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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241418, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137140

RESUMEN

Monitoring aboveground carbon stocks and fluxes from tropical deforestation and forest degradation is important for mitigating climate change and improving forest management. However, high temporal and spatial resolution analyses are rare. This study presents the most detailed tracking of aboveground carbon over time, with yearly, quarterly and monthly estimations of emissions using the stock-difference approach and masked by the forest loss layer of Global Forest Watch. We generated high spatial resolution (1-ha) monitoring of aboveground carbon density (ACD) and emissions (ACE) in Peru by incorporating hundreds of thousands of Planet Dove satellite images, Sentinel-1 radar, topography and airborne LiDAR, embedded into a deep learning regression workflow using high-performance computing. Consistent ACD results were obtained for all quarters and months analyzed, with R2 values of 0.75-0.78, and root mean square errors (RMSE) between 20.6 and 22.0 Mg C ha-1. A total of 7.138 Pg C was estimated for Peru with annual ACE of 20.08 Tg C between the third quarters of 2017 and 2018, respectively, or 23.4% higher than estimates from the FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment. Analyzed quarterly, the spatial evolution of ACE revealed 11.5 Tg C, 6.6 Tg C, 8.6 Tg C, and 10.1 Tg C lost between the third quarters of 2017 and 2018. Moreover, our monthly analysis for the dry season reveals the evolution of ACE at unprecedented temporal detail. We discuss environmental controls over ACE and provide a spatially explicit tool for enhanced forest carbon management at scale.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141114, 2020 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771780

RESUMEN

Peru has one of the fastest-growing economies in Latin America, but there are concerns regarding how long this can be sustained. Negative environmental impacts are increasing due to the pressures of a growing urban population and competition for natural resources. This study explores stakeholder perceptions linked to nexus governance in the context of integrated management of natural resources, particularly water, and the environmental, socio-economic and governance challenges constraining the achievement of UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Our analysis focused on the urban and rural areas associated with the city of Arequipa, an economically dynamic region subject to extreme levels of water stress. Face-to-face interviews with key informants were conducted to identify mechanisms that have enhanced successful multi-sectoral collaboration, and to assess challenges in promoting sustainable economic development. A workshop prioritised the identified challenges and an online survey was then used to assess stakeholder interest in and influence over nexus governance of water with other natural resources. Stakeholder mapping revealed a complex network of actors involved in nexus governance, where successful collaboration could be promoted through formal and informal mechanisms, including exemplar policies and initiatives across sectors and actors. Shared visions between stakeholders were identified as well as contradictory priorities relating to the sustainable management of natural resources. A key finding that emerged was the need to promote adaptation in water and land management (SDG 6) due to perceived impacts of extreme climate events (SDG 13), urban population growth (SDG 11), and increased sectoral water demands. This situation in combination with poor governance and lack of planning has exposed the vulnerability of Arequipa water supply system to future shocks. Urgent action will be needed to raise stakeholder awareness, strengthen governance and enforcement, and agree on a collective vision for integrated land and water planning if the SDGs are to be achieved.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Agua , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Perú , Abastecimiento de Agua
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(4): e3000667, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298256

RESUMEN

As biodiversity loss continues to accelerate, there is a critical need for education and biomonitoring across the globe. Portable technologies allow for in situ molecular biodiversity monitoring that has been historically out of reach for many researchers in habitat nations. In the realm of education, portable tools such as DNA sequencers facilitate in situ hands-on training in real-time sequencing and interpretation techniques. Here, we provide step-by-step protocols as a blueprint for a terrestrial conservation genetics field training program that uses low-cost, portable devices to conduct genomics-based training directly in biodiverse habitat countries.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Genética/educación , Genética/instrumentación , Biodiversidad , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico/instrumentación , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico/métodos , Ecosistema , Femenino , Genética/organización & administración , Humanos , Masculino , Perú , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/instrumentación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(6): 3552-3568, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020698

RESUMEN

Understanding the vulnerability of tree species to anthropogenic threats is important for the efficient planning of restoration and conservation efforts. We quantified and compared the effects of future climate change and four current threats (fire, habitat conversion, overgrazing and overexploitation) on the 50 most common tree species of the tropical dry forests of northwestern Peru and southern Ecuador. We used an ensemble modelling approach to predict species distribution ranges, employed freely accessible spatial datasets to map threat exposures, and developed a trait-based scoring approach to estimate species-specific sensitivities, using differentiated trait weights in accordance with their expected importance in determining species sensitivities to specific threats. Species-specific vulnerability maps were constructed from the product of the exposure maps and the sensitivity estimates. We found that all 50 species face considerable threats, with an average of 46% of species' distribution ranges displaying high or very high vulnerability to at least one of the five threats. Our results suggest that current levels of habitat conversion, overexploitation and overgrazing pose larger threats to most of the studied species than climate change. We present a spatially explicit planning strategy for species-specific restoration and conservation actions, proposing management interventions to focus on (a) in situ conservation of tree populations and seed collection for tree planting activities in areas with low vulnerability to climate change and current threats; (b) ex situ conservation or translocation of populations in areas with high climate change vulnerability; and (c) active planting or assisted regeneration in areas under high current threat vulnerability but low climate change vulnerability, provided that interventions are in place to lower threat pressure. We provide an online, user-friendly tool to visualize both the vulnerability maps and the maps indicating priority restoration and conservation actions.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Árboles , Cambio Climático , Ecuador , Bosques , Perú
5.
Conserv Biol ; 34(2): 338-353, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334895

RESUMEN

Hunting presents a paradox for biodiversity conservation. It is both a problem and a solution to species declines and poverty. Yet, conservation scientists hold different assumptions about the significance and sustainability of hunting based on the cultures and identities of hunters. In Latin America, conservationists largely sort hunters as either indigenous or campesino. Indigenous hunters are often characterized as culturally driven stewards of wildlife sustainability. Campesino hunters, by contrast, are described as peasants-cultureless, uneducated, and uncaring toward wildlife sustainability. Although such ethnically fueled hunting discourse promotes hunting research, campesino hunters remain underrepresented in most comparative hunting reviews. Moreover, there are no targeted syntheses on the current state of knowledge about campesino hunting, nothing to guide conservation research and practice with and for the largest group of hunters in Latin America. We reviewed 334 articles published from 1937 to 2018 in English (55%) and Spanish (45%)-mostly published in 145 peer-reviewed journals-on the meanings, motivations, and sustainability of campesino hunting in Latin America. Although studies spanned 17 countries, 7 ecosystems, and >75 indigenous and nonindigenous demographics in 30 research contexts, they predominantly focused on nonindigenous campesinos for species-specific conservation and protected area management in tropical broadleaf forests of Mexico, Peru, and Colombia. Authors used 12 methods to collect campesino hunting data, primarily interviews, surveys, and questionnaires, and drew from 10 local and traditional knowledge themes about wildlife trends and uses. Eighteen drivers, 14 constraints, and 10 conflicts-mainly subsistence, income, ethics, regulations, and crop or livestock protection-shaped whether campesino hunters pursued 799 species, 70% of which were least concern species. Yet, only 25 studies (8%) empirically assessed sustainability. Our results show the need for increased interdisciplinary and geographic engagement with campesino hunting across Latin America.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Animales , Colombia , América Latina , México , Perú
7.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225367, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747419

RESUMEN

We estimate the effects of Peru's oldest watershed payments for environmental services (PES) initiative in Moyobamba (Andes-Amazon transition zone) and disentangle the complex intervention into its two main forest conservation treatments. First, a state-managed protected area (PA) was established, allowing sustainable use but drastically limiting de facto land use and land rights of households in the upper watershed through command-and-control interventions. Second, a subset of those environmentally regulated households also received incentives: PES-like voluntary contracts with conditional in-kind rewards, combined with access to participation in sustainable income-generating activities of the integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) type. To evaluate impacts, we perform matching procedures and adjustment regressions to obtain the average treatment effect on the treated (ATT) of each intervention. We investigate impacts on plot-level forest cover and household welfare for the period 2010-2016. We find that both treatments-command-and-control restrictions and the incentive package-modestly but significantly mitigated primary forest loss. Incentive-induced conservation gains came at elevated per-hectare implementation costs. We also find positive effects on incentive-treated households' incomes and assets; however, their self-perceived wellbeing counterintuitively declined. We hypothesise that locally frustrated beneficiary expectations vis-a-vis the ambitiously designed PES-cum-ICDP intervention help explain this surprising finding. We finalise with some recommendations for watershed incentives and policy mix design in Moyobamba and beyond.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Bosques , Recompensa , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Composición Familiar , Modelos Teóricos , Perú
8.
Curr Biol ; 29(22): 3909-3912.e3, 2019 11 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630951

RESUMEN

The seafloor contains valuable mineral resources, including polymetallic (or manganese) nodules that form on offshore abyssal plains. The largest and most commercially attractive deposits are located in the Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ), in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EP) between Hawaii and Mexico, where testing of a mineral collection system is set to start soon [1]. The requirement to establish pre-mining environmental management plans has prompted numerous recent biodiversity and DNA barcoding surveys across these remote regions. Here we map DNA sequences from sampled ophiuroids (brittle stars, including post-larvae) of the CCZ and Peru Basin onto a substantial tree of life to show unprecedented levels of abyssal ophiuroid phylogenetic diversity including at least three ancient (>70 Ma), previously unknown clades. While substantial dark (unobserved) biodiversity has been reported from various microbial meta-barcoding projects [2, 3], our data show that we have considerably under-estimated the biodiversity of even the most conspicuous mega-faunal invertebrates [4] of the EP abyssal plain.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Respiraderos Hidrotermales/análisis , Estrellas de Mar/metabolismo , Animales , Equinodermos/metabolismo , Invertebrados , Océano Pacífico , Filogenia , Estudios Prospectivos
9.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220854, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390369

RESUMEN

In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery incidentally captures high numbers of five mobulid bycatch species; all of which are classified as mortalities by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission due to uncertainties in post-release mortality rates. To date, the factors (operational or environmental) leading to the capture of these species by the fishery have not been well studied. Here, we developed Generalized Additive Models for fisheries observer data to analyze the relationships between the presence/absence of Mobula mobular bycatch and oceanographic conditions, the spatial and temporal variability in fishing location, and the set type (associated with dolphins, free-swimming tuna schools or floating objects). Our results suggest that chlorophyll concentration and sea surface height are the most important variables to describe the presence of M. mobular in conjunction with geographic location (latitude and longitude) and set type. Presence of the species was predicted in waters with chlorophyll concentrations between 0.5-1 mg·m-3 and with sea surface height values close to 0; which indicates direct relationships with productive upwelling systems. Seasonally, M. mobular was observed more frequently during December-January and August-September. We also found the highest probability of presence observed in School sets, followed by Dolphin sets. Three areas were observed as important hotspots: the area close to the coastal upwelling of northern Peru, the area west to Islands Colon Archipelago (Galapagos) and the area close to the Costa Rica Dome. This information is crucial to identify the mobulids habitat and hotspots that could be managed and protected under dynamic spatial management measures to reduce the mortality of mobulid rays in the eastern Pacific purse-seine fishery and, hence, ensure the sustainability of the populations of these iconic species.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/análisis , Elasmobranquios , Ambiente , Estaciones del Año , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Costa Rica , Ecosistema , Océano Pacífico , Perú
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 537-546, 2019 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146059

RESUMEN

Achieving equitable access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services requires paying special attention to the most disadvantaged segments of the population. Yet, despite all the progress made to evaluate the access of vulnerable and marginalized groups, important knowledge gaps still remain with respect to identifying their specific barriers and needs. At the global level, for example, the two monitoring mechanisms for SDG 6 - the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) and Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and drinking-water (GLAAS) - face difficulties in understanding how, and to what extent, vulnerable and marginalized groups access WASH services. In this context, this work examines the UNECE/WHO-Europe 'Equitable Access Score-card' for assessing the access to WASH services by vulnerable and marginalized groups. In particular, we: (i) analyse its strengths and limitations as a tool for revealing the needs of these groups in accessing WASH services; and (ii) propose an extended variant of the score-card that addresses these limitations. We test this version in two local-level case studies: Lima (Peru) and Castelló de la Plana (Spain). The score-card diagnosis is found to be particularly useful for collecting information on the level of access of the different vulnerable and marginalized groups, as well as the specific public policies and funding mechanisms in place that address and support their needs. However, the score-card should be complemented with specific assessments of all five normative dimensions of the human rights to water and sanitation (access, availability, quality, acceptability and affordability) in order to have a better understanding of the concerns for service delivery for the different vulnerable and marginalized groups.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Higiene , Saneamiento , Recursos Hídricos/provisión & distribución , Abastecimiento de Agua/métodos , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos , Abastecimiento de Agua/economía , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 657: 391-400, 2019 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550903

RESUMEN

Advection fog is the sole source of water for many near-the-sea arid areas worldwide such as the lomas, i.e. fog-dependant landscapes of the coastal zone of Peru and Northern Chile, where deforestation occurred since 16th century, leading to a progressive and severe desertification. There, today's local socio-ecological systems suffer from lack of freshwater because they cannot rely anymore on the contribution of fog captured by vegetation. This paper presents the results of an experimental reforestation project carried out in Mejia (Peru), where tree seedlings of five native and exotic species were planted in two permanent plots in 1996. Part of the seedlings were irrigated during the first three years after planting, others not. The irrigation was carried out thanks to water harvesting by large fog collectors. From the third year onwards, all trees relied only on fog water collected by their canopy. Survival rate, height, and root-collar diameter were monitored until 2010, when also the soil carbon and nitrogen stocks were measured. Fifteen years after the planting, about 65% of trees were still alive and growing, and reforestation had induced substantial carbon sequestration both above- and below-ground. Of the tree species, Acacia saligna was definitely best performing than the other, with most of the above ground carbon stored in its biomass and a consequent high efficiency as natural fog collector. Overall, the combination of fog collection by nets and the plantation of trees showing good fog collection capacity, represented a successful strategy for allowing reforestation of arid environments and induced fast and substantial carbon sequestration. Greater efforts should be thus devoted for this purpose, paying special attention to the selection of the most suitable tree species to plant, especially looking at the local biodiversity. This work is dedicated to the memory of Professor Mario Falciai, passed away in 2015, who firstly conceived the experiment and attended all the work since 1996, bringing in our University the idea of Fog Collection for sustainable water management.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Suelo/química , Árboles/metabolismo , Biomasa , Perú , Especificidad de la Especie , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo
12.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207768, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458015

RESUMEN

A third of global fish stocks are overexploited and many are economically underperforming, resulting in potential unrealized net economic benefits of USD 51 to 83 billion annually. However, this aggregate view, while useful for global policy discussion, may obscure the view for those actors who engage at a regional level. Therefore, we develop a method to associate large companies with their fishing operations and evaluate the biological sustainability of these operations. We link current fish biomass levels and landings to the revenue streams of the companies under study to compute potentially unrealized fisheries revenues and profits at the level of individual firms. We illustrate our method using two case studies: anchoveta (Engraulis ringens; Engraulidae) in Peru and menhaden in the USA (Brevoortia patronus and B. tyrannus; Clupeidae). We demonstrate that both these fisheries could potentially increase their revenues compared to the current levels of exploitation. We estimate the net but unrealized fishery benefits for the companies under question. This information could be useful to investors and business owners who might want to be aware of the actual fisheries performance options of the companies they invest in.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía
14.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202971, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157282

RESUMEN

Misconceptions, lack of knowledge, and negative attitudes towards sharks act as barriers preventing actions required to tackle threats to shark populations, limiting the success of global shark conservation initiatives. Peru, a major player for the international trade of shark products, recently approved the 'National Action Plan for the Conservation and Management of Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras' (PAN-Tib); a guiding document for conservation initiatives aimed at these fishes. Within PAN-Tib, the assessment of Peruvians' current knowledge and attitudes towards sharks is listed as a research priority. Between June and October 2016, 2004 Peruvians were surveyed along the coast to characterize their (i) shark meat consumption patterns, and (ii) knowledge and attitudes towards sharks. Results suggest that shark meat consumption is extended, but not necessarily frequent, and higher in the northern regions of the country. However, 77.5% of shark meat consumers were unaware that they had eaten sharks. Although 57.6% of the participants recognized that sharks are present in Peruvian waters, only 19.4% of the surveyed population was capable of naming at least one local shark species. Moreover, Peruvians have very negative attitudes towards sharks. They fear them and view them as man-eaters, despite this, no shark attacks have ever been reported in the country. These results highlight the need to: (i) encourage sustainable shark meat consumption, and (ii) promote communication campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge about sharks, and their importance as a source of employment and food for coastal communities, as for the national economy.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Carne , Alimentos Marinos , Tiburones , Animales , Humanos , Perú
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1600, 2018 01 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371623

RESUMEN

Understanding forest loss patterns in Amazonia, the Earth's largest rainforest region, is critical for effective forest conservation and management. Following the most detailed analysis to date, spanning the entire Amazon and extending over a 14-year period (2001-2014), we reveal significant shifts in deforestation dynamics of Amazonian forests. Firstly, hotspots of Amazonian forest loss are moving away from the southern Brazilian Amazon to Peru and Bolivia. Secondly, while the number of new large forest clearings (>50 ha) has declined significantly over time (46%), the number of new small clearings (<1 ha) increased by 34% between 2001-2007 and 2008-2014. Thirdly, we find that small-scale low-density forest loss expanded markedly in geographical extent during 2008-2014. This shift presents an important and alarming new challenge for forest conservation, despite reductions in overall deforestation rates.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosque Lluvioso , Bolivia , Brasil , Geografía , Perú
16.
Environ Manage ; 62(1): 98-116, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299626

RESUMEN

This study examines the role multilevel governance plays in the adoption of sustainable landscape management initiatives in emerging arrangements aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). It sheds light on the challenges these multiple layers of actors and interests encounter around such alternatives in a subnational jurisdiction. Through transcript analysis of 93 interviews with institutional actors in the region of Madre de Dios, Peru, particularly with regard to five sites of land-use change, we identified the multiple actors who are included and excluded in the decision-making process and uncovered their complex interactions in forest and landscape governance and REDD+ arrangements. Madre de Dios is a useful case for studying complex land-use dynamics, as it is home to multiple natural resources, a large mix of actors and interests, and a regional government that has recently experienced the reverberations of decentralization. Findings indicate that multiple actors shaped REDD+ to some extent, but REDD+ and its advocates were unable to shape land-use dynamics or landscape governance, at least in the short term. In the absence of strong and effective regional regulation for sustainable land use alternatives and the high value of gold on the international market, illegal gold mining proved to be a more profitable land-use choice. Although REDD+ created a new space for multilevel actor interaction and communication and new alliances to emerge, the study questions the prevailing REDD+ discourse suggesting that better coordination and cooperation will lead to integrated landscape solutions. For REDD+ to be able to play a role in integrated landscape governance, greater attention needs to be paid to grassroots actors, power and authority over territory and underlying interests and incentives for land-use change.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Bosques , Regulación Gubernamental , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Minería , Perú , Política
17.
Ambio ; 47(3): 327-339, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940178

RESUMEN

Understanding what causes variability in the outcomes of common-pool resources management and governance has important policy implications for biodiversity conservation, in particular for the conservation of wild plants and animals subject to harvest. We report an exploratory study focusing on Amazonian river turtles as a common-pool resource under harvest-driven conservation and management efforts in Peru. Based on document analysis, literature review and a series of interviews, we describe the management program as a social process and identify the most important governance and management outcomes achieved (increased turtle abundance and benefits for harvesters, harvester formalization), factors hindering and facilitating the program implementation (four natural and three societal factors), and key governance actions behind the program outcomes (awareness and capacity building, crafting and enforcing rules). We then highlight the existing knowledge gaps and the needs and possible means to address particular risks related to turtle management on a harvest-driven setting.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Tortugas , Animales , Asia , Ciudades , Humanos , Perú , Proyectos Piloto
18.
Environ Manage ; 60(6): 1022-1041, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887588

RESUMEN

Understanding how to improve decision makers' use of scientific information across their different scales of management is a core challenge for narrowing the gap between science and conservation practice. Here, we present a study conducted in collaboration with decision makers that aims to explore the functionality of the mechanisms for scientific input within the institutional setting of the National Protected Area Network of Peru. First, we analyzed institutional mechanisms to assess the scientific information recorded by decision makers. Second, we developed two workshops involving scientists, decision makers and social actors to identify barriers to evidence-based conservation practice. Third, we administered 482 questionnaires to stakeholders to explore social perceptions of the role of science and the willingness to collaborate in the governance of protected areas. The results revealed that (1) the institutional mechanisms did not effectively promote the compilation and application of scientific knowledge for conservation practice; (2) six important barriers hindered scientific input in management decisions; and (3) stakeholders showed positive perceptions about the involvement of scientists in protected areas and expressed their willingness to collaborate in conservation practice. This collaborative research helped to (1) identify gaps and opportunities that should be addressed for increasing the effectiveness of the institutional mechanisms and (2) support institutional changes integrating science-based strategies for strengthening scientific input in decision-making. These insights provide a useful contextual orientation for scholars and decision makers interested in conducting empirical research to connect scientific inputs with operational aspects of the management cycle in other institutional settings around the world.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Toma de Decisiones , Política Ambiental/tendencias , Investigación Interdisciplinaria/organización & administración , Formulación de Políticas , Proyectos de Investigación/tendencias , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Regulación Gubernamental , Investigación Interdisciplinaria/legislación & jurisprudencia , Investigación Interdisciplinaria/tendencias , Perú , Proyectos de Investigación/legislación & jurisprudencia
19.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183743, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837638

RESUMEN

Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis, thus allowing a more cost-efficient and robust monitoring of productivity levels.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Colaboración de las Masas , Bosques , Lecythidaceae/embriología , Semillas , Perú
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 601-602: 532-542, 2017 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575831

RESUMEN

The environmental sustainability of the cultivation of grapes for the production of alcoholic beverages has been extensively analyzed in the literature from a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, although certain impact categories have been repeatedly neglected despite their importance, such as toxic emissions or the depletion of freshwater resources. Hence, the current study provides a detailed assessment of water footprint-related impact categories, including toxicity, for the cultivation of grapes for pisco production, an alcoholic beverage produced in coastal Peru in hyper-arid areas that suffer high levels of water scarcity. Characterization factors at a sub-watershed level were used to calculate water consumption impact assessment of grape production using the AWARE method. Site-specific toxic emissions were modelled using the PestLCI model, considering primary climate and soil data. The USEtox assessment method was then used to compute freshwater eco-toxicity with these data. Results demonstrate the high water footprint of irrigating vineyards in coastal Peru, especially considering the inefficient flooding irrigation process. In terms of water consumption, despite the high variability shown between sub-watersheds, the shift to other irrigation technologies must be analyzed with care due to the high competition for water existing in the area. Eutrophication potential showed particularly high values compared to the literature, whereas freshwater eco-toxicity impacts were relatively low due to the high volatilization of pesticides to air. Nevertheless, the lack of an adequate wastewater management system implies that the estimated potential toxic and eutrophying emissions may constitute a further environmental threat to water bodies.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Agricultura , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Agua Dulce , Perú , Vitis , Aguas Residuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Aguas Residuales/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
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