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1.
Health Phys ; 122(2): 333-340, 2022 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995225

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence and models have demonstrated that the current COVID-19 pandemic introduces a significant public risk to implementing large-scale community evacuations in response to disasters. While guidance documented in the US Environmental Protection Agency Protective Action Guidance (PAG) Manual is widely accepted as the standard basis for public and emergency worker protective actions for a radiological emergency, it is based primarily on assessing the risks associated with the radiological factors alone. However, as demonstrated in response to the nuclear incident in Fukushima, these events seldom occur in isolation from other risk-inducing events. Today, the COVID-19 pandemic represents a significant public health risk that must also be considered alongside the radiation risks in determining appropriate public and emergency worker protection action decisions. In particular, the significant public health risks associated with community transmission and mortality of COVID-19 challenge our most familiar and rehearsed radiological response strategies. The 1992 and 2017 US Environmental Protection Agency PAG manuals allow for considerations in protective action decision making. Much of the radiation emergency response community has been conditioned through decades of structured training and exercises to focus public protection considerations on specific guidelines referenced numerically in tables within the manual. Discussion regarding adjustment of specific PAG values is provided in the footnotes and bases portions of the PAG manual but is often not included in jurisdictional plans or routinely considered in exercises. However, when properly applied, the protective action guidance provides the necessary flexibility for decision-makers to account for additional public health risks or impediments, and jurisdictions can use this guidance to build a more effective response strategy. The authors have applied the full guidance and flexibility provided in the 2017 US Environmental Protection Agency PAG Manual to develop more specific guidance for their respective jurisdictions' radiation emergency response plans and will outline a process for consideration of protective action decisions to maximize the protection of public health and safety.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Pública , Protección Radiológica , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981269

RESUMEN

In the current study, surface soil samples were collected from cotton fields in Shawan and Shihezi areas in northern Xinjiang and tested for endosulfan residues using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed endosulfan sulfate was the predominant compound in the surface soil studied, followed by ß-endosulfan and α-endosulfan with detection rates of 86.9%, 55.7%, and 49.2%, respectively, for the 61 soil samples collected. The average concentrations of endosulfan sulfate, α-endosulfan, and ß-endosulfan were 0.743, 0.166, and 0.073 µg/kg, respectively. The ratios of α-/ß-endosulfan were below 2.33 in all samples tested, suggesting no new endosulfan was added to the soil and the presence of endosulfan residues in this region was due to historical application in the past. According to the health risk assessment model recommended by the USA Environmental Protection Agency, the health risk of endosulfan residues in the studied area was low, and the maximum values of noncarcinogenic risks for children and adults were 2.30 × 10-5 and 2.70 × 10-6, respectively. Folsomia candida was the most sensitive organism to total endosulfan residues, with 38% of the total sampling sites classified as high risk. For earthworms, the proportion of high risk site was 13%. Lactuca sativa was the most tolerant organism to ∑ESs, with all sampling sites identified as negligible risk. This study provided current status of endosulfan residues and related risk in cotton fields, which could be used to support decision makers to prepare relevant regulations.

3.
Hum Reprod ; 2022 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038334

RESUMEN

STUDY QUESTION: Are peripubertal blood lead levels (BLLs) associated with semen parameters and serum reproductive hormones among young Russian men? SUMMARY ANSWER: We observed a suggestion of lower ejaculate volume with higher peripubertal BLL but no associations of BLLs with reproductive hormones measured throughout adolescence or with other sperm parameters measured at adulthood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Lead is a known reproductive toxicant and endocrine disruptor. Previous literature has shown associations between high lead exposure and poorer semen quality both in occupationally and environmentally exposed men. However, to our knowledge, no longitudinal studies have explored the association of childhood lead exposure with semen parameters and reproductive hormones in young men. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The Russian Children's Study is a prospective cohort study that enrolled 516 boys at age 8-9 years in 2003-2005 and followed them annually for 10 years. BLLs were measured at entry and lifestyle and health questionnaires were completed. Reproductive hormones were measured in blood samples collected every 2 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Among the 516 boys enrolled, 481 had BLLs measured at entry. Of these, 453 had at least one measurement of serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH) (median = 5 samples per boy) and 223 had semen samples collected ∼10 years after enrolment. Semen assessment included ejaculated volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility and total sperm count, and parameters were categorized using published andrology standards for low semen quality based on sperm count and motility. Linear mixed models were used to examine the associations of log-transformed BLLs (and BLL categories) with reproductive hormones and semen parameters, adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Among the 223 young men with peripubertal BLLs and at least one semen sample (total samples = 438), the median (interquartile range) BLL was 3 (2, 5) µg/dl and 27% had BLL ≥5 µg/dl. Overall, 49% of the semen samples fell below reference levels for sperm count and/or motility. Men with peripubertal BLL ≥5 µg/dl had significantly lower ejaculated volume than those with BLL <5 µg/dl (mean = 2.42 vs 2.89 ml, P = 0.02), but this difference was attenuated in adjusted models (mean = 2.60 vs 2.83 ml, P = 0.25). No associations were observed between BLL measured at age 8-9 years and reproductive hormone levels or sperm parameters, including sperm concentration, total count, progressive motility and total progressive motile sperm count, or with the probability of having low semen quality based on sperm count/motility. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Only a subset of the original cohort participated in the semen quality portion of the study, although inverse probability weighting was used to account for possible selection bias. BLLs were only measured at a single time in peripuberty, and other exposure time periods, including later or longer-term childhood exposure, may be more predictive of semen quality. The young men were also exposed to other chemical contaminants before and during pubertal development. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: While semen volume often receives less attention than other sperm parameters, it is an important component of male fertility. Additional prospective studies covering different exposure windows and including other seminal plasma biomarkers are warranted to explore our finding of potentially lower ejaculated volume with higher BLLs and to confirm the lack of associations for other semen parameters among youth exposed to environmental BLLs. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Funding was provided through grants R01ES0014370 and P30ES000002 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, grant R82943701 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and grant 18-15-00202 from the Russian Science Foundation (O.S and Y.D.). All authors report no competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

4.
Heliyon ; 8(1): e08680, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024490

RESUMEN

Tannery wastewater is one of the most toxic waste generated in industries. In spite of this, there still remains a paucity of information on characteristics of wastewater generated from artisanal tanneries. This study, therefore, assessed the water consumption, wastewater generation rates, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of wastewater produced from each process unit of an artisanal tannery in Ghana. The study revealed that the total amount of water use in the tannery ranged between 1171 and 2120L/day whilst the total volume of wastewater generated was within 820 and 1324L/day. Physicochemical characteristics of the different wastewater types generated at the tannery including chemical oxygen demand (13600-24333.30 mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (1445.64-2803 mg/L), ammonia (3.20-21.38 mg/L), colour (950.35-53900.10PtCo), electrical conductivity (8170 - 10080 µS/cm), turbidity (450.24-1805NTU), suspended (1033.50-3216.40 mg/L) and dissolved (26166.50-4996.65 mg/L) solids exceeded the guidelines set by the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency. There were also high levels of chlorides, sodium, sulphates and calcium ions. The most dominant anion and cation in the wastewater were chlorides (715-20490.60 mg/L) and sodium ions (258-14056.45 mg/L) respectively. Heavy metals identified in the wastewater included zinc, aluminium, iron and chromium ions with the most dominant one being aluminium ions (0.58-78.18 mg/L). Whilst the E-coli was below detectable limit, the count of total coliforms ranged between 0 and 4.5 × 104CFU/100mL. Five helminth egg species (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Enterobius vermicularis) were identified with their numbers surpassing the safe limit set by the World Health Organisation for irrigation purposes. These results indicated that the indiscriminate discharge of the untreated wastewater on the bare soil as it is practised at the tannery has the potential to adversely affect public and environmental health. Appropriate treatment schemes are therefore, required to treat the wastewater to safe limits prior to discharge.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262341, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061779

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 2.1 billion people lack access to safely managed water. Cloth filtration is often employed in rural and developing communities of South Asia for point-of-use water treatment, but bacteria and viruses are too small for efficient removal by this filtration method. Chitosan is a biodegradable, cationic, organic polymer derived from the chemical treatment of chitin that acts as a coagulant and flocculant of contaminant of microbes and other particles in water, thereby facilitating filtration of microbes. This research 1) evaluated the use of chitosan acetate as a pre-treatment coagulation-flocculation process followed by cloth filtration for microbial reductions and 2) assessed floc particle size under three stirring conditions. E. coli KO11 bacteria and MS2 coliphage virus removals were quantified using culture-based methods. Chitosan acetate coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment of water, followed by cloth filtration, met or exceeded the protective (2-star) WHO performance levels for bacteria (2 log10 reduction) and viruses (3 log10 reduction), and filtrate turbidity was consistently reduced to < 1 NTU, meeting United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and WHO targets.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 153159, 2022 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051456

RESUMEN

Public transport microenvironments easily accumulate pollutants due to high airtightness and poor circulation. To investigate and analyze the pollution levels and sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), air and dust samples were collected from hybrid buses, electric buses and subways in Hangzhou, China. The components of six priority control PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, and -209) were analyzed. The average concentrations of Σ6PBDEs in the air and dust samples were 625.38 pg/m3 and 1200.58 ng/g from hybrid buses; 747.46 pg/m3 and 1160.07 ng/g from electric buses; and 407.57 pg/m3 and 925.93 ng/g from subways, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was the main proportion of Σ6PBDEs in the air and dust samples. Several types of materials were collected from the interior as samples to investigate pollutant sources. Using principal component analysis (PCA), it was found that seat cover, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, rubber, and wire shells were the primary sources. Compared with the reference dose of several PBDE congeners proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the exposure level of the population in public transport microenvironments to PBDEs was estimated to be low; however, the potential danger cannot be ignored.

7.
ACS Omega ; 7(1): 419-429, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036711

RESUMEN

A field-scale validation is summarized comparing the efficacy of commercially available stabilization amendments with the objective of mitigating per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) leaching from aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted source zones. The scope of this work included bench-scale testing to evaluate multiple amendments and application concentrations to mitigate PFAS leachability and the execution of field-scale soil mixing in an AFFF-impacted fire-training area with nearly 2.5 years of post-soil mixing monitoring to validate reductions in PFAS leachability. At the bench scale, several amendments were evaluated and the selection of two amendments for field-scale evaluation was informed: FLUORO-SORB Adsorbent (FS) and RemBind (RB). Five ∼28 m3 test pits (approximately 3 m wide by 3 m long by 3 m deep) were mixed at a site using conventional construction equipment. One control test pit (Test Pit 1) included Portland cement (PC) only (5% dry weight basis). The other four test pits (Test Pits 2 through 5) compared 5 and 10% ratios (dry weight basis) of FS and RB (also with PC). Five separate monitoring events included two to three sample cores collected from each test pit for United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1315 leaching assessment. After 1 year, a mass balance for each test pit was attempted comparing the total PFAS soil mass before, during, and after leach testing. Bench-scale and field-scale data were in good agreement and demonstrated >99% decrease in total PFAS leachability (mass basis; >98% mole basis) as confirmed by the total oxidizable precursor assay, strongly supporting the chemical stabilization of PFAS.

8.
Mil Med ; 2022 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015888

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: It has been shown that combat environment exposure, including burn pits that produce particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), is associated with lower respiratory tract disease in the military population with increased hypothetical risk of upper respiratory disease, but no study has been done that examines the effects of non-combat environmental exposures on the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in the active duty population. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate how air pollution exposure correlates to the development of CRS in active duty service members in the United States. METHODS: The military electronic medical record was queried for active duty service members diagnosed with CRS by an otolaryngologist between January 2016 and January 2018, who have never deployed, stationed in the United States from 2015 to 2018 (n = 399). For each subject, the 1-year mean exposure of PM2.5, particulate matter 10 (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone was calculated. The control group was comprised of the same criteria except these patients were diagnosed with cerumen impaction and matched to the case group by age and gender (n = 399). Pollution exposure was calculated based on the Environmental Protection Agency's data tables for each subject. Values were calculated using chi-square test for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. RESULTS: Matched cases and controls (n = 399) with 33.1% male showed a statistically significant odds ratio (OR) of 5.99 (95% CI, 2.55-14.03) for exposure of every 5 µg/m3 of PM2.5 increase and the development of CRS when controlling for age, gender, and diagnosis year. When further adjusting for smoking status, the OR was still statistically significant at 3.15 (95% CI, 1.03-9.68). Particulate matter 10, ozone, and NO2 did not show any statistical significance. Odds ratios remained statistically significant when further adjusting for PM10 and ozone, but not NO2. Dose-dependent curves largely did not show a statistical significance; however, they did trend towards increased exposure of PM2.5 leading to an elevated OR. CONCLUSION: This study showed that PM2.5 exposure is a major independent contributor to the development of CRS. Exposure to elevated levels produced statistically significant odds even among smokers and remained significant when controlling for other measured pollutants. There is still much to be understood about the genesis of CRS. From a pollution exposure perspective, a prospective cohort study would better elucidate the risk of the development of CRS among those exposed to other pollutants.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018906

RESUMEN

Horizontal drilling with hydraulic fracturing (HDHF) relies on the use of anthropogenic organic chemicals in proximity to residential areas, raising concern for groundwater contamination. Here, we extensively characterized organic contaminants in 94 domestic groundwater sites in Northeastern Pennsylvania after ten years of activity in the region. All analyzed volatile and semi-volatile compounds were below recommended United States Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels, and integrated concentrations across two volatility ranges, gasoline range organic compounds (GRO) and diesel range organic compounds (DRO), were low (0.13 ± 0.06 to 2.2 ± 0.7 ppb and 5.2-101.6 ppb, respectively). Following dozens of correlation analyses with distance-to-well metrics and inter-chemical indicator correlations, no statistically significant correlations were found except: (1) GRO levels were higher within 2 km of violations and (2) correlation between DRO and a few inorganic species (e.g., Ba and Sr) and methane. The correlation of DRO with inorganic species suggests a potential high salinity source, whereas elevated GRO may result from nearby safety violations. Highest-concentration DRO samples contained bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and N,N-dimethyltetradecylamine. Nevertheless, the overall low rate of contamination for the analytes could be explained by a spatially-resolved hydrogeologic model, where estimated transport distances from gas wells over the relevant timeframes were short relative to the distance to the nearest groundwater wells. Together, the observations and modeled results suggest a low probability of systematic groundwater organic contamination in the region.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006560

RESUMEN

Diet is an important exposure pathway of phthalate esters (PAEs) for humans. A total of 174 food samples covering 11 food groups were collected from Xi'an, a typical valley city in Northwest China, and analyzed to assess the occurrence and exposure risks for PAEs in the food. Twenty-two PAEs were detected. The sum of the 22 PAEs (∑22PAEs) varied between 0.0340 and 56.8 µg/g, with a mean of 3.94 µg/g. The major PAEs were di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), which were associated mainly with the usage of plasticizers. Bio-availability of the PAEs in the combined gastro-intestinal fluid simulant of digestion was higher than that in the single gastric or intestinal fluid simulant. Bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate exhibited the highest bio-availability in each of the three simulants. Bio-availability of the PAEs was negatively correlated with the molecular weight and octanol-water partition coefficient of the PAEs and positively correlated with the solubility and vapor pressure of the PAEs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of PAEs based on national and municipal food consumption data was lower than the reference dose (RfD) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the tolerable dairy intake (TDI) of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), except for the EDI of DnBP and DiBP being higher than the TDI of EFSA. Grains and vegetables were the major sources of human dietary exposure to PAEs. The hazardous quotient for human dietary exposure to PAEs was less than the critical value of 1 and the cancer risk of butyl benzyl phthalate and DEHP was in the range of 10-11-10-6, suggesting relatively low health risks. The results indicated that human exposure to DnBP, DiBP, DEHP, DiNP, and DiDP in food is considerable and a health concern.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(2): 1091-1103, 2022 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982938

RESUMEN

Health studies report associations between metrics of residential proximity to unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development and adverse health endpoints. We investigated whether exposure through household groundwater is captured by existing metrics and a newly developed metric incorporating groundwater flow paths. We compared metrics with detection frequencies/concentrations of 64 organic and inorganic UOG-related chemicals/groups in residential groundwater from 255 homes (Pennsylvania n = 94 and Ohio n = 161). Twenty-seven chemicals were detected in ≥20% of water samples at concentrations generally below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. In Pennsylvania, two organic chemicals/groups had reduced odds of detection with increasing distance to the nearest well: 1,2-dichloroethene and benzene (Odds Ratio [OR]: 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.93) and m- and p-xylene (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.10-0.80); results were consistent across metrics. In Ohio, the odds of detecting toluene increased with increasing distance to the nearest well (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12-1.95), also consistent across metrics. Correlations between inorganic chemicals and metrics were limited (all |ρ| ≤ 0.28). Limited associations between metrics and chemicals may indicate that UOG-related water contamination occurs rarely/episodically, more complex metrics may be needed to capture drinking water exposure, and/or spatial metrics in health studies may better reflect exposure to other stressors.

12.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; : 1-7, 2022 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983310

RESUMEN

Objectives. This study assessed the occupational health risks of work group exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) in the electroplating and electronics industries in China. Methods. The UK Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essential, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Singapore and the Chinese semiquantitative risk assessment models were used to assess the risks of TCE. Twenty degreasing groups and 14 cleaning groups were recruited in the companies selected. Results. The concentrations of TCE in 66.7% of the cleaning groups and 35.0% of the degreasing groups exceeded the permissible concentration time-weighted average (PC-TWA) in China, and the concentrations of TCE in 100.0% of the cleaning groups and 70.0% of the degreasing groups exceeded the permissible concentration short-term exposure limit (PC-STEL) in China. Over 60.0% of the work groups were evaluated at high risk and over half of the work groups were evaluated at high cancer risk by the risk assessment models. Conclusion. Most work groups exposed to TCE in the electroplating and electronics industries in China are at high risk. The cleaning groups may have a higher risk for TCE exposure. The Chinese exposure index method and the synthesis index method are more practical than the other methods.

13.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262127, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051200

RESUMEN

Since chlorpyrifos (CPF), a major organophosphorus pesticide, is widely used for agricultural and domestic purposes, thus, humans may be exposed to these toxic compounds through multiple sources. In recent years, significant concerns have been raised regarding the deleterious effects of exposure to CPF on human health, especially growing fetus. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the health risks of exposure to CPF among pregnant women living in Isfahan province, Iran, using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The urinary concentration of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), the most common metabolite of CPF, was measured as the biomarker of current exposure to CPF. For this purpose, spot urine samples were taken from 110 pregnant women and the urinary concentrations of TCP were quantified. The estimated daily intake and hazard quotient (HQ) for CPF exposure were measured according to the reference values set by World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for acute and chronic exposure to CPF. Based on the results, TCP was detected in more than 70% of samples (3.8 ± 2.72 µg/L). The estimated daily intake for some participants was found to be higher than the suggested reference dose by USEPA for chronic exposure to CPF. Furthermore, the HQ>1 was obtained for 20% of the study population in Monte-Carlo analysis using USEPA chronic reference dose, indicating that chronic toxic effects are expected at least for a part of the target population. Based on the findings, proper measures should be taken to reduce the exposure of Iranian pregnant women to CPF and resultant health risks.

14.
Insects ; 13(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055900

RESUMEN

The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is considered one of the most economically important pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in the United States (U.S.) Corn Belt with costs of management and yield losses exceeding USD ~1-2 billion annually. WCR management has proven challenging given the ability of this insect to evolve resistance to multiple management strategies including synthetic insecticides, cultural practices, and plant-incorporated protectants, generating a constant need to develop new management tools. One of the most recent developments is maize expressing double-stranded hairpin RNA structures targeting housekeeping genes, which triggers an RNA interference (RNAi) response and eventually leads to insect death. Following the first description of in planta RNAi in 2007, traits targeting multiple genes have been explored. In June 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved the first in planta RNAi product against insects for commercial use. This product expresses a dsRNA targeting the WCR snf7 gene in combination with Bt proteins (Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) to improve trait durability and will be introduced for commercial use in 2022.

15.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465211070287, 2022 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Injury rates in baseball players of all ages are increasing. Identifying modifiable risk factors is paramount to implementing injury prevention programs. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose was to evaluate the influence of weather (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and heat index) and game factors (start time, duration, single vs doubleheader) on injury rates in professional baseball players. We hypothesized that colder temperatures would be associated with significantly more injuries per game. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: This was a retrospective database study. Two data sets were combined: 1 containing all injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball between 2011 and 2017 and 1 containing all games played in Major and Minor League Baseball during the same period to determine the number of injuries per game. Temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and heat index were determined for each game using the data from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Additional game variables included the level of play, the turf type (natural vs artificial grass), the stadium type (open vs dome vs retractable), the game start time, the game duration, and whether the game was a doubleheader. Then, a multivariate analysis was conducted to determine which factors were associated with the number of injuries per game. RESULTS: In total, our analysis included 33,587 injuries and 76,747 games. A total of 25,776 (33.6%) games contained an injury, and 41% of injuries occurred as multiples per game, with up to 9 injuries per game. The multivariate analysis identified significant associations between game duration and injuries per game (P < .001; effect size, 0.013) and the level of play and injuries per game (P < .001; effect size, 0.011). There were significant associations between the venue type (P < .001), the game start time (P < .001), humidity (P < .001), the turf type (P = .016), and barometric pressure (P = .031); however, the effect size for each was <0.001, suggesting that these factors are clinically unimportant. Our overall model produced an R2 of 0.04, indicating that these variables only predicted 4% of the variance in injury risk. CONCLUSION: In professional baseball, the weather is not associated with injury risk; however, game duration may contribute to injury risk.

16.
Chemosphere ; : 133549, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066077

RESUMEN

Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), classified as a reproductive toxicant, is a ubiquitous pollutant in foodstuffs, dust, and commercial products. In this study, to provide a useful cross-check on the accuracy of the exposure assessment, the estimated daily intake of DEHP was compared using reverse dosimetry with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and a scenario-based probabilistic estimation model for six subpopulations in Korea. For reverse dosimetry analysis, the concentrations of urinary DEHP metabolites, namely mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP), from three human biomonitoring program datasets were used. For the scenario-based model, we evaluated the various exposure sources of DEHP, including diet, air, indoor dust, soil, and personal care products (PCPs), and also determined its levels based on the literature review and measurements of indoor dust. The DEHP exposure doses using both exposure assessment approaches were similar in all cases, except for the 95th percentile exposure doses in toddlers (1-2 years) and young children (3-6 years). The PBPK-reverse dosimetry estimated daily intakes at the 95th percentile ranged between 22.53 and 29.90 µg/kg/day for toddlers and young children. These exceeded the reference dose (RfD) of 20 µg/kg bw/day of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based on the increased relative liver weight. Although, food was considered the primary source of DEHP, contributing to a total exposure of 50.8-75.1%, the effect of exposure to indoor dust should not be overlooked. The occurrence of high levels of DEHP in indoor dust collected from Korean homes suggests the use of a wide variety of consumer products containing DEHP. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to the high exposure levels of DEHP, especially in young children. Therefore, it is necessary to perform continuous monitoring of the indoor dust, consumer products, and the body burden of children.

17.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; : 1-16, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905459

RESUMEN

The release of persistent per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) into the environment is a major concern for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). To complement its ongoing research efforts addressing PFAS contamination, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) commissioned the PFAS Innovative Treatment Team (PITT) to provide new perspectives on treatment and disposal of high priority PFAS-containing wastes. During its six-month tenure, the team was charged with identifying and developing promising solutions to destroy PFAS. The PITT examined emerging technologies for PFAS waste treatment and selected four technologies for further investigation. These technologies included mechanochemical treatment, electrochemical oxidation, gasification and pyrolysis, and supercritical water oxidation. This paper highlights these four technologies and discusses their prospects and the development needed before potentially becoming available solutions to address PFAS-contaminated waste.Implications: This paper examines four novel, non-combustion technologies or applications for the treatment of persistent per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) wastes. These technologies are introduced to the reader along with their current state of development and areas for further development. This information will be useful for developers, policy makers, and facility managers that are facing increasing issues with disposal of PFAS wastes.

18.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112008, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492280

RESUMEN

Distributive environmental justice research on children's exposure to vehicular pollution is underdeveloped and few empirical studies have been conducted in the US. This study seeks to address this gap by examining if socially disadvantaged children are disproportionately located in public school districts burdened by higher vehicular pollution in Texas-the second largest US state based on population size. Vehicular pollution exposure is measured using two variables: (1) an index developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency that combines traffic proximity and volume; and (2) outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a widely used proxy for traffic-related air pollution. These variables are linked to school district level data on socio-demographic characteristics of children obtained from the latest American Community Survey. Statistical analysis is based on multivariable generalized estimating equations that account for spatial clustering of school districts. Results reveal significantly greater traffic proximity and NO2 exposure in Texas school districts with higher percentages of children, after controlling for clustering, population density, and other socio-demographic factors. Districts exposed to higher levels of traffic proximity and NO2 exposure also contain significantly greater proportions of racial/ethnic minority, foreign-born, disabled, and socioeconomically vulnerable children. These findings highlight the urgent need to develop mitigation strategies for reducing vehicular pollution exposure, especially in districts with higher proportions of socially disadvantaged students that could be additionally burdened with limited resources. School districts represent a policy relevant analytic unit since school district boards can act as advocates for the environmental health of children and implement mitigation strategies for reducing pollution exposure.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Niño , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , Dióxido de Nitrógeno , Texas
19.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 124-134, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936388

RESUMEN

Children's environmental health (CEH) has a 25-year history at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), during which the agency has advanced CEH through research, policy, and programs that address children's special vulnerability to environmental harm. However, the Trump administration took many actions that weakened efforts to improve CEH. The actions included downgrading or ignoring CEH concerns in decision-making, defunding research, sidelining the Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee, and rescinding regulations that were written in part to protect children. To improve CEH, federal environmental statutes should be reviewed to ensure they are sufficiently protective. The administrator should ensure the EPA's children's health agenda encompasses the most important current challenges and that there is accountability for improvement. Guidance documents should be reviewed and updated to be protective of CEH and the federal lead strategy refocused on primary prevention. The Office of Children's Health Protection's historically low funding and staffing should be remedied. Finally, the EPA should update CEH data systems, reinvigorate the role of the Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee, and restore funding for CEH research that is aligned with environmental justice and regulatory decision-making needs. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):124-134. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306537).

20.
Environ Pollut ; 296: 118717, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933061

RESUMEN

In August 2017, after Hurricane Harvey made landfall, almost 52 inches of rain fell during a three-day period along the Gulf Coast Region of Texas, including Harris County, where Houston is located. Harris County was heavily impacted with over 177,000 homes and buildings (approximately 12 percent of all buildings in the county) experiencing flooding. The objective of this study was to measure 13 heavy metals in soil in residential areas and to assess cancer and non-cancer risk for children and adults after floodwaters receded. Between September and November 2017, we collected 174 surface soil samples in 10 communities, which were classified as "High Environmental Impact" or "Low Environmental Impact" communities, based on a composite metric of six environmental parameters. A second campaign was conducted between May 2019 and July 2019 when additional 204 soil samples were collected. Concentrations of metals at both sampling campaigns were higher in High Environmental Impact communities than in Low Environmental Impact communities and there was little change in metal levels between the two sampling periods. The Pollution Indices of lead (Pb), zinc, copper, nickel, and manganese in High Environmental Impact communities were significantly higher than those in Low Environmental Impact communities. Further, cancer risk estimates in three communities for arsenic through soil ingestion were greater than 1 in 1,000,000. Although average soil Pb was lower than the benchmark of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the hazard indices for non-cancer outcomes in three communities, mostly attributed to Pb, were greater than 1. Health risk estimates for children living in these communities were greater than those for adults.


Asunto(s)
Tormentas Ciclónicas , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Adulto , Niño , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Texas
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