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1.
Talanta ; 236: 122824, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635214

RESUMEN

Ultra-sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) plays an important role in society security and human health. The Raman probe molecule p-aminothiophenol (PATP) can interact with TNT in three ways to form a TNT-PATP complex. In this paper, a 'sandwich' structure was developed to detect TNT with high sensitivity. Au nano-pillar arrays (AuNPAs) substrates modified by low-concentration PATP through Au-S bonds were acted as capture probe for TNT. Meanwhile, Ag nano-particles (AgNPs) modified by PATP at higher concentration were employed as tags for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The formation of the TNT-PATP complex is not only the means by which AuNPAs substrates recognize and capture TNT, but also links the SERS tags to TNT, forming an AuNPAs-TNT-AgNPs 'sandwich' structure. The Raman signal of PATP was greatly enhanced mainly because novel 'hot spots' formed between the AuNPAs and AgNPs of the 'sandwich' structure. The Raman signal of PATP was further amplified by the chemical enhancement effect induced by the TNT-PATP complex formation. Based on this mechanism, the limit of detection (LOD) of TNT was determined from the Raman signal of PATP. The LOD reached 10-9 mg/mL (4.4 × 10-12 M), much lower than that suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (88 nM). Moreover, TNT was selectively detected over several TNT analogues 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), p-nitrotoluene (NT) and hexogen (RDX). Finally, the 'sandwich' structure was successfully applied to TNT detection in environmental water and sand.


Asunto(s)
Espectrometría Raman , Trinitrotolueno , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Plata , Trinitrotolueno/análisis , Estados Unidos
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113835, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600421

RESUMEN

Mining of uranium for defense-related purposes has left a substantial legacy of pollution that threatens human and environmental health. Contaminated waters in the arid southwest are of particular concern, as water resource demand and water scarcity issues become more pronounced. The development of remediation strategies to treat uranium impacted waters will become increasingly vital to meet future water needs. Ion flotation is one technology with the potential to address legacy uranium contamination. The green biosurfactant rhamnolipid has been shown to bind uranium and act as an effective collector in ion flotation. In this study, uranium contaminated groundwater (∼440 µg L-1 U) from the Monument Valley processing site in northeast Arizona was used as a model solution to test the uranium removal efficacy of ion flotation with biosynthetic (bio-mRL) and three synthetic monorhamnolipids with varying hydrophobic chain lengths: Rha-C10-C10, Rha-C12-C12, and Rha-C14-C14. At the groundwater's native pH 8, and at an adjusted pH 7, no uranium was removed from solution by any collector. However, at pH 6.5 bio-mRL and Rha-C10-C10 removed 239.2 µg L-1 and 242.4 µg L-1 of uranium, respectively. By further decreasing the pH to 5.5, bio-mRL was able to reduce the uranium concentration to near or below the Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 30 µg L-1. For the Rha-C12-C12 and Rha-C14-C14 collector ligands, decreasing the pH to 7 or below reduced the foam stability and quantity, such that these collectors were not suitable for treating this groundwater. To contextualize the results, a geochemical analysis of the groundwater was conducted, and a consideration of uranium speciation is described. Based on this study, the efficacy of monorhamnolipid-based ion flotation in real world groundwater has been demonstrated with suitable solution conditions and collectors identified.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Uranio , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Minería , Uranio/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis
3.
Environ Res ; 203: 111803, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363800

RESUMEN

The present study relies on the air quality evaluation during COVID-19 pandemic in Avellino, described in the last years and for several consecutive years, among the worst Italian cities in this context. The main purpose of this manuscript was to investigate the effects of quarantine and lockdown measures on air pollution. The concentrations of the main atmospheric pollutants (Carbon monoxide (CO), Ozone (O3), Fine Particulate (PM2.5 and PM10), Benzene (C6H6) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were recorded during the period January-December 2020 using two stationary monitoring stations (AV1 and AV2) of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency (ARPAC). During the lockdown period (March 9-May 18, 2020), results indicated significant reductions only in the levels of CO, benzene and NO2, while for PM10 the limit of 50 µg m-3 was passed 8 times for AV1 and 13 times for AV2. The results showed the not predominant role of traffic on air quality in Avellino regards to PM levels and make it necessary a serious reflection about important and not extendable decisions to improve the air quality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Italia , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1189: 339214, 2022 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815040

RESUMEN

Bioaccessibility (the amount of a contaminant extracted by the gastrointestinal fluids during digestion) is often incorporated in the assessment of contaminated soils and foods. Current methods, including those published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), use a batch method of analysis which requires hours of extraction prior to instrumental analysis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The continuous on-line leaching method (COLM) uses a more direct method of analysis as extracts are sent directly to the ICPMS instrument, which can reduce extraction time and give real-time elution kinetics. For this study, four reference soils (NIST 2710, NIST 2710a, NIST 2711a, and BGS 102) that are typically used with bioaccessibility methods were extracted using the COLM and US EPA and USP gastrointestinal fluids. With the transient time-resolved data from the COLM, differential elution indicating multiple Pb sources was observed in NIST 2710a, NIST 2711a, and BGS 102. Two methods for calculating the Pb isotope ratios to identify these sources included a point-by-point ratio average method and a more precise regression slope method. There was no statistically significant difference between the ratios obtained by these methods of calculation. Furthermore, NIST 2710a and NIST 2711a did not have any statistically significant difference between the Pb isotope ratios of two observed sources. BGS 102 had a significantly different secondary source of Pb, which was identified to be from Pb historically added to gasoline. Investigation into the regions these soil reference materials were sourced from supported this finding as BGS 102 comes from a more densely populated, industrialized area where soil contamination with Pb from gasoline is likely to be more prevalent. This type of bioaccessibility investigation is only possible with the COLM as it gives real time elution information. Incorporation of the COLM into future bioaccessibility studies (and inclusion of other elements for isotopic analysis, like Sr) will lead to more thorough and comprehensive bioaccessibility studies in the future.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes del Suelo , Suelo , Plomo , Espectrometría de Masas , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Análisis Espectral
5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118295, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626711

RESUMEN

Pharmaceuticals (a class of emerging contaminants) are continuously introduced into effluent-receiving surface waters due to their incomplete removal within wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This work investigated the presence and distribution of eight commonly used human pharmaceuticals in the River Dee (Scotland, UK), a Scottish Environment Protection Agency priority catchment that is a conservation site and important raw water source. Grab sampling and passive sampling (Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler, POCIS) was performed over 12 months, targeting: paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac (analgesics/anti-inflammatories); clarithromycin and trimethoprim (antibiotics); carbamazepine and fluoxetine (psychoactive drugs); and 17α-ethynylestradiol (estrogen hormone). Sampling sites spanned from the river's rural source to the heavily urbanised estuary into the North Sea. Ibuprofen (ranging 0.8-697 ng/L), paracetamol (ranging 4-658 ng/L), trimethoprim (ranging 3-505 ng/L), diclofenac (ranging 2-324 ng/L) and carbamazepine (ranging 1-222 ng/L) were consistently detected at the highest concentrations through grab sampling, with concentrations generally increasing down river with increasing urbanisation. However, POCIS revealed trace contamination of most compounds throughout the river (commonly <0.5 ng/L), indicating pollution may be related to diffuse sources. Analysis of river flows revealed that low flow and warm seasons corresponded to statistically significantly higher concentrations of diclofenac and carbamazepine, two compounds of environmental and regulatory concern. Below the largest WWTP, annual average fluxes ranged 0.1 kg/yr (clarithromycin) to 143.8 kg/yr (paracetamol), with 226.2 kg/yr for total target compounds. It was estimated that this source contributed >70% of the total mass loads (dissolved phase) of the target compounds in the river. As the River Dee is an important raw water source and conservation site, additional catchment monitoring is warranted to safeguard water quality and assess environmental risk of emerging contaminants, particularly in relation to unusual weather patterns, climate change and population growth.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Ríos , Escocia , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150016, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525731

RESUMEN

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely used in outdated electronic and electrical products. In the present study, dust samples from houses, kindergartens, and roads were collected in Guiyu, where informal e-waste recycling activities have been sustained since the 1980s. Haojiang was chosen as a reference site without e-waste pollution. A total of 20 PBDE congeners and 18 PCB congeners was measured. Concentrations of total PBDEs and PCBs in dust samples from Guiyu were significantly higher than those from Haojiang. In Guiyu, kindergarten dust had the highest concentration of PCBs in these three typical environments, whereas the concentration of PBDEs showed no significant difference. Concentrations of PBDEs in Haojiang house dust were found significantly higher than other two environmental dusts. According to the questionnaires, we found that factors such as shoe cabinets, electrical products, and potted plants might affect PBDE and PCB concentrations in house dust. Daily intake of PBDEs and PCBs via dust ingestion was estimated after correction by their house, kindergarten, and road dust concentrations. The mean estimated daily intake (EDI) of PBDEs for Guiyu children was far lower than the oral reference dose recommended by the environmental protection agency (EPA). The Guiyu children seem to have a higher trend of daily intakes of PCBs although their EDIs not being calculated accurately due to the low detection rate. Child exposure to PBDEs via dust ingestion in Guiyu was 36 times higher than those in Haojiang. This indicates that children from e-waste-polluted areas stay in surroundings with heavy burdens of PBDEs, even PCBs. The risk to their health from contaminants is a severe concern.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Electrónicos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Niño , Polvo/análisis , Residuos Electrónicos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/análisis , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo
7.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132323, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563776

RESUMEN

This study investigated the concentration of radon (222Rn) in hot springs water. For this purpose, 222Rn concentration was measured using the RAD7 (Durridge Company, USA) in the water of hot springs located in Tata Pani, Gilgit (n = 4), and Garam Chashma, Chitral (n = 6), northern Pakistan. Water samples from the springs (background, n = 3) were also collected and analyzed for 222Rn concentration 40-50 km away from the hot springs in Gilgit and Chitral, northern Pakistan, to be used as background/reference concentration. The determined 222Rn in hot springs water surpassed the threshold of maximum contamination level (MCL, 11.1 Bq/L) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) in 100% samples collected from Tata Pani, Gilgit, and Garam Chashma, Chitral sites. Soil 222Rn along with the hot springs exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing distance. 222Rn concentration in hot springs water was used to calculate the exposure doses of human health through ingestion and inhalation pathways. The total effective dose for human (EWT) of 222Rn contaminated water consumption was 626 µSv/a in the Tata Pani, Gilgit and 34.7 µSv/a in the Garam Chashma, Chitral. Results revealed that hot springs water in the Tata Pani, Gilgit had surpassed the threshold limit (100 µSv/a) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study concluded that hot springs water should be avoided for drinking and other domestic uses.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Manantiales de Aguas Termales , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radón , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Ingestión de Líquidos , Agua Potable/análisis , Humanos , Pakistán , Radón/análisis , Estados Unidos , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis
8.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131794, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438205

RESUMEN

Halogenated disinfection byproducts (halo-DBPs) are drinking water contaminants of great public health concern. Nine haloaliphatic DBPs have been regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and various halophenolic compounds have been identified as emerging DBPs. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic interactions of the regulated bromoacetic acid and three emerging bromophenolic DBPs, i.e., 2,4,6-tribromophenol, 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. Cytotoxicity was measured for each DBP individually as well as each of their mixtures using in vitro human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. Concentration addition (CA) model and isobolographic analysis were employed to characterize the interactions among the DBPs. Our results show that the cytotoxicity of four bromo-DBPs against both cell-types followed the descending rank order of bromoacetic acid > 2,4,6-tribromophenol > 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde > 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Compared with the toxicity data in literature, our finding that bromoacetic acid showed higher cytotoxicity than bromophenolic DBPs was consistent with the results from Chinese hamster ovary cells (a commonly used in vitro model of DBP toxicological studies); but different from the results obtained from in vivo biological models. Significantly, with CA model prediction, we found that mixtures of four bromo-DBPs exhibited synergistic cytotoxic effects on both human cell types. Isobolographic analysis of binary DBP mixtures revealed that, for Caco-2 cells, bromoacetic acid, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, and 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid induced synergism; for SH-SY5Y cells, bromoacetic acid induced synergism with all three bromophenolic DBPs. The production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by DBP mixtures could be an important reason for the synergistic cytotoxicity.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Acetatos , Animales , Células CHO , Células CACO-2 , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Halogenación , Humanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
9.
Environ Res ; 203: 111850, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370987

RESUMEN

Exposure to nitrate, nitrite, and fluoride through drinking water consumption, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, has been considered by many researchers. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the status of nitrate, nitrite, fluoride, and total coliforms in water supply sources of Kazerun located in Fars province, Iran, determine their spatial distribution, and perform health risk assessment in four age groups (infants, children, teenagers, and adults). In this research, the concentration data of 25 groundwater wells were examined. Then, the spatial distribution of the contaminants was determined using the Arc GIS software (v. 10.5) and their health risk assessment was performed via the standard method of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and fluoride were 25.5, 0.056, and 0.72 mg/l, respectively and their mean concentrations were 13.5, 0.008, and 0.52 mg/l, respectively. In addition, the mean and maximum concentrations of coliforms were 371.21 and 2694.50 CFU/100 ml, respectively. The total coliforms value was higher than the permissible limit in 60 % of the cases. The highest Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) of the studied contaminants was related to nitrate among children (range: 0.21-1.45, with an average value of 0.77 mg/kg-day). Moreover, the Hazard Quotient (HQ) values were below 1 for all contaminants and in all age groups. The highest HQ value (0.9) belonged to nitrate amongst children. Furthermore, the Hazard Index (HI), as a cumulative effect of HQ, was calculated for all three contaminants and the results showed that it was greater than 1 in 56 % of the cases among children, which was considered a serious risk. The findings revealed no significant relationship between nitrate and nitrite concentrations and total coliforms. Overall, nitrate seemed to play a more critical role in the health risk of the exposed age groups in comparison to nitrite and fluoride. Hence, appropriate managerial measures are recommended to be taken.

10.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 32(3): 219-221, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750798

RESUMEN

Dear Editor, The Covid-19 pandemic affected human life globally, inducing much stress on daily living (Çakiroglu et al. 2020). Although assessments of general mental health during the Covid-19 pandemic have been widely reported, there is not adequate research on how schizophrenia patients have been affected. According to the World Health Organization (2020), individuals with chronic diseases who do not pay attention to their personal hygiene and the rules of protection from COVID-19 have a higher risk of getting infected than the healthy individuals who observe these measures. It is well known that the risk of Covid-19 infection is raised among schizophrenia patients due to negligence on the requisite control of personal hygiene and health conditions related to smoking and diabetes ( Cohn et al., 2004; Dinan et al., 2004; Krieger et al. 2019). The cognitive impairment in this disorder which reduces the perceptions on the necessity of self protection and the awareness of the risks proposed to underlie this raised risk of COVID-19 positivity (Yao et al. 2020). These patients have difficulty in following the preventive regulations (Palomar-Ciria et al., 2020). Apart from the risk of infection, there is also the risk of pandemic related development of auditory or visual hallucinations and delusional symptoms by acute and chronic psychosis patients during and after the pandemic (Brown et al. 2020, Cowan 2020). Therefore, this survey has been organised to evaluate the reaction developed by schizophrenia patients to the pandemic conditions. The first Covid-19 case was reported in Turkey on 11 March 2020 (Anadolu Agency, 11.03.2020) which was followed by the gradual increase in case numbers. In order to prevent the spread of Covid-19 and maintain the existing public health, the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health established a 'Scientific Committee'' and prepared effective strategies including social isolation, quarantine, school closures, social distancing and wearing face mask in the community. During this process, the approximately 250 schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients followed up by the Psychosis Outpatient Unit of Dokuz Eylul University Hospital Psychiatry Department (DEUPD) were instructed to visit the outpatient unit only in emergency conditions. It was determined that there were 176 schizophrenia patients whose follow up visit appointments for the period of April 1 - June 22, 2020, scheduled before the announcement of the pandemic, were cancelled. Therefore, the survey reported here was conducted with the schizophrenia patients of the DEUPD online and by telephone connections during 10- 20 May, 2020, the 9th and the 10th weeks of the pandemic. Only 76 (43.19%) of the 176 patients joined the survey, since 4 (2.27%) refused to participate and 96 (54.4%) could not be contacted. The survey aimed to determine the incidence of Covid-19 diagnosis among these schizophrenia patients and their attitude to the preventive measures against the infection during the first 2 months of the pandemic, together with how they felt and their needs for psychiatric consultation on outpatient basis during this period. The surveyed 76 patients consisted of 49 (64%) males and 27 (35%) females, with 73 (96.1%) dwelling in urban and 3 (3.9%) in suburban areas; and only 11 (14.5%) employed while 65 (85.5%) were not working. Only two patients reported consulting emergency services for Covid-19 symptoms. The rest of the patients did not report consulting a healthcare facility for suspecting Covid-19 symptoms or   Table 1. Data on the demographic, clinical and social features of the schizophrenia patients during the COVID-19 pandemic   n=76           Mean SD   Gender (F/M) 27 (35.5%) / 49 (64.5%)     Age   44.54 12.21   Disease duration   16.62 9.96   Patients living /with         Alone   3 (3.9%)     Parent(s)   43 (56.6%)     Spouse/children 25 (32.9%)     Sibling (s) 1 (1.3%)     Relative(s) 2 (2.6%)     Friend(s)   2 (2.6%)           Yes No Need to see a psychiatrist     23 (30.3%) 53 (69.7%) Subjective psychiatric complaints     32 (42.1%) 44 (57.9%) Consultation with an emergency service     2 (2.6%) 74 (97.4%) Planning to go to the hospital in the post-quarantine period   58 (76.3%) 18 (23.7%) Wearing a mask in community     67 (88.2%) 4 (5.3%) Keeping social distancing     68 (89.5%) 3 (3.9%) Expressed feeling         Loneliness   26 (34.2%) 49 (64.5%) Depressed   31 (40.8%) 44 (57.9%) Despaired   22 (28.9%) 52 (68.4%) Anxious     25 (32.9%) 49 (64.5%) Difficulty of going to the hospital in the quarantine period   53 (69.7%) 23 (30.3%)   hospital admission for Covid-19 infection or psychotic attack or incidences of Covid-19 related hallucination or delusions. During this 2-month period, 4 patients had experienced fatigue, 2 had episodes of dry cough and 7 had experienced shortness of breath, which can be associated with the nature of schizophrenia, the sedentary life style.and cigarette smoking. Medication was prescribed by a psychiatrist for 10 patients and by a family doctor for 16 patients or supplied directly by pharmacies for 45 patients on the basis of prescriptions with 1-year validity issued by the hospital* (Table 1). Much as it had been aimed to contact all patients with cancelled appointments, this objective was not attainable The patients who were not reached are likely to include those with low awareness and difficulty of adapting to infection prevention strategies. On the other hand, regardless of the level of awareness of the pandemic and compliance with the rules, phone use by these patients might have been limited by economic and environmental reasons, as well as the difficulties imposed by the pandemic. In conclusion, it is possible to say that most of the patients with schizophrenia were aware of the risk of COVID-19 infection, and understood and mostly obeyed the general health rules and advices of healthcare professionals even if they had difficulty in doing so. This could also have resulted from the nature of schizophrenia with preference for social isolation even if this can worsen the prognosis. On the other hand, patients need to be in contact with a mental healthcare professional in extraordinary situations of a pandemic. This survey did not find a remarkable increase in positive symptom severity in association with COVID-19 as most patients included in the survey had not seen a psychiatrist or mental healthcare professional for two months with 53 patients stating that they did not have to need.   However, 58 patients also stated that despite planning to make a consultation after normalization of the quarantine measures, the anxiety of contagion outweighed the option of visiting outpatient clinics. This anxiety over Covid-19 infection, however, may make it difficult for patients to understand the level of the need to see a psychiatrist and may be associated with the assumption that the pandemic would be taken under control in the normalization process with a decrease in the risk of contagion. On the results of this survey, it may be concluded that strategies for prevention of COVID-19 spread were effective among schizophrenia patients and that there is need to develop a system that reaches all patients and keeps them socially connected during the COVID-19 pandemic. *In Turkey, prescription reports with 1-year validity are issued for patients with chronic disorders. The medications can only be prescribed by a specialist, and in the case of pyshchiatric disorders, by a consultant psychiatrist. When the report is confirmed by a hospital committee of specialists, a family doctor is able to issue prescriptions. According to the decision of the Ministry of Health, patients who have medication prescription reports valid for one year would be able to get their medicines directly from pharmacies without having to consult a psychiatrist or family doctor during the pandemic.               REFERENCES Anadolu Agency (2020, Mach 11). Saglik Bakani Koca Türkiye'de ilk koronavirüs vakasinin görüldügünü açikladi, https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/kor onavir us/ saglik-bakani-koca-turkiyede-ilk-koronavirus-vakasinin-goruldugunu- acikladi/1761466. Accessed 28 May 2020.   Brown E, Gray R, Lo Monaco S et al (2020) The potential impact of COVID-19 on psychosis: A rapid review of contemporary epidemic and pandemic research. Schizophr Res 222:79-87. Cohn T, Prud'homme D, Streiner D et al (2004) Characterizing coronary heart disease risk in chronic schizophrenia: High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Can J Psychiatry 49:753-60. Cowan, HR (2020) Is schizophrenia research relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic?. Schizophr Res 220:271-2. Çakiroglu S, Ertas E, and Alyanak B (2020) Letter To The Editor - The Covid-19 Pandemic And Mental Health As Issues Considered Within The Context Of Adjustment Disorder And Psychosocial Interventions. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 31:148-50. Dinan T, Holt R, Kohen D et al (2004) "Schizophrenia and diabetes 2003" expert consensus meeting, Dublin, 3-4 october 2003: Consensus summary. Br J Psychiatry 184 (Suppl. 47): 0-2. Krieger I, Bitan DT, Comaneshter D et al (2019) Increased risk of smoking- related illnesses in schizophrenia patients: A nationwide cohort study. Schizophr Res 212:121-5. Palomar-Ciria N, del Valle PB, Hernández-Las Heras MÁ et al (2020) Schizophrenia and COVID-19 delirium. Psychiatry Res 290:113137. Yao H, Chen JH, and Xu YF (2020) Patients with mental health disorders in the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet Psychiatry 7: e21. World Health Organization (2020, Mart 25). Covid-19: Vulnerable and High Risk Group, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, https:// www.who.int/westernpacific/emergencies/covid-19/information/high-risk- groups. Accessed 28 May 2020.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gripe Humana , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Prueba de COVID-19 , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología
11.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 433: 115779, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737146

RESUMEN

The Delaney Clause of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act became law in 1958 because of concerns that potentially harmful chemicals were finding their way into foods and causing cancer. It states, "[n]o additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal, or if it is found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animal." The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA, prior to implementation of the Food Quality Protection Act) were charged with implementing this clause. Over 60 years, advances in cancer research have elucidated how chemicals induce cancer. Significant advancements in analytical methodologies have allowed for accurate and progressively lower detection limits, resulting in detection of trace amounts. Based on current scientific knowledge, there is a need to revisit the Delaney Clause's utility. The lack of scientific merit to the Delaney Clause was very apparent when recently the US FDA had to revoke the food additive approvals of 6 synthetic flavoring substances because high dose testing in animals demonstrated a carcinogenic response. However, US FDA determined that these 6 synthetic flavoring substances do not pose a risk to public health under the conditions of intended use. The 7th substance, styrene, was de-listed because it is no longer used by industry. The scientific community is committed to improving public health by promoting relevant science in risk assessment and regulatory decision making, and this was discussed in scientific sessions at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 2020 Annual Meeting and the Society of Toxicology (SOT) 2019 Annual Meeting. Expert presentations included advances in cancer research since the 1950s; the role of the Delaney Clause in the current regulatory paradigm with a focus on synthetic food additives; and the impact of the clause on scientific advances and regulatory decision making. The sessions concluded with panel discussions on making the clause more relevant based on 21st-century science.

12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 805, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779903

RESUMEN

In this study, 63 groundwater samples were collected in the Kashgar Delta Area in Xinjiang in 2016, and then, the samples were tested and the test results were analyzed. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to determine the sources of pollution, and the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) model was used to assess the long-term health risk of groundwater to adults and children in the study area. The concentrations of groundwater chemical Na+, Cl-, SO42-, NH4+-N, TDS, F-, I-, As, Fe, Mn, Pb, Hg, pH, TH, and CODMn, which exceed the permissible level in the study based on groundwater quality index and possibly pose a potential threat to the health of the residents in the area, which are mainly influenced by geological conditions. The source of the pollutants is the dissolution of minerals in the aquifer medium, which is greatly affected by the high-salinity groundwater environment, pH conditions, redox conditions, and evaporation and concentration effect. The values of the noncarcinogenic health risk index HQn follow the descending order of Cl- > F- > As > Fe > Mn > Pb > Hg > NH4+-N; There are eight nonarcinogens and one carcinogen in groundwater of which Cl- is the dominant noncarcinogenic factor, while As is the main carcinogenic pollutant in the study area. The health risk ratio results show that Cl- and As are the main pollutants that pose the greatest threat to both adults' and children's health, and they should be considered as the primary indicators for health risk management and control.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adulto , Niño , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua
13.
Inhal Toxicol ; : 1-13, 2021 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788178

RESUMEN

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is currently refining its approach for risk assessments conducted under the amended Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), largely based on recommendations from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM). We identified several issues with the current TSCA risk assessment approach that were not addressed by NASEM in its recommendations. Here, we demonstrate these issues with a case study of the 'Risk Evaluation for Asbestos, Part 1: Chrysotile Asbestos,' which US EPA released in December 2020. In this evaluation, US EPA found that occupational and some consumer uses of automotive brakes and clutches that contain asbestos result in unreasonable risks. These risks were calculated from estimated exposures during brake work and an inhalation unit risk (IUR) developed for chrysotile asbestos. We found that US EPA overestimated risk as a result of unrealistic inputs to both the exposure and toxicity components of the risk equation, and because the Agency did not fully consider relevant epidemiology and toxicity evidence in its systematic review. Our evaluation demonstrates areas in which the TSCA risk assessment approach could be improved to result in risk evaluations that are supported by the available scientific evidence.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769900

RESUMEN

Groundwater resources are abundant and widely used in Taiwan's Lanyang Plain. However, in some places the groundwater arsenic (As) concentrations far exceed the World Health Organization's standards for drinking water quality. Measurements of the As concentrations in groundwater show considerable spatial variability, which means that the associated risk to human health would also vary from region to region. This study aims to adapt a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) method to carry out more reliable spatial mapping of the As concentrations in the groundwater for comparison with the geostatistical ordinary kriging (OK) method results. Cross validation is performed to evaluate the prediction performance by dividing the As monitoring data into three sets. The cross-validation results show that the average determination coefficients (R2) for the As concentrations obtained with BPNN and OK are 0.55 and 0.49, whereas the average root mean square errors (RMSE) are 0.49 and 0.54, respectively. Given the better prediction performance of the BPNN, it is recommended as a more reliable tool for the spatial mapping of the groundwater As concentration. Subsequently, the As concentrations estimated obtained using the BPNN are applied to develop a spatial map illustrating the risk to human health associated with the ingestion of As-containing groundwater based on the noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic target risk (TR) standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Such maps can be used to demarcate the areas where residents are at higher risk due to the ingestion of As-containing groundwater, and prioritize the areas where more intensive monitoring of groundwater quality is required. The spatial mapping of As concentrations from the BPNN was also used to demarcate the regions where the groundwater is suitable for farmland and fishponds based on the water quality standards for As for irrigation and aquaculture.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Arsénico/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Medición de Riesgo , Análisis Espacial , Taiwán , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22157, 2021 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785687

RESUMEN

The Grand Canyon region in northern Arizona is a home or sacred place of origin for many Native Americans and is visited by over 6 million tourists each year. Most communities in the area depend upon groundwater for all water uses. Some of the highest-grade uranium ore in the United States also is found in the Grand Canyon region. A withdrawal of over 4000 km2 of Federal land in the Grand Canyon region from new uranium mining activities for 20 years was instituted in 2012, owing in part to a lack of scientific data on potential effects from uranium mining on water resources in the area. The U.S. Geological Survey has collected groundwater chemistry samples since 1981 in the Grand Canyon region to better understand the current state of groundwater quality, to monitor for changes in groundwater quality that may be the result of mining activities, and to identify "hot spots" with elevated metal concentrations and investigate the causes. This manuscript presents results for the assessment of uranium in groundwater in the Grand Canyon region. Analytical results for uranium in groundwater in the Grand Canyon region were available for 573 samples collected from 180 spring sites and 26 wells from September 1, 1981 to October 7, 2020. Samples were collected from springs issuing from stratigraphic units above, within, and below the Permian strata that host uranium ore in breccia pipes in the area. Maximum uranium concentrations at groundwater sites in the region ranged from less than 1 µg/L at 23 sites (11%) to 100 µg/L or more at 4 sites (2%). Of the 206 groundwater sites sampled, 195 sites (95%) had maximum observed uranium concentrations less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 µg/L for drinking water and 177 sites (86%) had uranium concentrations less than the 15 µg/L Canadian benchmark for protection of aquatic life in freshwater. The establishment of baseline groundwater quality is an important first step in monitoring for change in water chemistry throughout mining lifecycles and beyond to ensure the health of these critical groundwater resources.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785388

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses, air pollutants, and aeroallergens are all implicated in worsening pediatric asthma symptoms, but their relative contributions to asthma exacerbations are poorly understood. A significant decrease in asthma exacerbations has been observed during the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a unique opportunity to study how major asthma triggers correlate with asthma activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether changes in respiratory viruses, air pollutants, and/or aeroallergens during the COVID-19 pandemic were concomitant with decreased asthma exacerbations. METHODS: Health care utilization and respiratory viral testing data between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2020 were extracted from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) Care Network's electronic health record. Air pollution and allergen data were extracted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public databases and a National Allergy Bureau-certified station, respectively. Pandemic data (2020) were compared to historical data. RESULTS: Recovery of in-person asthma encounters during phased re-opening (June 6th - November 15th, 2020) was uneven: primary care well and specialty encounters reached 94% and 74% of pre-pandemic levels, respectively, while primary care sick and hospital encounters reached 21% and 40% of pre-pandemic levels, respectively. During the pandemic, influenza A and influenza B decreased to negligible frequency when compared to pre-pandemic cases, while RSV and rhinovirus infections decreased to low (though non-negligible) pre-pandemic levels, as well. No changes in air pollution or aeroallergen levels relative to historical observations were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that viral respiratory infections are a primary driver of pediatric asthma exacerbations. These findings have broad relevance to both clinical practice and the development of health policies aimed at reducing asthma morbidity.

17.
Environ Anal Health Toxicol ; 36(4): e2021025-0, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794213

RESUMEN

Numerous particulates are released from the dumpsites in Owerri metropolis and later dispersed to other areas in the environment where they cause adverse health challenges to the inhabitants. To analyze the PM concentration, field measurements were carried out at seven major dumpsites in the Owerri Metropolis. Estimates of the possible health risks as the result of exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, etc.) were performed using the US Environmental Protection Agency human health risk assessment framework. A scenario assessment approach in which normal exposure and worst-case scenario were adopted for acute and chronic exposure periods for infants, children, and adults. The concentrations of PM 2.5 which ranged from 122.30-501.76 µg/m3 at the dumpsites exceeded the WHO 24hr annual mean maximum exposure limit. The Nigerian National Ambient Air Quality Standard allowable limit for PM10 was exceeded by most of the dumpsites. Hazard quotient > 1 was exceeded for PM 2.5 by nearly all dumpsites and is likely to cause health challenges. The results showed that under monthly conditions, both PM2.5 and PM10 concentration levels at the dumpsites have the potential to cause adverse health effects when for infants, children, and adults on acute or chronic bases. Actions should be taken to regulate such PM exposure and to raise public awareness for the inhabitants of the affected areas. In conclusion, regular monitoring is therefore needed to decrease the ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the study area.

18.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796780

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Matrix is designed to facilitate discussions between practitioners of risk assessment and epidemiology and, in so doing, to enhance the utility of epidemiology research for public health decision-making. The Matrix is comprised of nine fundamental "asks" of epidemiology studies, focusing on the types of information valuable to the risk assessment process. OBJECTIVE: A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) case study highlights the extent to which existing epidemiology literature includes information generally needed for risk assessments and proffers suggestions that would assist in bridging the epidemiology/risk assessment gap. METHODS: Thirty-one publications identified in the US Environmental Protection Agency 2,4-D epidemiology review were assessed. These studies focused on associations between 2,4-D exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), respiratory effects, and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Many of the papers met one or more specific elements of the Matrix. However, from this case study, it is clear that some aspects of risk assessment, such as evaluating source-to-intake pathways, are generally not considered in epidemiology research. Others are incorporated, but infrequently (e.g. dose-response information, harmonization of exposure categories). We indicated where additional analyses or modifications to future study design could serve to improve the translation. DISCUSSION: Interaction with risk assessors during the study design phase and using the Matrix "asks" to guide the conversations could shape research and provide the basis for requests for funds to support these additional activities. The use of the Matrix as a foundation for communication and education across disciplines could produce more impactful and consequential epidemiology research for robust risk assessments and decision-making.

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769660

RESUMEN

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging environmental crisis. Deemed forever chemicals, many congeners bioaccumulate and are incredibly persistent in the environment due to the presence of the strong carbon-fluorine covalent bonds. Notable PFAS compounds include perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and GenX. Robust toxicological knowledge exists for these substances, but regulatory decisions based on this knowledge has fallen behind. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has addressed this issue with the PFAS Action Plan and EPA Council on PFAS, but the regulatory framework is severely lacking. Currently, no federal regulations or standards exist. Many occupational and non-occupational human cohorts exist that can lend knowledge on the environmental implications of PFAS and associated health effects. Occupationally, firefighters face significant exposure risks due to use of PFAS containing aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) and personal protective equipment contamination. Non-occupationally, wastewater discharge in North Carolina led to chronic and widespread residential exposure to GenX via drinking water contamination. This public health review seeks to convey the current and future significance of PFAS as an environmental contaminate, to lend considerations on regulatory frameworks within the USA, and to help guide and promote the need for future epidemiological studies in order to tackle this environmental emergency. While the PFAS Action Plan creates a scientific and regulatory foundation, it is important to take these lessons and apply them to future environmental health issues.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos , Fluorocarburos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Fluorocarburos/análisis , Fluorocarburos/toxicidad , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminación del Agua
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770082

RESUMEN

We appraise newly accumulated evidence of the impact of particle pollution on the brain, the portals of entry, the neural damage mechanisms, and ultimately the neurological and psychiatric outcomes statistically associated with exposures. PM pollution comes from natural and anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, engineered nanoparticles (NP ≤ 100 nm), wildfires, and wood burning. We are all constantly exposed during normal daily activities to some level of particle pollution of various sizes-PM2.5 (≤2.5 µm), ultrafine PM (UFP ≤ 100 nm), or NPs. Inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption are key portals of entry. Selected literature provides context for the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) ambient air quality standards, the conclusions of an Independent Particulate Matter Review Panel, the importance of internal combustion emissions, and evidence suggesting UFPs/NPs cross biological barriers and reach the brain. NPs produce oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, neurovascular unit, mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and DNA damage, protein aggregation and misfolding, and other effects. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 concentrations at or below current US standards can increase the risk for TIAs, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, cognitive deficits, dementia, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Residing in a highly polluted megacity is associated with Alzheimer neuropathology hallmarks in 99.5% of residents between 11 months and ≤40 y. PD risk and aggravation are linked to air pollution and exposure to diesel exhaust increases ALS risk. Overall, the literature supports that particle pollution contributes to targeted neurological and psychiatric outcomes and highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the marked differences in pollution profiles inducing neural damage. Factors such as emission source intensity, genetics, nutrition, comorbidities, and others also play a role. PM2.5 is a threat for neurological and psychiatric diseases. Thus, future research should address specifically the potential role of UFPs/NPs in inducing neural damage.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Polvo , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
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