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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130760, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390911

RESUMEN

Rapid volatile detection methods for seed vigour rely heavily on artificial ageing (AA), however the comparability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to natural ageing (NA) and practicability of the detection models were not well known. In this study, VOCs between AA and NA sweet corn seeds were compared and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) modelswere constructed based on AA to predict the seed vigour of NA. A total of 33 VOCs were identified, among which aldehydes showed the highest consistency between NA and AA. Furthermore, a AS-PLS-R model with variable importance in projection (VIP > 1) and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r > 0.9) algorithms, which was built on 3 volatile markers: benzaldehyde monomer, n-nonanal, 1-butanol monomer, achieved the best performance (R2p of 0.901 and RMSEP of 0.050). Therefore, coupling Gas Chromatography- Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) with chemometrics can be an effective way to monitor and predict stored seeds vigour.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Espectrometría de Movilidad Iónica , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Semillas/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
2.
Talanta ; 236: 122837, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635227

RESUMEN

A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was developed in this study with the vegetable oil from olive (OLV-QCM) to detect an important volatile organic compound, ß-pinene in Indian cardamom. Hydrophobic vegetable oil from olive, which contains oleic acid and omega-9, a monounsaturated fatty acid was found to be suitable for binding ß-pinene through non-covalent bonds. The fabricated QCM sensor coating was examined with the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine its surface morphology and chemical compositions. The sensitivity, reproducibility, repeatability, and reusability were studied for the developed sensor. Notably, the sensor was observed to be highly selective towards ß-pinene as compared to the other volatile components present in cardamom. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) parameters were determined as 5.57 mg L-1 and 18.57 mg L-1, respectively. Moreover, the adsorption isotherm models of the sensor were studied to validate the physical adsorption affinity towards ß-pinene applying Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. The sensor showed a correlation factor of 0.99 with the peak area percentage of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for ß-pinene in cardamom samples. The sensor was prepared with natural vegetable oil, unlike health hazard chemicals. In addition to this, the low-cost, easy fabrication process ensured the suitability of the sensor for practical deployment.

3.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 5265444, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594156

RESUMEN

Background: Gastrointestinal motility disorder is a common gastrointestinal disease, which seriously affects life quality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used as an alternative therapy for gastrointestinal motility disorder. Acacetin is a natural flavonoid compound that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticancer properties. However, the efficacy of Acacetin in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders has not been studied. Our aim was to investigate the mechanism of Acacetin-alleviated gastrointestinal motility disorder and its efficacy based on network pharmacology. Methods: We performed network pharmacology to predict the active components, match Weishu decoction (WSD) targets in gastrointestinal motility disorders, and investigate its potential pharmacological mechanisms. We performed the GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. In vivo, we investigated the effects of Acacetin in the gastrointestinal motility disorder model. Results: Based on network pharmacological method, the key active ingredient of WSD was identified as Acacetin, and the enrichment signaling pathway was the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Acacetin and Mosapride accelerated gastric emptying time, reduced gastric remnant rate, and increased small intestinal propulsion rate. The levels of GAS and MTL were increased after using Acacetin. These results indicated that Acacetin could improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. Among them, high-dose Acacetin showed a better effect. Acacetin could regulate protein and lipid metabolism in mice with gastrointestinal motility disorder. Furthermore, Acacetin could modulate gastrointestinal inflammation and apoptosis. The detection of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway-related proteins showed that Acacetin improved gastrointestinal motility disorder by inhibiting the activation of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Conclusion: The key ingredient Acacetin in WSD could alleviate gastrointestinal motility disorder by inhibiting the activation of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway based on network pharmacology analysis. The efficacy and safety of Acacetin treatment provide strong experimental support for the clinical treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorder.

4.
Environ Pollut ; : 118271, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627963

RESUMEN

Despite the economic benefits of the oil and gas industry in Northern Alberta, significant concerns exist regarding the impacts of increased oil production on the environment and human health. Several studies have highlighted increases in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and other hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, water, soil and sediments, plants, wildlife and fish in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) as a result of oil sands industrial activity. Sediment cores can provide information on the temporal trends of contaminants to the environment and provide important baseline information when monitoring data are absent. Here we used a paleotoxicological approach that combined analytical chemistry and a mammalian cell-based bioassay in dated lake sediment cores to assess paleotoxicity in freshwater systems in the AOSR. Sediment intervals were radiometrically dated and subsequently analysed for PACs. PAC extracts from select dated intervals were used in cell-based bioassays to evaluate their endocrine disrupting properties. We demonstrated spatial and temporal variability in the PAC composition of sediment cores around the AOSR with some of the highest concentrations of PACs detected near oil sands industrial activity north of Fort McMurray (AB) in La Saline Natural Area. Recent sediment had positive enrichment factors across most PAC analytes at this site with heavier pyrogenic compounds such as benz(a)anthracene/chrysene and benzofluoranthene/benzopyrene dominating recent trends. Our study is the first to link chemical analysis of sediment cores with biological effect assessments of endocrine activity showing feasibility of extending the usefulness of sediment cores in monitoring programs interested in complex mixture assessments. While we observed no spatial or temporal differences in ERα mediated signaling, AhR CALUX results mirrored those of the chemical analysis, demonstrating the utility of coupling biological effects assessments to historical reconstructions of contaminant inputs to the natural environment.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632993

RESUMEN

The production of the confirmed enormous resources of CH4 trapped in permafrost and deep ocean sediments in the form of hydrates has been hampered by the lack of an extraction procedure that is both effective and environmentally sensitive. This research explores experimentally the dynamic rate limiting steps in the dissociation of methane hydrates and the formation of CO2 hydrates in a sediment matrix. The use of CO2 injection and substitution for hydrate extraction takes advantage of novel thermodynamics and also provides a safe storage option for greenhouse gas. This experimental work incorporates a high-pressure facility dedicated for CH4 hydrates exchange with CO2 that replicates creation of natural gas hydrate from incoming gas below water in the pore space. The hydrate formation/exchange chamber follows the state-of-art hydrate science and is equipped with sensors distributed in several sections: the top section for gas release, a CH4 hydrate section, and a subsequent injection of CO2 from the bottom section, which also mimics hydrate dissociation towards incoming seawater through fracture systems connected from the seafloor. Four experimental conditions were examined. They comprise pure CO2 injection, and 10, 20, and 30 mole% N2 added to the CO2. We observed an increase in CH4 release from pure CO2 injection to 10 mole% N2 addition. A significant extra release of CH4 occurred by stepping up to 20 mole% N2 addition but no significant change was observed from 20 to 30 mole% N2 addition. Maximum conversion in this study is 34 mole% of CO2, and 2 mole% N2 taking the place of methane hydrate in large and small cavities. The results also show that effective substitution for hydrate production cannot rely on pure carbon dioxide injection.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2106067, 2021 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633120

RESUMEN

Gas sensors based on organic molecules are attractive for their tailored molecular structures and controllable functions, but weak interfacial adhesion between sensing materials and supporting substrates has severely hampered their practical applications, particularly in harsh environments. Here, inspired by the combined anchoring-recognizing feature of natural olfactory systems, an adhesive-integrated-agent strategy to integrate the adhesive unit (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) with the sensing unit (organoplatinum(II)) into one chemistry entity, creating robust and sensitive nanobelt array gas sensors is demonstrated. Systematic theoretical and experimental studies reveal that incorporating adhesive units significantly enhances the interfacial adhesion of the array sensors and gas-bridged super-exchange electronic couplings of sensing units ensure their efficient gas-sensing performance. The high shear strength of ≈7.05 × 106 N m-2 allows these arrays to resist aggressive ultrasonication, tape peeling, or repeated bending without compromising their sensing performance. This molecular engineering strategy opens a new guideline to develop robust gas sensors.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618441

RESUMEN

Today, polyurethanes are effectively not recycled and are made principally from nonrenewable, fossil-fuel-derived resources. This study provides the first high-resolution material flow analysis of polyurethane flows through the U.S. economy, tracking back to fossil fuels and covering polyurethane-relevant raw materials, trade, production, manufacturing, uses, historical stocks, and waste management. According to our analysis, in 2016, 2900 thousand tonnes (kt) of polyurethane were produced in the United States and 920 kt were imported for consumption, 2000 kt entered the postconsumer waste streams, and 390 kt were recycled and returned to the market in the form of carpet underlayment. The domestic production of polyurethane consumed 1100 kt of crude oil and 1100 kt of natural gas. With the developed polyurethane flow map, we point out the limitation of the existing mechanical recycling methods and identify that glycolysis, a chemical recycling method, can be used to recycle the main components of postconsumer polyurethane waste. We also explore how targeting biobased pathways could influence the supply chain and downstream markets of polyurethane and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and the exposure to toxic precursors in polyurethane production.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150779, 2021 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619208

RESUMEN

Plastic products made of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS) are widely used in daily life and industrial production. Polyolefins-which have a very stable structure and do not contain any active molecular groups-are difficult to degrade and pose a serious global environment threat. This study selected latex clearing protein (LcpK30) derived from Streptomyces sp. Strain K30. The natural substrate of the enzyme is rubber (cis-1, 4-polyisoprene), and the site of action is the carbon­carbon double bond. LcpK30 was incubated with UV-irradiated polyolefin PE, PP and PS (UV-PE, UV-PP, and UV-PS containing carbon­carbon double bonds) for 5 d at 37 °C. The results showed that UV-PE-LcpK30 was more fragmented than UV-PE-blank; the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that UV-PE-LcpK30 and UV-PP-LcpK30 produced new active groups (e.g., -OH and -C=O); however, the effect on UV-PS was not significant. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the treated group had more obvious roughness, cracks, and pits than the control group. The results of high-temperature gel permeation chromatography showed that the average molecular weight (Mw) of UV-PE-LcpK30 and UV-PP-LcpK30 decreased; the Mw of UV-PE5-LcpK30 was reduced by 42.02%. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the production of ketones. Therefore, the LcpK30 latex clearing protein degrade UV-oxidized polyolefin plastics and has great potential for PE and PP degradation but may not be suitable for PS. Furthermore, other Lcps (such as LcpNRRL, LcpNVL3) can also degrade UV-PE.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623135

RESUMEN

We analyzed pollution plumes originating from ships using liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel. Measurements were performed at a station located on the Utö island in the Baltic Sea during 2015-2021 when vessels passed the station along an adjacent shipping lane and the wind direction allowed the measurements. The ratio of the measured concentration peaks ΔCH4/ΔCO2 ranged from 1% to 9% and from 0.1% to 0.5% for low and high pressure dual fuel engines, respectively. The ratio of the measured concentration peaks of ΔNOx/ΔCO2 varied between 0.5‰ and 8.7‰, which was not explained by engine type. The results were consistent with previously measured on-board or test-bed values for the corresponding ratios of emissions. While the methane emissions from high pressure dual fuel engines were found to fulfill the goal of reducing the climatic impacts of shipping, the emissions originating from low pressure dual fuel engines were found to be substantially high, with a potential for increased climatic impacts compared with using traditional marine fuels. Taking only the global warming potential into account, we can suggest a limit value for the methane emissions; the ratio of the emissions ΔCH4/ΔCO2 originating from LNG powered ships should not exceed 1.4%.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5846, 2021 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615868

RESUMEN

Inadequate oxygenation is a major challenge in cell encapsulation, a therapy which holds potential to treat many diseases including type I diabetes. In such systems, cellular oxygen (O2) delivery is limited to slow passive diffusion from transplantation sites through the poorly O2-soluble encapsulating matrix, usually a hydrogel. This constrains the maximum permitted distance between the encapsulated cells and host site to within a few hundred micrometers to ensure cellular function. Inspired by the natural gas-phase tracheal O2 delivery system of insects, we present herein the design of a biomimetic scaffold featuring internal continuous air channels endowed with 10,000-fold higher O2 diffusivity than hydrogels. We incorporate the scaffold into a bulk hydrogel containing cells, which facilitates rapid O2 transport through the whole system to cells several millimeters away from the device-host boundary. A computational model, validated by in vitro analysis, predicts that cells and islets maintain high viability even in a thick (6.6 mm) device. Finally, the therapeutic potential of the device is demonstrated through the correction of diabetes in immunocompetent mice using rat islets for over 6 months.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634907

RESUMEN

H2S and CO2 are the main impurities in raw natural gas, which needs to be purified before use. However, the comprehensive utilization of H2S and CO2 has been ignored. Herein, we proposed a fully resource-based method to convert toxic gas H2S and greenhouse gas CO2 synchronously into CO and elemental S by using a novel electrochemical reactor. The special designs include that, in the anodic chamber, H2S was oxidized rapidly to S based on the I-/I3- cyclic redox system to avoid anode passivation. On the other hand, in the cathodic chamber, CO2 was rapidly and selectively reduced to CO based on a porous carbon gas diffusion electrode (GDE) modified with polytetrafluoroethylene and cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc). A high Faraday efficiency (>95%) toward CO was achieved due to the enhanced mass transfer of CO2 on the GDE and the presence of the selective CoPc catalyst. The maximum energy efficiency of the system was more than 72.41% with a current density of over 50 mA/cm2, which was 12.5 times higher than what was previously reported on the H2S treatment system. The yields of S and CO were 24.94 mg·cm-2·h-1 and 19.93 mL·cm-2·h-1, respectively. A model analysis determined that the operation cost of the synchronous utilization of H2S and CO2 method was slightly lower than that of the single utilization of H2S in the existing natural gas purification technology. Overall, this paper provides efficient and simultaneous conversion of H2S and CO2 into S and CO.

12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 248, 2021 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600509

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Edible oils have proven health benefits in the prevention and treatment of various disorders since the establishment of human era. This study was aimed to appraise neuropharmacological studies on the commonly used edible oils including Cinnamomum verum (CV), Zingiber officinale (ZO) and Cuminum cyminum (CC). METHODS: The oils were analyzed via GC-MS for identifications of bioactive compounds. Anti-radicals capacity of the oils were evaluated via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals scavenging assays. The samples were also tested against two important acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) which are among the important drug targets in Alzheimer's disease. Lineweaver-Burk plots were constructed for enzyme inhibition studies which correspond to velocity of enzymes (Vmax) against the reciprocal of substrate concentration (Km) in the presence of test samples and control drugs following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Docking studies on AChE target were also carried out using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE 2016.0802) software. RESULTS: (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of thirty-four compounds in Cinnamon oil (Cv.Eo), fourteen in ginger oil (Zo.Eo) and fifty-six in cumin oil (Cc.Eo). In the antioxidant assays, Cv.Eo, Zo.Eo and Cc.Eo exhibited IC50 values of 85, 121, 280 µg/ml sequentially against DPPH radicals. Whereas, in ABTS assay, Cv.Eo, Zo.Eo and Cc.Eo showed considerable anti-radicals potentials with IC50 values of 93, 77 and 271 µg/ml respectively. Furthermore, Cv.Eo was highly active against AChE enzyme with IC50 of 21 µg/ml. Zo.Eo and Cc.Eo exhibited considerable inhibitory activities against AChE with IC50 values of 88 and 198 µg/ml respectively. In BChE assay, Cv.Eo, Zo.Eo and Cc.Eo exhibited IC50 values of 106, 101 and 37 µg/ml respectively. Our results revealed that these oils possess considerable antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory potentials. As functional foods these oils can be effective remedy for the prevention and management of neurological disorders including AD. Synergistic effect of all the identified compounds was determined via binding energy values computed through docking simulations. Binding orientations showed that all the compounds interact with amino acid residues present in the peripheral anionic site (PAS) and catalytic anionic site (CAS) amino acid residues, oxyanion hole and acyl pocket via π-π stacking interactions and hydrogen bond interactions.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19466, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593929

RESUMEN

Mud volcanoes (MVs) are visible signs of oil and gas reserves present deep beneath land and sea. The Marac MV in Trinidad is the only MV associated with natural hydrocarbon seeps. Petrogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in its sediments must undergo biogeochemical cycles of detoxification as they can enter the water table and aquifers threatening ecosystems and biota. Recurrent hydrocarbon seep activity of MVs consolidates the growth of hydrocarbonoclastic fungal communities. Fungi possess advantageous metabolic and ecophysiological features for remediation but are underexplored compared to bacteria. Additionally, indigenous fungi are more efficient at PAH detoxification than commercial/foreign counterparts and remediation strategies remain site-specific. Few studies have focused on hydrocarbonoclastic fungal incidence and potential in MVs, an aspect that has not been explored in Trinidad. This study determined the unique biodiversity of culturable fungi from the Marac MV capable of metabolizing PAHs in vitro and investigated their extracellular peroxidase activity to utilize different substrates ergo their extracellular oxidoreductase activity (> 50% of the strains decolourized of methylene blue dye). Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes (89% combined incidence) were predominantly isolated. ITS rDNA sequence cluster analysis confirmed strain identities. 18 indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic strains not previously reported in the literature and some of which were biosurfactant-producing, were identified. Intra-strain variability was apparent for PAH utilization, oil-tolerance and hydroxylase substrate specificity. Comparatively high levels of extracellular protein were detected for strains that demonstrated low substrate specificity. Halotolerant strains were also recovered which indicated marine-mixed substrata of the MV as a result of deep sea conduits. This work highlighted novel MV fungal strains as potential bioremediators and biocatalysts with a broad industrial applications.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606678

RESUMEN

The undesirable loss of methane (CH4) at remote locations welcomes approaches that ambiently functionalize CH4 on-site without intense infrastructure investment. Recently, we found that electrochemical oxidation of vanadium(V)-oxo with bisulfate ligand leads to CH4 activation at ambient conditions. The key question is whether such an observation is a one-off coincidence or a general strategy for electrocatalyst design. Here, a general scheme of electrocatalytic CH4 activation with d0 early transition metals is established. The pre-catalysts' molecular structure, electrocatalytic kinetics, and mechanism were detailed for titanium (IV), vanadium (V), and chromium (VI) species as model systems. After a turnover-limiting one-electron electrochemical oxidation, the yielded ligand-centered cation radicals activate CH4 with low activation energy and high selectivity. The reactivities are universal among early transition metals from Period 4 to 6, and the reactivities trend for different early transition metals correlate with their d orbital energies across periodic table. Our results offer new chemical insights towards developing advanced ambient electrocatalysts of natural gas.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150700, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606858

RESUMEN

The interconnection of urbanization trends and environmental pressures, are due to the rising demand for resource consumption, waste production and greenhouses gas emissions. Taking into consideration the massive reduction of natural resources, the deprivation of the life quality and the climate change, the scientific community indicates the necessity to emphasis and understand the relationship between cities and the environment as a dynamic concept. Consequently, cities are facing the challenge to implement alternative strategies towards more sustainable management of urban resources. This research aims to shed light on the concept of urban metabolism, the methods that are been used to gauge urban metabolism (i.e Emergy Analysis, Material Flow Analysis, Ecological Footprint etc.), as well as the assessment of the proposed methodologies through SWOT analysis and Analytical Hierocracy Process, considering multi-criteria analysis and how those reflect to Circular Economy and European Green Deal Strategy. The results showed that, the existing methodologies needs refreshment to cover the needs for the cities of tomorrow and a new hybrid approach which will include new set of Key Performed Indicators is essential. Furthermore, the results could serve as a beneficial reference point for policy makers, consultants, rural developers as the new hybrid approach can be used to measure and assess the level of metabolism in one area in order to prevent future expansion.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608802

RESUMEN

Membrane technology is attractive for natural gas separation (removing CO2, H2O, and hydrocarbons from CH4) because of membranes' low energy consumption and small environmental footprint. Compared to polymeric membranes, microporous inorganic membranes such as silicoaluminophosphate-34 (SAPO-34) membrane can retain their separation performance under conditions close to industrial requirements. However, moisture and hydrocarbons in natural gas can be strongly adsorbed in the pores of those membranes, thereby reducing the membrane separation performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a polycrystalline MIL-160 membrane on an Al2O3 substrate by in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The MIL-160 membrane with a thickness of ca. 3 µm shows a remarkable molecular sieving effect in gas separation. Besides, the pore size and environment of the MIL-160 membrane can be precisely controlled using reticular chemistry by regulating the size and functionality of the ligand. Interestingly, the more polar fluorine-functionalized multivariate MIL-160/CAU-10-F membrane exhibits a 10.7% increase in selectivity for CO2/CH4 separation and a 31.2% increase in CO2 permeance compared to those of the MIL-160 membrane. In addition, hydrophobic MIL-160 membranes and MIL-160/CAU-10-F membranes are more resistant to water vapor and hydrocarbons than the hydrophilic SAPO-34 membranes.

17.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609389

RESUMEN

Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived, bioactive gas that has been found to have affinitive effects on cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer biology, while NO deficiency may cause serious pathological responses. The existing chemically-synthesized NO donors have inevitable systemic toxicity and cannot be released adaptively. Hence, L-arginine, an endogenous NO precursor, merits investigation as a natural efficient NO donor. Herein, we designed amino acid-doped L-arginine CDs-based bioenzyme-responsive NO donors, which could adaptively replenish NO/ONOO- in response to different microenvironments. Our results indicated the mechanism of the NO/ONOO- supplementation of L-arginine-based CDs and their potential for nonpharmaceutical gas-involving theranostics for the first time.

18.
Tree Physiol ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617116

RESUMEN

The induction and relaxation of photochemistry and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) are not instantaneous and require time to respond to fluctuating environments. There is a lack of integrated understanding on how photochemistry and NPQ influence photosynthesis in fluctuating environments. We measured the induction and relaxation of chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange in poplar and cotton at varying temperatures under saturating and fluctuating lights. When the light shifted from dark to high, the fraction of open reaction centers in photosystem II (qL) gradually increased while NPQ increased suddenly and then remained stable. Temperature significantly changed the response of qL but not that of NPQ during the dark to high light transition. Increased qL led to higher photosynthesis but their precise relationship was affected by NPQ and temperature. qL was significantly related to biochemical capacity. Thus, qL appears to be a strong indicator of the activation of carboxylase, leading to the similar dynamics between qL and photosynthesis. When the light shifted from high to low intensity, NPQ is still engaged at a high level, causing a stronger decline in photosynthesis. Our finding suggests that the dynamic effects of photochemistry and NPQ on photosynthesis depend on the phases of environmental fluctuations and interactive effects of light and temperature. Across the full spectra of light fluctuation, the slow induction of qL is a more important limiting factor than the slow relaxation of NPQ for photosynthesis in typical ranges of temperature for photosynthesis. The findings provided a new perspective to improve photosynthetic productivity with molecular biology under natural fluctuating environments.

19.
Tree Physiol ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617120

RESUMEN

Considering the temporal responses of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) to local water availability in the spatial analysis of Δ13C is essential for evaluating the contribution of environmental and genetic facets of plant Δ13C. Using tree-ring Δ13C from years with contrasting water availability at 76 locations across the natural range of loblolly pine, we decomposed site-level Δ13C signals to maximum Δ13C in well-watered conditions (Δ13Cmax) and isotopic drought sensitivity (m) as a change in Δ13C per unit change of Palmer's Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Site water status, especially the tree lifetime average PDSI, was the primary factor affecting Δ13Cmax. The strong spatial correlation exhibited by m was related to both genetic and environmental factors. The long-term average water availability during the period relevant to trees as indicated by lifetime average PDSI correlated with Δ13Cmax, suggesting acclimation in tree gas-exchange traits, independent of incident water availability. The positive correlation between lifetime average PDSI and m indicated that loblolly pines were more sensitive to drought at mesic than xeric sites. The m was found to relate to a plant's stomatal control, and may be employed as a genetic indicator of efficient water use strategies. Partitioning Δ13C to Δ13Cmax and m provided a new angle for understanding sources of variation in plant Δ13C, with several fundamental and applied implications.

20.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618065

RESUMEN

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a model C4 crop made experimentally tractable by extensive genomic and genetic resources. Biomass sorghum is studied as a feedstock for biofuel and forage. Mechanistic modeling suggests that reducing stomatal conductance (gs) could improve sorghum intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and biomass production. Phenotyping to discover genotype-to-phenotype associations remains a bottleneck in understanding the mechanistic basis for natural variation in gs and iWUE. This study addressed multiple methodological limitations. Optical tomography and a machine learning tool were combined to measure stomatal density (SD). This was combined with rapid measurements of leaf photosynthetic gas exchange and specific leaf area (SLA). These traits were the subject of genome-wide association study and transcriptome-wide association study across 869 field-grown biomass sorghum accessions. The ratio of intracellular to ambient CO2 was genetically correlated with SD, SLA, gs, and biomass production. Plasticity in SD and SLA was interrelated with each other and with productivity across wet and dry growing seasons. Moderate-to-high heritability of traits studied across the large mapping population validated associations between DNA sequence variation or RNA transcript abundance and trait variation. A total of 394 unique genes underpinning variation in WUE-related traits are described with higher confidence because they were identified in multiple independent tests. This list was enriched in genes whose Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative orthologs have functions related to stomatal or leaf development and leaf gas exchange, as well as genes with nonsynonymous/missense variants. These advances in methodology and knowledge will facilitate improving C4 crop WUE.

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