, urban air quality assessments.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Espectrometría de Masas , Vehículos a Motor , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14576-14585, 2021 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662519

RESUMEN

Nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines deteriorate air quality and contribute to climate change. These emissions can be reduced using sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs). Here, we investigate the effects of a 32% SAF blend with fossil fuel on particle size distributions and nvPM emission indices of a widely used turbofan engine. The experiments were conducted in a test cell using a standardized sampling and measurement system. The geometric mean diameter (GMD) increased with thrust from ∼8 nm at idle to ∼40 nm at take-off, and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) was in the range of 1.74-2.01. The SAF blend reduced the GMD and GSD at each test point. The nvPM emission indices were reduced most markedly at idle by 70% in terms of nvPM mass and 60% in terms of nvPM number. The relative reduction of nvPM emissions decreased with the increasing thrust. The SAF blend reduced the nvPM emissions from the standardized landing and take-off cycle by 20% in terms of nvPM mass and 25% in terms of nvPM number. This work will help develop standardized models of fuel composition effects on nvPM emissions and evaluate the impacts of SAF on air quality and climate.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Aviación , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(11): 5152-5161, 2021 Nov 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708954

RESUMEN

In order to study the seasonal variations and pollution sources of carbonaceous species in PM2.5 in Chengde, the concentration of these components was determined in atmospheric PM2.5 samples collected in January, April, July, and October 2019. The change in carbonaceous species were analyzed based on the estimation of the ratio of organic carbon(OC) to elemental carbon(EC), total carbonaceous aerosol(TCA), and secondary organic carbon(SOC). The source of these pollutants was determined by means of the backward trajectory and principal component analysis(PCA). The results showed that the mean mass concentrations of PM2.5, OC, and EC during the sampling period were(31.26±21.39) µg·m-3,(13.27±8.68) µg·m-3, and(2.80±1.95) µg·m-3, respectively. The seasonal variations of PM2.5 were:winter[(47.68±30.37) µg·m-3]>autumn[(28.72±17.12) µg·m-3]>spring[(26.59±15.32) µg·m-3]>summer[(23.17±8.38) µg·m-3], consistent with the trend of total carbon(TC), OC, and EC. The source of OC and EC during winter(R2=0.85) was similar. Based on the ratio of OC/EC, all four seasons were affected by traffic and coal-burning source emissions, and the most affected season by bituminous coal emissions was winter. The average concentration of TCA was(21.38±13.68) µg·m-3, which accounted for 68.39% of PM2.5. The order of secondary conversion rate(SOC/OC) was:spring(54.09%) >autumn(37.64%) >summer(32.91%) >winter(25.43%). The results of the backward trajectory simulation show that the pollutant concentrations carried by air masses are relatively low in spring and summer, and the transport channels of pollutants are southwest in autumn and northwest in winter. The results of the PCA showed that the key to reducing PM2.5 in Chengde is to control emissions from vehicle exhausts, and coal and biomass combustion sources.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Carbono/análisis , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
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