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1.
Talanta ; 236: 122837, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635227

RESUMEN

A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was developed in this study with the vegetable oil from olive (OLV-QCM) to detect an important volatile organic compound, ß-pinene in Indian cardamom. Hydrophobic vegetable oil from olive, which contains oleic acid and omega-9, a monounsaturated fatty acid was found to be suitable for binding ß-pinene through non-covalent bonds. The fabricated QCM sensor coating was examined with the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine its surface morphology and chemical compositions. The sensitivity, reproducibility, repeatability, and reusability were studied for the developed sensor. Notably, the sensor was observed to be highly selective towards ß-pinene as compared to the other volatile components present in cardamom. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) parameters were determined as 5.57 mg L-1 and 18.57 mg L-1, respectively. Moreover, the adsorption isotherm models of the sensor were studied to validate the physical adsorption affinity towards ß-pinene applying Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. The sensor showed a correlation factor of 0.99 with the peak area percentage of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for ß-pinene in cardamom samples. The sensor was prepared with natural vegetable oil, unlike health hazard chemicals. In addition to this, the low-cost, easy fabrication process ensured the suitability of the sensor for practical deployment.


Asunto(s)
Elettaria , Impresión Molecular , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Aceites Vegetales , Polímeros , Tecnicas de Microbalanza del Cristal de Cuarzo , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130760, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390911

RESUMEN

Rapid volatile detection methods for seed vigour rely heavily on artificial ageing (AA), however the comparability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to natural ageing (NA) and practicability of the detection models were not well known. In this study, VOCs between AA and NA sweet corn seeds were compared and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) modelswere constructed based on AA to predict the seed vigour of NA. A total of 33 VOCs were identified, among which aldehydes showed the highest consistency between NA and AA. Furthermore, a AS-PLS-R model with variable importance in projection (VIP > 1) and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r > 0.9) algorithms, which was built on 3 volatile markers: benzaldehyde monomer, n-nonanal, 1-butanol monomer, achieved the best performance (R2p of 0.901 and RMSEP of 0.050). Therefore, coupling Gas Chromatography- Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) with chemometrics can be an effective way to monitor and predict stored seeds vigour.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Espectrometría de Movilidad Iónica , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Semillas/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
3.
Renew Sustain Energy Rev ; 153: 111786, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690528

RESUMEN

Combating the COVID-19 pandemic has raised the demand for and disposal of personal protective equipment in the United States. This work proposes a novel waste personal protective equipment processing system that enables energy recovery through producing renewable fuels and other basic chemicals. Exergy analysis and environmental assessment through a detailed life cycle assessment approach are performed to evaluate the energy and environmental sustainability of the processing system. Given the environmental advantages in reducing 35.42% of total greenhouse gas emissions from the conventional incineration and 43.50% of total fossil fuel use from landfilling processes, the optimal number, sizes, and locations of establishing facilities within the proposed personal protective equipment processing system in New York State are then determined by an optimization-based site selection methodology, proposing to build two pre-processing facilities in New York County and Suffolk County and one integrated fast pyrolysis plant in Rockland County. Their optimal annual treatment capacities are 1,708 t/y, 8,000 t/y, and 9,028 t/y. The proposed optimal personal protective equipment processing system reduces 31.5% of total fossil fuel use and 35.04% of total greenhouse gas emissions compared to the personal protective equipment incineration process. It also avoids 41.52% and 47.64% of total natural land occupation from the personal protective equipment landfilling and incineration processes.

4.
Energy Build ; 254: 111553, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658497

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 health crisis highlighted the correlation between air exchange efficiency and virus airborne transmission. Air exchange efficiency is a performance index able to characterize ventilation effectiveness in buildings. Some standards, such as ASHRAE 129, clearly define assessment procedures of air exchange efficiency for mechanical ventilation, adopting tracer gas techniques. However, standardized procedures are based on measurements at the exhaust and cannot be adopted for natural and mixed mode ventilation strategies. In the '80s, Sandberg suggested that tracer gas decay technique enables to measure simultaneously the nominal time constant (through air change rate measurements) and the mean age of air in several points of the ventilated zone. This paper aims to present practical issues and uncertainty analysis related to the implementation of this approach, in a new commissioning protocol. For this purpose, we compare the new procedure, based on Sandberg's observation, with the ASHRAE 129 protocol for mechanical ventilation. Results coming from field campaigns show that the difference between air exchange efficiency values obtained using ASHRAE 129 protocol (51.8%) and the new procedure (47.4%) are usually negligible in low airflow rate, considering an average uncertainty of ± 7.0%. Results show that the procedure is robust and that it is technically possible to implement it to natural and mixed-mode ventilation.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149765, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454141

RESUMEN

There is a growing global recognition that microalgae-based biofuel are environment-friendly and economically feasible options because they incur several advantages over traditional fossil fuels. Also, the microalgae can be manipulated for extraction of value-added compounds such as lipids (triacylglycerols), carbohydrates, polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, pigments, antioxidants, various antimicrobial compounds, etc. Recently, there is an increasing focus on the co-cultivation practices of microalgae with other microorganisms to enhance biomass and lipid productivity. In a co-cultivation strategy, microalgae grow symbiotically with other heterotrophic microbes such as bacteria, yeast, fungi, and other algae/microalgae. They exchange nutrients and metabolites; this helps to increase the productivity, therefore facilitating the commercialization of microalgal-based fuel. Co-cultivation also facilitates biomass harvesting and waste valorization, thereby help to build an algal biorefinery platform for bioenergy production along with multivariate high value bioproducts and simultaneous waste bioremediation. This article comprehensively reviews various microalgae cultivation practices utilizing co-culture approaches with other algae, fungi, bacteria, and yeast. The review mainly focuses on the impact of several binary culture strategies on biomass and lipid yield. The advantages and challenges associated with the procedure along with their respective cultivation modes have also been presented and discussed in detail.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Biodegradación Ambiental , Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Técnicas de Cocultivo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149716, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455272

RESUMEN

Fossil fuels have been the major source of electricity supply in the United States of America (USA) for many decades. While a significant shift has occurred from coal-dominated supply to natural gas and renewable source based supplies in recent decades, there is still large potential to improve biomass supported electricity contribution in rural communities, which depend majorly on forest-related activities. Wood waste, an underutilized renewable resource, has the potential for electricity generation in rural areas to reduce the contribution of electricity generated from fossil fuels and assist in greenhouse gas savings. In this study, a life cycle assessment approach was used to estimate the emissions of electricity generated by wood residues in a rural community (Grenada County, Mississippi (MS), USA) and compared with those emissions from the recent electricity mix (2018), a previous electricity mix (2010) supply, along with natural gas (NG) and coal (Bituminous Coal, BC) based electricity generation options. A significant reduction (85.9-94.6%) in global warming impact was observed when compared with BC, NG and grid supplied electricity for years 2010 and 2018. When compared to the current electricity mix at the grid (2018), acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and smog formation showed higher emissions ranging from 30.8% to 72.4%. The sensitivity analysis showed an improvement in emissions savings with increased biomass to power conversion efficiency (40%), lower moisture content of the biomass (0%, bone dry biomass), and reduced transportation distance (35 km). This study showed an improvement in the electricity mix supplied to Grenada county, MS, which implies sustainable development opportunities for promoting energy security in rural communities with forest-based industries.


Asunto(s)
Electricidad , Población Rural , Biomasa , Bosques , Grenada , Humanos , Mississippi , Estados Unidos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149842, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455274

RESUMEN

Global environmental awareness has encouraged further research towards biofuel production and consumption. Despite the favorable properties of biofuels, the sustainability of their conventional production pathways from agricultural feedstocks has been questioned. Therefore, the use of non-food feedstocks as a promising approach to ensure sustainable biofuel production is encouraged. However, the use of synthetic solvents/chemicals and energy carriers during biofuel production and the consequent adverse environmental effects are still challenging. On the other hand, biofuel production is also associated with generating large volumes of waste and wastewater. Accordingly, the circular bioeconomy as an innovative approach to ensure complete valorization of feedstocks and generated waste streams under the biorefinery scheme is proposed. In line with that, the current study aims to assess the environmental sustainability of bioethanol production in a safflower-based biorefinery using the life cycle assessment framework. Based on the obtained results, safflower production and its processing into 1 MJ bioethanol under the safflower-based biorefinery led to damage of 2.23E-07 disability-adjusted life years (DALY), 2.35E-02 potentially disappeared fraction (PDF)*m2*yr, 4.76E-01 kg CO2 eq., and 3.82 MJ primary on the human health, ecosystem quality, climate change, and resources, respectively. Moreover, it was revealed that despite adverse environmental effects associated with safflower production and processing, the substitution of conventional products, i.e., products that are the typical products in the market without having environmental criteria, with their bio-counterparts, i.e., products produced in the biorefinery based on environmental criteria could overshadow the unfavorable effects and substantially enhance the overall sustainability of the biorefinery system. The developed safflower-based biorefinery led to seven- and two-time reduction in damage to the ecosystem quality and resources damage categories, respectively. The reductions in damage to human health and climate change were also found to be 52% and 24%, respectively. The weighted environmental impacts of the safflower-based biorefinery decreased by 64% due to the production of bioproducts, mainly biodiesel and biogas, replacing their fossil-based counterparts, i.e., diesel and natural gas, respectively. Finally, although the main focus of the developed safflower-based biorefinery was biofuel production, waste valorization and mainly animal feed played a significant role in improving the associated environmental impacts.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Carthamus tinctorius , Animales , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Humanos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida
8.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131552, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320440

RESUMEN

Bioaugmented biotrickling filter (BTF) seeded with Piscinibacter caeni MQ-18, Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4, and activated sludge was established to investigate the treatment performance and biodegradation kinetics of the gaseous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Experimental results showed an enhanced startup performance with a startup period of 9 d in bioaugmented BTF (25 d in control BTF seeded with activated sludge). The interaction parameter I2,1 of control (7.462) and bioaugmented BTF (3.267) obtained by the elimination capacity-sum kinetics with interaction parameter (EC-SKIP) model indicated that THF has a stronger inhibition of MTBE biodegradation in the control BTF than in the bioaugmented BTF. Similarly, the self-inhibition EC-SKIP model quantified the positive effects of MTBE on THF biodegradation, as well as the negative effects of THF on MTBE biodegradation and the self-inhibition of MTBE and THF. Metabolic intermediate analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, biofilm-biomass determination, and high-throughput sequencing revealed the possible mechanism of the enhanced treatment performance and biodegradation interactions of MTBE and THF.


Asunto(s)
Éteres Metílicos , Pseudomonas oleovorans , Biodegradación Ambiental , Burkholderiales , Furanos , Éteres Metílicos/análisis
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120389, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536897

RESUMEN

The present study reports the spectroscopic characterization and second hyperpolarizability of odd spin states of acetonitrile in gas phase and water solvent. The odd spin states of acetonitrile are singlet, triplet and quintet spin state of acetonitrile have been considered for the study. The spectroscopic characterization viz. energy, geometrical parameters, infrared and electronic absorption spectra, molecular orbitals (MOs) their energies and natural transitions orbitals (NTOs) in gas phase and water solvent state reported at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. The second hyperpolarizability values are obtained using various methods and basis sets for comparison. It has been observed that the second hyperpolarizability values for the odd spin states of acetonitrile are more positive than the first hyperpolarizability. It is clearly seen that the effect of spin on spectroscopic parameters except on energy. The singlet gas phase acetonitrile calculations are well matching with the available experimental determinations. The TDDFT approach has been used to study electronic absorption spectra of all spin states of acetonitrile in gas phase and in water solvent. The IEFPCM model implemented in studying acetonitrile in water solvent at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. It is observed that HOMO to LUMO gap is larger for singlet than the triplet and quintet spin state and it decrease with an increase in strength of an applied field. All these calculations performed using Gaussian 16 program package.

10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131559, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280830

RESUMEN

Fluoroquinolones (FQs) were frequently detected in aqueous environment. The UV irradiation have been reported as an efficient method for FQs degradation. This study investigated the influence of chemical speciation on enrofloxacin (ENR) photolysis process by UV irradiation. The results showed that chemical speciation of ENR significantly affected the photodegradation kinetics, and the highest degradation rate was observed in the zwitterion form. Presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and inorganic anions had different degrees of influences on ENR photodegradation for three chemical speciation of ENR. The contribution of 1O2 on ENR degradation in neutral and alkalinity condition was significantly higher than that in acidic condition. The cation and zwitterion of ENR was beneficial to the formation of trichloromethane (TCM) and haloacetonitrile (HAN) during the chlorination alone. Compared with the chlorination of ENR, the UV pretreatment respectively caused 4.06-fold and 3.14-fold decrease in TCM formation at acidic and neutral reaction condition during subsequent chlorination. Also the decrease in HAN formation at neutral and alkalinity condition was found after UV treatment followed by chlorination. The UV pretreatment caused higher yield of HAN in the subsequent chlorination at acidic condition than that at neutral and alkalinity condition. Through the UV pretreatment at neutral condition, the generated concentration of halonitromethane (HNM) reached the maximum value during the subsequent chlorination. Potential toxic risk analysis showed the toxicity decreased in zwitterion form of ENR, while toxicity increased in cationic and anionic form after UV irradiation pretreatment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Cloro , Desinfección , Enrofloxacina , Halogenación , Cinética , Rayos Ultravioleta , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
11.
Resour Policy ; 75: 102441, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848912

RESUMEN

COVID-19 affected the economies of both developed and developing countries through multiple channels. However, the impact of this pandemic was also not so different for the developed world too. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the natural resources' rents such as oil, natural gas and energy rents on the economic performance of G7 economies from 1990 to 2020. This study uses updated panel data methods to identify the effect of COVID-19 by using novel diagnostic and unit root methods. The study found that during the COVID-19 and post pandemic, economic performance has been declined. This study found that natural resources rent, including oil and gas, help to improve the economic performance. Further, structural break for the year 2019 caused by COVID-19 also slowed down the economic performance of G7 economies. This study suggests more stabilization policies towards natural resources commodity prices and encouragement of active role from the G7 countries. This study further provides relevant policy implications in the concluding section for the selected group of countries.

12.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132345, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826955

RESUMEN

The herbal plants contain various active compounds which have the ability to treat several human diseases without any side effects like cancer chemotherapeutic drugs used currently. It is reported that majority of the presently used drugs are derived from natural resources like plants or their products and hence, there is an urgent need to search for novel drugs from natural resources. Accordingly, the present study was designed to exploit an ethnomedicinally important plant Cassia auriculata Linn. for the identification of its phytoconstituents responsible for various properties such as antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-diabetic activities. Different extracts of the plant were subjected to chromatographic techniques like high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to acquire the fingerprint of the phytoconstituents present in the plant. The extracts were analyzed by Ultra Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The efficacy of the extracts was examined through different in vitro assay methods. The GC-MS study exhibited the occurrence of 48 phytoconstituents in all the tested extracts and the HPLC study revealed the presence of quercetin. Different in vitro evaluations of the plant revealed that both ethyl acetate (DPPH-IC50: 340.9 µg/ml) and ethanol fractions (DPPH-IC50: 205.5 µg/ml) exhibited a potent activity. Hence, using the above study, novel potent antimicrobial and anti-diabetic principles from C. auriculata can be formulated in the future towards the clinical progress of therapeutic remedies against these ailments.


Asunto(s)
Cassia , Antioxidantes , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Inflamación , Extractos Vegetales , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150316, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555609

RESUMEN

In the last decade, lignin has received much attention as a feedstock to produce bio-based products. This study investigates the potential benefits of using lignin to mitigate the environmental impact of the road construction sector. An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various top-layer bio-based asphalts using kraft lignin was conducted. From a cradle-to-grave perspective, lignin-based asphalts were compared with conventional asphalts. The results of the LCA revealed that the climate change impact of lignin-based asphalts could be 30-75% lower than conventional asphalts. For the other ten impact categories, trade-offs were observed. Overall, two key factors to make the environmental impact of lignin-based asphalts lower than conventional asphalts are 1) increasing the amount of bitumen-substituted and 2) using low-grade biomass fuels for process steam in the pulp mill. The substitution of weak filler with lignin was beneficial only for climate change and could lead to a worse overall environmental performance than conventional asphalts. Similarly, higher environmental impacts for lignin-based asphalts could be obtained if the pulp mill consumed natural gas to complete the energy balance to replace the part of the black liquor from which lignin is extracted. This study also includes an in-depth discussion on methodological choices such as the allocation methods for lignin, functional units, and asphalt layers considered. We believe that such a methodological discussion could be helpful to support future Product Category Rules for asphalt mixtures.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos , Lignina , Biomasa
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150354, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560452

RESUMEN

This study systematically revealed the feasibility of the sequential ClO2-UV/chlorine process for micropollutant removal and disinfection byproduct (DBP) control. The results demonstrated that the sequential ClO2-UV/chlorine process was effective for the removal of 12 micropollutants. ClO2 pre-treatment reduced the formation of disinfect byproducts (DBPs) in the UV/chlorine process. Compared to the UV/chlorine process, ClO2 pre-treatment (1.0 mg L-1) decreased the formation of the 6 DBPs by 25.1-72.2%; and decreased the formation potential of the 6 DBPs by 13.9-51.8%. Moreover, ClO2 pre-treatment reduced the concentration of total organic chlorine by 19.8%. ClO2 pre-treatment affected the UV/chlorine process in different ways. Firstly, ClO2 pre-treatment generated chlorite, which dominantly served as a scavenger of chlorine radical (Cl) and hydroxyl radical (HO). Secondly, ClO2 pre-treatment decreased the reactivity of natural organic matter (NOM) towards radicals. Finally, ClO2 pre-treatment altered the properties of NOM, in terms of reducing the electron-donating capacity and aromaticity of NOM (SUVA254), and slightly reducing the average molecular weight of NOM. Overall, ClO2 pre-treatment effectively controlled the formation of DBPs in the UV/chlorine process. This study confirmed the sequential ClO2-UV/chlorine process was an alternative strategy to balancing the micropollutant removal and DBP control.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Cloro , Desinfección , Halogenación , Radical Hidroxilo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150247, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562762

RESUMEN

Observations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a prerequisite for evaluating the effectiveness of government efforts targeting VOC pollution. Here, based on the one-year online VOC measurement in 2018 in Beijing, systematic analyses and model simulation were conducted to illuminate VOC characteristics, emission sources, regional hotspots and behaviours in response to O3 formation. The observed mean VOC concentration in 2018 was 29.12 ± 17.64 ppbv declined distinctly compared to that in 2015 and 2016. Vehicle exhaust (39.95%), natural gas/liquefied petroleum gas (22.04%) and industrial sources (20.64%) were the main contributors to VOCs in Beijing. Regional transport, mainly from the south-south-east (SSE) and south-south-west (SSW), quantitatively contributed 36.65%-55.06% to VOCs based on our developed method. O3 sensitivity tended to be in the transition regime in summer identified by ground-based and satellite observations. Strong solar radiation along with high temperature and low humidity aggravated O3 pollution that was further intensified by regional transport from southern polluted regions. The model simulation determined that turning off CH3CHO related reactions brought about the most predominantly short-term and long-run O3 reduction, indicating that control policies in VOC species should be tailored, instead of one-size-fits-all. Overall, region-collaborated and active VOC-species-focused strategies on VOC controls are imperative.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Ozono , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Beijing , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ozono/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150392, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583073

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution and climate change have commonly been treated as two separate issues and sometimes are even seen as competing. Here we present an alternative view that these two issues are fundamentally linked. Primarily, we explore how plastic contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the beginning to the end of its life cycle. Secondly, we show that more extreme weather and floods associated with climate change, will exacerbate the spread of plastic in the natural environment. Finally, both issues occur throughout the marine environment, and we show that ecosystems and species can be particularly vulnerable to both, such as coral reefs that face disease spread through plastic pollution and climate-driven increased global bleaching events. A Web of Science search showed climate change and plastic pollution studies in the ocean are often siloed, with only 0.4% of the articles examining both stressors simultaneously. We also identified a lack of regional and industry-specific life cycle analysis data for comparisons in relative GHG contributions by materials and products. Overall, we suggest that rather than debate over the relative importance of climate change or marine plastic pollution, a more productive course would be to determine the linking factors between the two and identify solutions to combat both crises.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Plásticos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150779, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619208

RESUMEN

Plastic products made of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS) are widely used in daily life and industrial production. Polyolefins-which have a very stable structure and do not contain any active molecular groups-are difficult to degrade and pose a serious global environment threat. This study selected latex clearing protein (LcpK30) derived from Streptomyces sp. Strain K30. The natural substrate of the enzyme is rubber (cis-1, 4-polyisoprene), and the site of action is the carbon­carbon double bond. LcpK30 was incubated with UV-irradiated polyolefin PE, PP and PS (UV-PE, UV-PP, and UV-PS containing carbon­carbon double bonds) for 5 d at 37 °C. The results showed that UV-PE-LcpK30 was more fragmented than UV-PE-blank; the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that UV-PE-LcpK30 and UV-PP-LcpK30 produced new active groups (e.g., -OH and -C=O); however, the effect on UV-PS was not significant. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the treated group had more obvious roughness, cracks, and pits than the control group. The results of high-temperature gel permeation chromatography showed that the average molecular weight (Mw) of UV-PE-LcpK30 and UV-PP-LcpK30 decreased; the Mw of UV-PE5-LcpK30 was reduced by 42.02%. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the production of ketones. Therefore, the LcpK30 latex clearing protein degrade UV-oxidized polyolefin plastics and has great potential for PE and PP degradation but may not be suitable for PS. Furthermore, other Lcps (such as LcpNRRL, LcpNVL3) can also degrade UV-PE.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 150686, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600996

RESUMEN

Flowback water from shale gas operations contains formation-derived compounds, including trace metals, radionuclides, and organics. While accidental releases from storage tanks with flowback water are low-probability events if multiple containment barriers are put in place, they cannot be entirely excluded. Here the natural attenuation potential of deep unsaturated zones and groundwater was explored using predictive modelling involving a hypothetical leak from a storage tank. Actual chemical concentrations from flowback water at two shale gas wells with contrasting salinity (12,300 and 105,000 ppm TDS) in the Beetaloo Sub-basin (Northern Territory, Australia) served as input to the one-dimensional HYDRUS model for simulating chemical transport through the unsaturated zone, with groundwater at 50 and 100 m depth, respectively. Subsequent chemical transport in groundwater involved the use of a three-dimensional analytical transport model. For a total of 63 chemicals the long-term attenuation from dilution and dispersion in unsaturated sediments and groundwater was calculated. Predicted environmental concentrations for aquatic receptors were compared with no-effect levels of individual chemicals to derive risk quotients (RQ) and identify chemicals of no concern to ecosystem health (i.e. RQ <1). Except for salinity and radium-228 in one of the two wells, RQ < 1 for all other chemicals. The initial approach considered testing of toxicity to individual chemicals only. When direct toxicity assessments (DTAs) were used to account for effects of chemical mixtures, the required DTA-derived safe dilution factor for 95% species protection was 1.8 to 2.5 times higher than the dilution factor accounting for dispersion and dilution only. Accounting for biodegradation, sorption and radioactive decay decreased chemical concentrations in unsaturated sediments to safe levels using the DTA for all chemicals. The study highlighted the importance of incorporating DTA in chemical risk assessments involving complex chemical mixtures. Improved understanding of fate and transport of flowback chemicals will help effectively manage water-quality risks associated with shale gas extraction.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151254, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710425

RESUMEN

Biogas production from organic waste is a waste-to-energy technology with the potential to contribute significantly to sustainable energy production. Upgrading of biogas using in situ biomethanation with hydrogen has the potential for surplus electricity storage, and delivery of biogas with a methane content of >90%, allowing for easier integration into the natural gas grid, as well as conversion to other products. Microbial communities in biomethanation reactors undergo changes, however, these changes are largely unexplored. In the present study, metagenome-resolved protein stable isotope probing (Protein-SIP) was applied to laboratory scale batch incubations operating under anaerobic digestion, and (pre-adapted) biomethanation conditions, fed with 13C-labelled bicarbonate, in order to gain insight into the microbial activities during CO2-reduction. The strongest and most microbially diverse isotopic incorporation was observed in the pre-adapted biomethanation incubation. Furthermore, divergent incorporation of 13C-labelled bicarbonate was also observed in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, with the anaerobic digester incubations primarily showing labelled proteins in the peripheral pathways leading toward production of energy and biomass. The pre-adapted biomethanation incubations consumed H2 and CO2, but did not convert it to CH4, suggesting the production of acetate in these incubations, which was supported by heavy labelling of key enzymes in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Twelve (ten high quality) metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) coding for 13C-incorporated proteins were extracted from the metagenome, eight of which contained one or more of the key genes in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, one of which was affiliated to Methanosarcina. Together, the findings in the present study deepen our knowledge surrounding microbial communities in biomethanation systems, and contribute to the development of better strategies for implementation of biogas upgrading and microbial management.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150528, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582870

RESUMEN

Agriculture constitutes a quarter and more than a third of Denmark's global greenhouses gas (GHG) emissions and natural resource consumption, respectively. This paper aims to estimate the potential to lower Denmark's global food-related GHG, blue water and land footprints using the most recent version of a hybrid global multi-regional input-output (MRIO) database, EXIOBASE of the reference year, 2011. Specifically, we apply the 'what if' scenario-based MRIO approach to EXIOBASE and quantify the impact of increased livestock feed efficiency (FE), dietary changes, food loss and waste (FLW) reduction/prevention and food waste treatment scenarios on Denmark's global food-related GHG and resource footprints. We obtain modest reductions in Denmark's global food-related GHG, blue water and cropland footprint from the combination of livestock FE improvements and FLW reduction; 61 kt CO2e, 2 Mm3 and 30 kha, respectively. In contrast, dietary change towards no/less meat and dairy diets embodies the most significant reductions potential for Denmark's total global food-related GHG, blue water, croplands and grassland footprint by up to 34% (3.63 Mt. CO2e), 8% (90 Mm3), 23% (371 kha) and 78% (386 kha) respectively. A key policy priority should therefore be the nudging of Danish consumers towards sustainable diets. Also, this study's findings emphasise that FLW prevention remains the most effective food waste-related climate mitigation and resource efficiency strategy despite the benefits of food waste valorisation.

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