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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231838, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153467

RESUMEN

Abstract Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Resumo O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233941, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153477

RESUMEN

Abstract With occurrence mainly in the southwest Goiás, Butia purpurascens has fruits and leaves widely extracted by the regional population. Coexists with exotic grasses, frequent burnings and cattle's grazing and trampling. Young individuals are rarely seen. We aim to provide information about propagules, seedling formation and the monitoring of saplings of B. purpurascens until adults in reproductive phase. Fruits were selected, measured and benefited after harvest. Of 6,000 fruits collected 3,112 were discarded for being perforated by Conotrachelus weevils. The experiment divided 2,600 fruits into 13 treatments, distributed in ripe and immature fruits, with and without pulp. In addition, we adopt mechanical and chemical break dormancy mechanisms, different storage periods and seeding depths. After sixteen months of monitoring, the formation of eleven seedlings was obtained without distinction of any treatment. Seedlings and saplings developed slowly, taking two years to emit the first metaphyll. Over time, ten individuals died, most from fungal attack. After ten years, the only surviving palm generated two inflorescences, which produced fruit. The inefficient seedling production and the slow development of saplings, combined with the impact of the extractivism and the high rate of predation of the pyrenes, suggest the low recruitment rate of the species observed, in natural conditions. This type of data is one of the important tools for creating guidelines for the species conservation. Therefore, we suggest considering the reclassification of B. purpurascens as a Critically Endangered species in the Official List of Threatened Brazilian Species of Extinction.


Resumo Com ocorrência concentrada no sudoeste goiano, Butia purpurascens tem frutos e folhas amplamente extraídos pela população regional. Coexiste com gramíneas exóticas, queimadas frequentes, além do pastejo e pisoteamento por gado. Os indivíduos jovens raramente são vistos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fornecer informações sobre propágulos, formação de plântulas e monitoramento de indivíduos jovens de B. purpurascens até adultos em fase reprodutiva. Os frutos foram selecionados, medidos e beneficiados após a colheita. Dos 6.000 frutos coletados, 3.112 foram descartados por estarem perfurados por gorgulhos do gênero Conotrachelus. O experimento dividiu 2.600 frutos em 13 tratamentos, distribuídos em frutos maduros e imaturos, com polpa e despolpados. Além da adoção de mecanismos mecânicos e químicos de quebra de dormência, períodos de armazenamento e profundidades de plantio diferentes. Após 16 meses de monitoramento, a formação de 11 plântulas foi obtida sem distinção de qualquer tratamento. Plântulas e indivíduos jovens se desenvolveram lentamente, levando dois anos para emitir o primeiro metáfilo. Ao longo do tempo, dez indivíduos morreram, a maioria, por ataque fúngico. Após dez anos, a única planta sobrevivente gerou duas inflorescências, as quais produziram frutos. A capacidade de produção de plântulas ineficiente e o lento desenvolvimento das mudas, combinados com o impacto do extrativismo e a alta taxa de predação dos pirênios, sugerem a baixa taxa de recrutamento da espécie observada, em condições naturais. Esse tipo de dado é uma das ferramentas importantes para a criação de diretrizes para a conservação de espécies. Portanto, sugerimos considerar a reclassificação de B. purpurascens como espécie Criticamente Ameaçada na Lista Nacional Oficial de Espécies da Flora Brasileira Ameaçadas de Extinção.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 855-866, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153426

RESUMEN

Abstract The validation of many anuran species is based on a strictly descriptive, morphological analysis of a small number of specimens with a limited geographic distribution. The Scinax Wagler, 1830 genus is a controversial group with many doubtful taxa and taxonomic uncertainties, due a high number of cryptic species. One example is the pair of species Scinax constrictus and Scinax nebulosus, which share a similar morphology. Scinax constrictus is restricted to the Brazilian Cerrado savanna, while S. nebulosus is widely distributed throughout northern South America. Despite the validation of many anuran species, discriminations based only on morphological traits is quite difficult due to the high conservative morphology of some groups. In this context, the present study uses mitochondrial and nuclear genes to provide a more consistent diagnosis and test the validity of S. constrictus as a distinct species from S. nebulosus, as well as evaluate the position of these taxa within the Scinax genus. The topologies obtained herein uphold the monophyletic status of Scinax based on all molecular markers assessed in this study, in all analytical approaches, with high levels of statistical support.


Resumo A validação de muitas espécies de anuros é baseada em uma análise morfológica e descritiva de um pequeno número de espécimes com uma distribuição geográfica limitada. O gênero Scinax Wagler, 1830 é um grupo controverso com muitos táxons duvidosos e incertezas taxonômicas devido ao grande número de espécies crípticas. Um exemplo são as espécies, Scinax constrictus e Scinax nebulosus, que compartilham uma morfologia similar. Scinax constrictus é restrito à savana do Cerrado brasileiro, enquanto S. nebulosus é amplamente distribuído pelo norte da América do Sul. Apesar da validação de muitas espécies de anuros, a discriminação baseada apenas em características morfológicas é bastante difícil, devido à alta morfologia conservadora de alguns grupos. Neste contexto, o presente estudo utiliza genes mitocondriais e nucleares para fornecer um diagnóstico mais consistente e para testar a validade de S. constrictus como uma espécie distinta de S. nebulosus, bem como avaliar a posição destes táxons dentro do gênero Scinax. As topologias obtidas confirmaram o status monofilético de Scinax com base em todos os marcadores moleculares, em todas as abordagens analíticas, com altos níveis de suporte estatístico.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 544-550, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153416

RESUMEN

Abstract A feasibility analysis of tertiary treatment for Organic Liquid Agricultural Waste is presented using filamentous algae belonging to the genus Cladophora sp. as an alternative to chemical tertiary treatment. The main advantages of tertiary treatments that use biological systems are the low cost investment and the minimal dependence on environmental variables. In this work we demonstrate that filamentous algae reduces the nutrient load of nitrate (circa 75%) and phosphate (circa 86%) from the organic waste effluents coming from dairy farms after nine days of culture, with the added advantage being that after the treatment period, algae removal can be achieved by simple procedures. Currently, the organic wastewater is discarded into fields and local streams. However, the algae can acquire value as a by-product since it has various uses as compost, cellulose, and biogas. A disadvantage of this system is that clean water must be used to achieve enough water transparency to allow algae growth. Even so, the nutrient reduction system of the organic effluents proposed is friendly to the ecosystem, compared to tertiary treatments that use chemicals to precipitate and collect nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates.


Resumo Uma análise de viabilidade do tratamento terciário para Resíduos Agrícola Líquidos Orgânicos é apresentada usando algas filamentosas pertencentes ao gênero Cladophora sp. como alternativa ao tratamento químico terciário. Os tratamentos terciários que utilizam sistemas biológicos têm baixo custo de investimento e a dependência de variáveis ​​ambientais é mínima. Neste trabalho, é demonstrado que essas algas filamentosas reduzem a carga nutricional de nitrato (circa 75%) e fosfato (circa 86%) dos efluentes de resíduos orgânicos provenientes de fazendas de leite em nove dias de cultura e tem a vantagem de que as algas podem ser facilmente coletadas posteriormente. Atualmente, as águas residuais orgânicas são descartadas nos campos e córregos locais. Posteriormente, as algas podem ser consideradas como matéria prima, uma vez que possuem várias utilidades como composto, celulose e biogás. Uma desvantagem desse sistema é que água limpa deve ser usada para obter transparência de água suficiente para permitir o crescimento de algas. Mesmo assim, o sistema de redução de nutrientes dos efluentes orgânicos propostos e amigável ao ecossistema, comparado aos tratamentos terciários que utilizam produtos químicos para precipitar e coletar nutrientes como nitratos e fosfatos.

5.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 1-7, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-7180

RESUMEN

Sexual double standard (SDS) involves evaluating the same sexual behaviors in men and women using different criteria. The support for man-favorable SDS is related to sexual aggression and sexual victimization. Yet to date, studies have not examined the prevalence of SDS adherence. This study aims to identify the prevalence per gender and age of the Spanish population who adheres to the SDS typologies (man-favorable, woman-favorable, egalitarian, ambivalent) by considering sexual freedom and sexual shyness areas. A sample of 2,002 Spanish heterosexual adults (50% men, 50% women), distributed into four age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 and over 55 years old), answered the Sexual Double Standard Scale. The results showed differences in the prevalence of SDS typologies by gender and age. By gender, a higher prevalence of the man-favorable typology was observed in men and a higher prevalence of the egalitarian typology and the woman-favorable typology was observed in women. By age groups, significant differences in man-favorable and woman-favorable typologies were found in both men and women. Based on the evidence of four adherence to SDS typologies, it is recommended studying the relation of these typologies with sexual aggression/victimization to design more efficient programs for prevention and intervention of sexual violence


El doble estándar sexual (DES) consiste en evaluar los mismos comportamientos sexuales en hombres y mujeres usando diferentes criterios. El apoyo al DES favorable al hombre está relacionado con la agresión y la victimización sexual. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha, los estudios no han examinado la prevalencia de la adhesión al DES. Este estudio pretende identificar la prevalencia por género y edad de la población española que se adhiere a las tipologías de DES (favorable al hombre, favorable a la mujer, igualitaria, ambivalente) considerando los ámbitos de la libertad sexual y del recato sexual. Una muestra de 2.002 adultos heterosexuales españoles (50% hombres, 50% mujeres), distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 y más de 55 años), respondió a la Sexual Double Standard Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en la prevalencia de las tipologías de DES por género y edad. Por género se observó una mayor prevalencia de la tipología favorable al hombre en los hombres y una mayor prevalencia de la tipología igualitaria y la tipología favorable a la mujer en las mujeres. Por grupos de edad se encontraron diferencias significativas en las tipologías favorable al hombre y favorable a la mujer, tanto en hombres como en mujeres. De acuerdo con la evidencia de las cuatro tipologías de adhesión al DES, se recomienda estudiar la relación de estas tipologías con la agresión/victimización sexual para diseñar programas más eficientes de prevención de la violencia sexual e intervención en la misma

6.
Barbarói ; (58): 172-194, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1150841

RESUMEN

O presente artigo apresenta resultados de pesquisa que buscou investigar como os serviços de saúde podem (in) visibilizar atendimento ao público LGBTQIA+. O tema torna-se relevante à medida que discute a necessidade de acolhimento qualificado, bem como sua implicação na vida de lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, travestis, transexuais e transgêneros que buscam acessar serviços de saúde e que de alguma forma podem acabar sofrendo algum tipo de violência ­ nem sempre intencional - profissional ou institucional. Realizou-se pesquisa qualitativa via amostra intencional, onde foram realizadas entrevistas com onze integrantes da comunidade LGBTQIA+. Os dados foram analisados via análise conteúdo à luz do método dialético crítico. A partir dos dados coletados e reflexões geradas, fica evidente que cotidianamente ocorrem ações caracterizadas como LGBTQIAfobia. Não raro, no acolhimento perdura questões preconceituosas e de desrespeito a dignidade humana. Fica evidente, a necessidade de capacitações, diálogos e respeito à legislações que aparam o atendimento em saúde de forma ampliada.(AU)


This article presents results of research that sought to investigate how health services can (in) make the service to the LGBTQIA + public visible. The theme becomes relevant as it discusses the need for qualified reception as well as its implication in the lives of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transvestites, transsexuals and transgender people who seek access to health services and who in some way may end up suffering some type of violence - not always intentional - professional or institutional. Qualitative research was carried out via an intentional sample, where interviews were conducted with eleven members of the LGBTQIA + community. The data were analyzed via content analysis in the light of the critical dialectical method. From the data collected and reflections generated, it is evident that actions characterized as LGBTQIAphobia occur daily. Not infrequently, prejudiced questions persist and disrespect for human dignity. It is evident, the need for training, dialogues and respect for legislation that reduce health care in an expanded way.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Acogimiento , Personas Transgénero , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Servicios de Salud , Violencia , Salud Pública
7.
Barbarói ; (58): 8-29, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1150659

RESUMEN

O presente artigo resulta de uma pesquisa intervenção de cunho qualitativo, realizada com quinze adolescentes de uma instituição localizada litoral norte de Santa Catarina. Para coleta de dados foram realizadas oficinas musicais, nas quais os participantes escolheram letras de músicas para abordar questões a respeito de sua condição de vida, discorrendo sobre o território onde vivem, a percepção que têm de si e do tempo e sobre as suas redes sociais de apoio. Em um corte temático para efeitos deste artigo, as redes sociais de apoio foram eleitas como a temática a ser analisada e discutida por meio da análise temático-categorial. Os resultados apontaram para um espaço escolar com uma função indefinida, pautado na contestação das regras e normas que são impostas, onde ocorrem brincadeiras e intrigas. Quanto à rede de amigos, observou-se que essa relação é baseada nos sentimentos de confiança e de lealdade, se configurando como uma rede essencial nesse ciclo da vida, assim como a família que se apresenta como um fator de proteção, mesmo perpassando situações conflituosas, de violência, mortes e separações.(AU)


The proposal of this paper is a result from a qualitative intervention research conducted with fifteen teenagers from an institution located north coast of Santa Catarina. For data collection, music workshops were made and the participants chose music lyrics that address questions about their life condition, talking about the place where they live, their perception of themselves, their perception of the time and of the social support networks. In a cutting theme for the proposes of this article, the social support networks were chosen as the theme to be analyzed and discussed by thematic-categorical analysis. The results pointed to a school area with an undefined function, based on the contestation of the rules and regulations that are imposed, where the games and intrigues happen. Referring to the friends network, observed that this relation is based on feelings of trust and loyalty, setting up as a essential network in the life cycle, as well as the family that presents itself as a protective factor, even through conflict situations , violence, deaths an separations.(AU)


El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación de intervención con enfoque cualitativo, realizada con quince adolescentes de una institución localizada en litoral norte de Santa Catarina. Para la coleta de dados fueron realizados talleres musicales, en los cuales los miembros preferirán letras de canciones que enfoquen cuestiones con respecto a su condición de vida, disertando sobre los lugares donde viven, la percepción que tienen de sí propio, del tiempo y sus redes de apoyo social. En un tema de corte para los efectos de este artículo, se eligieron las redes de apoyo social como el tema para ser analizado y debatido por el análisis de temáticas-categóricas. Los resultados apuntaron para un espacio escolar con una función indefinida, pautado en la contestación de las reglas y normas que son impuestas, donde hay juegos y chismes. Cuanto a la rede de amistades, se ha observado que esta relación se basa en los sentimientos de confianza y de lealtad, se perfila como una red esencial en el ciclo de vida, así como la familia es presentada como un factor de protección, incluso impregna situaciones contradictorias, con violencia, muertes y separaciones.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Apoyo Social , Adolescente , Red Social , Música , Factores Protectores , Relaciones Interpersonales , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 392-397, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153365

RESUMEN

Abstract Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disease in cats. However, scarce data on its prevalence are available in Brazil. Persian cats and Persian-related breeds were assessed by molecular genotyping for a C to A transversion in exon 29 of PKD1 gene to determine ADPKD prevalence in a Brazilian population. Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral whole blood or oral swabs samples was used to amplify exon 29 of PKD1 gene employing a PCR-RFLP methodology. From a total of 616 animals, 27/537 Persian and 1/17 Himalayan cats showed the single-nucleotide variant (C to A) at position 3284 in exon 29 of feline PKD1. This pathogenic variation has been identified only in heterozygous state. The prevalence of ADPKD in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds was 5.03% and 1.6%, respectively. There was no significant association between feline breed, gender or age with ADPKD prevalence. Of note, the observed ADPKD prevalence in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds in Brazil was lower than the ones reported in other parts of the world. This finding may be related to genetic counseling and consequent selection of ADPKD-free cats for reproduction.


Resumo A doença renal policística autossômica dominante (DRPAD) é a doença genética mais comum em gatos. No entanto, poucos dados sobre sua prevalência estão disponíveis no Brasil. Gatos Persas e de raças relacionadas foram avaliados por genotipagem molecular para a transversão C→A no exon 29 do gene PKD1 felino para determinar a prevalência de DRPAD. DNA genômico extraído de sangue total periférico ou amostras de swabs orais foram utilizados para amplificar o exon 29 do gene PKD1 pela técnica de PCR-RFLP. De um total de 616 gatos, 27/537 Persas e 1/17 Himalaia mostraram a variante de nucleotídeo único (C→A) na posição 3284 no exon 29 do gene PKD1. Esta variante patogênica foi identificada apenas em heterozigose. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas foram de 5,03% e 1,6%, respectivamente. Não houve associações significativas entre raça, gênero ou idade dos felinos e incidência de DRPAD. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas no Brasil foi menor do que em outras partes do mundo, o que pode estar relacionado ao aconselhamento genético e consequente seleção de gatos sem ADPKD para reprodução.

9.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(1): 12-18, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152664

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Leaf anatomy characteristics provide important evidences about the transition between C3 and C4 pathways. The C4 photosynthesis pathway allowed to reduce the C3 photorespiratory rate, concentrating CO2 around the Rubisco site and using structures and machinery already presented in C3 plants. In monocots, it is observed a high number of C4 lineages, most of them phylogenetically related to C3 groups. The genus Apochloa (C3), subtribe Arthropogoninae, is related to two C4 genera Coleataenia and Cyphonanthus. The aim of this study was to evaluate four Apochloa species in order to establish anatomical characteristics related to the evolution of C4 pathway in this group. By means of transverse sections fully expanded leaves of A. euprepes, A. lorea, A. molinioides, and A. poliophylla were collected and the characteristics of the mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells were determined. These species showed a rustic Kranz anatomy with enlarged and radial arranged BS cells, which have few organelles organized in a centrifugal position. Although the modifications of BS cells are probably related to the maintenance of plant water status, we also discuss the evolution for the establishment of C4 photosynthesis in the related C4 genera.


RESUMEN Las características de la anatomía de la hoja proporcionan evidencias importantes sobre la transición entre las vías C3 y C4. La fotosíntesis C4 surgió para reducir la tasa de fotorrespiración C3, concentrando el CO2 alrededor del sitio de la Rubisco y utilizando estructuras y maquinaria ya presentes en las plantas C3. En monocotiledóneas, se observa un alto número de linajes C4, la mayoría de ellas filogenéticamente relacionadas con grupos C3. El género C3 Apochloa, que pertenece a la subtribu Arthropogoninae, está relacionado con dos géneros C4 Coleataenia and Cyphonanthus. En este contexto, el objetivo fue evaluar cuatro especies de Apochloa para establecer las características anatómicas relacionadas con la evolución de la via C4 en este grupo. Se colectaron hojas completamente expandidas de A. euprepes, A. lorea, A. molinioides y A. poliophylla y se determinaron las características de las células del mesófilo (M) y del haz de la vaina (HV) a partir de secciones transversales de la hoja. Las especies presentaron una anatomía rústica de Kranz con células HV agrandadas y de distribución radial, con pocas organelas organizadas en posición centrífuga. Aunque las modificaciones de las células HV están probablemente relacionadas con el mantenimiento del estado hídrico de la planta, se puede inferir que facilitan el establecimiento de la fotosíntesis en los géneros C4 relacionados.

10.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(1): 19-29, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152665

RESUMEN

RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar e identificar a partir de cacao fermentado en Caldas Colombia, bacterias con potencial de aplicación en procesos biotecnológicos, como la detoxificación de cadmio (Cd(II)) y arsénico (As(III)) en el organismo humano. En total se recuperaron 36 aislados de los cuales se recuperaron 11 en presencia de 1,0 mg/L de Cd(II) y 25 en presencia de 0,1 mg/L de As(III). Su identificación molecular determinó que la mayoría de los aislados son del género Lactobacillus. Los ensayos de crecimiento en presencia de diferentes concentraciones de los elementos evaluados permitió determinar que gran parte de los aislamientos presentan resistencia a mayores concentraciones de As(III) (300 mg/L) que de Cd(II) (10 mg/L). En ensayos de tolerancia a la acidez (pH 2,5) se encontró que la cepa tipo Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1055, junto con los aislamientos nativos L. plantarum A19, A26 y C16, mostraron la mayor tolerancia, por lo que se seleccionaron para evaluar su tolerancia a condiciones de salinidad. Las bacterias evaluadas mostraron crecimiento en concentraciones de hasta 4 g/L de sales biliares. Se concluye que los L. plantarum evaluados en este trabajo tienen un gran potencial para futuros ensayos en los que se busque demostrar la disminución de la bioaccesibilidad de Cd(II) y As(III) en condiciones in vitro del sistema digestivo humano debido a su resistencia a altas concentraciones de estos elementos y su tolerancia a condiciones de acidez y salinidad. Esto, junto con el reconocido potencial probiótico que tienen estos microorganismos, permitirá a futuro su uso en procesos biológicos de mitigación de Cd(II) y As(III).


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to isolate and identify from fermented cocoa in Caldas Colombia, bacteria with potential application in biotechnological processes such as detoxification of cadmium (Cd(II)) and arsenic (As(III)) in the human organism. In total, 36 isolates were obtained, from which 11 were recovered in the presence of 1.0 mg/L of Cd(II) and 25 in presence of 0.1 mg/L of As(III). Molecular identification showed most isolates belong to the genera Lactobacillus. Minimum inhibitory concentration assays, in presence of different concentrations of the elements, allowed to determine that the majority of isolates have resistance to higher concentration of As(III) (300 mg/L) than Cd(II) (10 mg/L). Acidity tolerance assays at pH 2.5 showed that type strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1055, and native isolates L. plantarum A19, A26, and C16, presented the highest tolerance, thus they were selected to evaluate their tolerance to salinity conditions. The evaluated bacteria could grow in bile salts up to 4 g/L. It is concluded that the evaluated L. plantarum have great potential to be used in assays in which bioaccessibility of Cd(II) and As(III) is diminished under in vitro conditions of the human digestive system, due to its resistance to high concentrations of the elements and tolerance to acidic and high bile salt conditions. These facts, together with the recognized probiotic potential of these microorganisms, may allow their future use in biological processes to mitigate Cd(II) and As(III).

11.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(1): 89-98, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152672

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Pleurotus sp. es un género de basidiomicetos ampliamente distribuido a nivel mundial, con especies que revisten importancia, no solo desde el punto de vista comercial por su valor nutricional, sino también por sus propiedades medicinales. Sin embargo, aún son insuficientes los estudios micoquímicos y se desconoce su relación con las propiedades antioxidantes de bioproductos obtenidos de estas setas durante diferentes estados de crecimiento. En el presente trabajo, se determinó el contenido de proteínas, carbohidratos, azúcares reductores, fenoles totales y flavonoides, así como la actividad antioxidante in vitro (ensayos de captación de radicales DPPH y estimación del poder reductor) de extractos acuosos de Pleurotus ostreatus en dos estados de crecimiento (primordios y cuerpos fructíferos maduros) durante la fermentación sólida. El contenido de proteínas, azúcares reductores y flavonoides fue superior en el extracto acuoso de cuerpos fructíferos maduros, mientras que los carbohidratos y fenoles totales fueron mayores en el extracto de primordios. Los valores de EC50 en los ensayos de DPPH y los de poder reductor fueron de 1,72 mg/mL y 3,27 mg/mL para el extracto de primordios y de 0,44 mg/mL y 0,48 mg/mL para el de cuerpos fructíferos maduros, respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que las propiedades antioxidantes de extractos acuosos de Pleurotus ostreatus (primordios y cuerpos fructíferos maduros) reflejan las variaciones en la concentración de moléculas bioactivas, teniendo en cuenta las particularidades fisiológicas de las fases de crecimiento. Ello podría resultar de utilidad para el diseño de protocolos de obtención de bioproductos de Pleurotus ostreatus con aplicaciones potenciales como antioxidantes en las industrias alimentaria y farmacéutica.


ABSTRACT Pleurotus sp. is a genus of Basidiomycetes widely distributed worldwide, with species that are important not only from the commercial point of view for its nutritional value, but also for their medicinal properties. However, mycochemical studies and the relationship with the antioxidant properties of bioproducts obtained from these mushrooms during different growth stages are still insufficient. In this work, the content of proteins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, total phenols and flavonoids was determined, as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity (tests of scavenging DPPH and reducing power estimation) of aqueous extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus in different growth stages (primordia and mature fruiting bodies) during the solid fermentation. The content of proteins, reducing sugars and flavonoids was higher in the aqueous extract ofmature fruiting bodies, while carbohydrates and total phenols were increased in the extract ofprimordia. The EC50 values in the DPPH and reducing power assays were 1.72 mg/mL and 3.27 mg/mL for primordia extract and 0.44 mg/mL and 0.48 mg/mL in the case of mature fruiting bodies extract, respectively. The results suggest that the antioxidant properties of Pleurotus ostreatus aqueous extracts (primordia and mature fruiting bodies), reflected the variations in the concentration of bioactive molecules, taking into account the physiological characteristics of the growth phases. This could be useful in designing protocols for obtaining bioproducts from Pleurotus ostreatus with potential applications as antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries.

12.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 33(1): 21-30, jan.-abr. 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1154260

RESUMEN

Resumo A pesquisa investigou as vivências de policiais civis de uma Delegacia Especializada de Atendimento à Mulher (DEAM) em um município do sudoeste goiano no atendimento às mulheres em situação de violência doméstica. Partindo da abordagem qualitativa, realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas com quatro policiais, duas mulheres e dois homens. Identificaram-se diversas dificuldades vivenciadas no cotidiano profissional, desde a falta de espaço físico, funcionários e tempo, até a ausência de capacitação para o atendimento às mulheres. Embora tivessem conhecimento sobre a Lei Maria da Penha, as/os participantes reproduziam concepções de gênero machistas e misóginas que, somadas à precariedade do serviço, culminavam na culpabilização das mulheres em situação de violência. Os/as entrevistados/as apontaram a necessidade de criação de um serviço de Psicologia para apoio às mulheres e aos/às próprios/as policiais. Neste sentido, propõe-se a implantação de formação dos/as trabalhadores/as da DEAM e a realização de intervenções psicossociais, de modo a potencializar o papel da polícia no enfrentamento da violência de gênero.


Abstract The research investigated the experiences of civil police officers of a Specialized Police Station for Women's Care (DEAM) in a municipality in the southwestern region of Brazil in the care of women in situations of domestic violence. Based on the qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with four police officers, two women and two men. Several difficulties experienced in daily professional life were found, from lack of physical space, employees and time, to the absence of training to meet women. Although they had knowledge about the Maria da Penha's Law, the participants reproduced sexist and misogynistic gender conceptions that, added to the precariousness of the service, culminated in blaming women in situations of violence. The interviewees pointed out the need to create a Psychology service to support women and the own police officers. In this sense, DEAM workers should be properly trained, and there should be the performance of psychosocial interventions, in order to enhance the role of the police in coping with gender violence.

13.
Podium (Pinar Río) ; 16(1): 201-212, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155069

RESUMEN

RESUMEN La coordinación óculo-pédica se refiere a movimientos realizados con la coordinación visual con el pie, elemento motriz de utilidad para diversos deportes y, en especial, para establecer estrategias de trabajo en futbolistas de diversas categorías de formación. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo validar teóricamente mediante especialistas una propuesta de ejercicios físicos que potencien la coordinación óculo-pédica, en la técnica de conducción del balón para futbolistas juveniles del género femenino. Esta investigación es de tipo descriptiva-correlacional, de orden cualitativa. Se seleccionan a 30 especialistas, divididos en tres niveles de competencias profesionales, a los cuales se les aplica un cuestionario para evaluar tres indicadores prepropuesta, que validan una idea de entrenamiento coordinativo (pertinencia, complejidad, prioridad), más un cuestionario que evaluará un indicador (efectividad) luego de diseñada la propuesta de intervención con 30 ejercicios físicos especializados. Como resultados, se plantea que no se evidencian diferencias significativas en tres indicadores (complejidad: p=0.850; prioridad: p=0.075; efectividad: p=0.419) de cuatro posibles (pertinencia: p=0.014) por nivel de especialistas, existiendo consenso en las calificaciones emitidas. Los indicadores prepropuesta presentaron una evaluación cualitativa entre regular a muy bien y el indicador evaluador de la propuesta obtiene una calificación cualitativa general De acuerdo. Se evidencia, en sentido general, el criterio consensado de varios especialistas con competencias diversas, calificando cuantitativa y cualitativamente, de forma positiva, la calidad de la prepropuesta y la propuesta.


RESUMO A coordenação óculo-pédica refere-se a movimentos feitos com a coordenação visual com o pé, um elemento motor útil para vários desportos e, especialmente, para estabelecer estratégias de trabalho em jogadores de futebol de várias categorias de treino. O objetivo desta investigação é validar teoricamente através de especialistas uma proposta de exercícios físicos que potenciem a coordenação óculo-pédica, na técnica de condução de bola para jovens jogadoras de futebol feminino. Esta é uma investigação descritivo-correlacional e qualitativa. São selecionados trinta especialistas, divididos em três níveis de competências profissionais, aos quais é aplicado um questionário para avaliar três indicadores de pré-proposta, que validam uma ideia de formação de coordenação (pertinência, complexidade, prioridade), mais um questionário que avaliará um indicador (eficácia) após a concepção da proposta de intervenção com 30 exercícios físicos especializados. Como resultados, afirma-se que não são evidenciadas diferenças significativas em três indicadores (complexidade: p=0,850; prioridade: p=0,075; eficácia: p=0,419) de quatro possíveis (pertinência: p=0,014) por nível de especialistas, consenso existente nas qualificações emitidas. Os indicadores de pré-proposta apresentaram uma avaliação qualitativa entre regular a muito bom e o indicador do avaliador da proposta obtém uma qualificação qualitativa geral Acordado. É evidente, num sentido geral, o critério consensual de vários especialistas com diversas competências, qualificando quantitativa e qualitativamente, de forma positiva, a qualidade da pré-proposta e da proposta.


ABSTRACT The oculo-pedic coordination refers to movements made with the visual coordination with the foot, a useful motor element for various sports and especially for establishing work strategies in soccer players of various teaching-educational categories. The objective of this research is to theoretically validate, through specialists, a physical exercises proposal that enhance the oculo-pedic coordination in the ball conduction technique for female youth soccer players. This is a descriptive-correlational research of qualitative order. Thirty specialists are selected, divided into three levels of professional competencies, to whom a questionnaire is applied to evaluate three pre-proposal indicators, which validate an idea of coordination training (relevance, complexity, priority), plus a questionnaire that will evaluate an indicator (effectiveness) after designing the intervention proposal with 30 specialized physical exercises. As results, there are no significant differences in three indicators (complexity: p=0.850; priority: p=0.075; effectiveness: p=0.419) out of four possible indicators (relevance: p=0.014) by level of specialists, and there is consensus in the ratings issued. The pre-proposal indicators presented a qualitative evaluation between fair to very good and the evaluator indicator of the proposal obtained an overall qualitative rating of Agreed. It is evident, in general, the consensus criterion of several specialists with diverse competences, qualifying quantitatively and qualitatively, in a positive way, the quality of the pre-proposal and the proposal.

14.
Radiol. bras ; 54(2): 94-98, Jan.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155235

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective: To establish ultrasound reference values for thyroid volumes in children up to 3 years of age, given that ultrasound of the thyroid is an essential examination in the diagnosis of childhood thyroid disease. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in an iodine-sufficient city in southeastern Brazil. A total of 100 healthy children underwent clinical evaluation, anthropometric examination, and cervical ultrasound in accordance with conventional protocols. We evaluated characteristics such as echotexture, thyroid lobe volume, and total thyroid volume. The children were divided into five groups, by age: < 2 months; 2-12 months; 12-18 months; 18-24 months; and 24-36 months. Results: The mean thyroid volume was lower in the < 2 month age group than in the other groups (0.4 mL vs. 0.18-0.70 mL; p < 0.001). For the subjects between 2 and 36 months of age, the mean volume was 1.0 mL (range, 0.30-2.0 mL). No other significant differences were observed between groups, thyroid lobes, or gender. However, body mass index correlated significantly with total thyroid volume (r = 0.347; p = 0.001). Conclusion: The mean thyroid dimensions were smallest in the < 2 month age group (0.35 ± 0.16 mL). For the subjects between 2 and 36 months of age, a reference value of 0.85 ± 0.42 mL can be used. Our data could guide the diagnostic investigation of thyroid disease, especially congenital hypothyroidism, in childhood.


Resumo Objetivo: Estabelecer valores de referência ultrassonográficos de volumes tireoidianos em crianças de até três anos de idade, por ser exame essencial no diagnóstico de doença tireoidiana infantil. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de estudo prospectivo conduzido em cidade do sudeste brasileiro suficiente em iodo. Participaram 100 crianças saudáveis, submetidas a exame clinicoantropométrico e ultrassonografia cervical seguindo protocolos convencionais. Características como ecotextura e volumes dos lobos e da tireoide total foram obtidos. Segundo a idade, as crianças foram distribuídas em cinco grupos: < 2 meses; 2-12 meses; 12-18 meses; 18-24 meses; e 24-36 meses. Resultados: No grupo < 2 meses os volumes tireoidianos foram menores (p < 0,001) do que nos demais (0,4 mL; 0,18-0,70 mL). Além dessa idade, o volume total médio foi 1,0 mL (0,30-2,0 mL) e não diferiu entre os grupos. Não foram observadas diferenças entre lobos ou relacionadas a gênero. Houve correlação (r = 0,347; p = 0,001) entre índice de massa corporal e volume total. Conclusão: As dimensões tireoidianas foram menores até dois meses (0,35 ± 0,16 mL), e a partir dessa idade os mesmos valores de referência podem ser usados até 36 meses (0,85 ± 0,42 mL). Tais dados podem orientar a investigação diagnóstica, especialmente no hipotireoidismo congênito.

15.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 650-658, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789487

RESUMEN

AIMS: Periprosthetic femoral fractures (PPF) are a serious complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and are becoming an increasingly common indication for revision arthroplasty with the ageing population. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors for PPF based on an analysis of registry data. METHODS: Cases recorded with PPF as the primary indication for revision arthroplasty in the German Arthroplasty Registry (Endoprothesenregister Deutschland (EPRD)), as well as those classified as having a PPF according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes in patients' insurance records were identified from the complete datasets of 249,639 registered primary hip arthroplasties in the EPRD and included in the analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of PPFs was higher (24.6%; 1,483) than reported in EPRD annual reports listing PPF as the main reason for revision (10.9%; 654). The majority of fractures occurred intraoperatively and were directly related to the implantation process. Patients who were elderly, female, or had comorbidities were at higher risk of PPFs (p < 0.001). German hospitals with a surgical volume of < 300 primary procedures per year had a higher rate of PPFs (p < 0.001). The use of cemented and collared prostheses had a lower fracture risk PPF compared to uncemented and collarless components, respectively (both p < 0.001). Collared prostheses reduced the risk of PPF irrespective of the fixation method and hospital's surgical volume. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of intraoperative fractures emphasises the need to improve surgeon training and surgical technique. Registry data should be interpreted with caution because of potential differences in coding standards between institutions. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):650-658.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla , Fracturas del Fémur/epidemiología , Fracturas Periprotésicas/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Prótesis de Cadera , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistema de Registros , Reoperación , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045258, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795308

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic and its control measures have impacted health and healthcare provision in various levels. Physical distancing measures, for instance, may affect sexual health, impacting access to HIV prevention supplies and changing sexual behaviour, as well as mental health, increasing feelings of unsafety and weakening community support ties. These effects can be worsened among socially marginalised groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Brazil is among the countries most affected by COVID-19 in the world, where control measures have been inconsistently implemented. We aim to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sexual and mental health of adolescent and adult MSM and TGW in Brazil. METHODS: Convergent mixed-method prospective cohort study, nested in two ongoing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cohorts in Brazil, named PrEP1519 and Combina. Participants will be invited to answer, at baseline and after 6 months, a questionnaire about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexual behaviour, HIV prevention and mental health. Data on HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections (STI) will be collected as part of routine follow-up from the cohorts. Main outcome measures (HIV infection, STI and depression symptoms) will be observed within 12 months after baseline. Sample size is estimated at 426 participants. Complementarily, 50 participants will be invited to in-depth interviews through video calls or interactive voice response, and 20 will be invited to chronicle their lives during the pandemic through digital diaries. Triangulation will be done across qualitative methods and with the quantitative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by Research Ethics Committees from the Brazilian Universities coordinating the study. Findings will be published in scientific journals and presented at meetings. Informative flyers will be elaborated to communicate study findings to participants and key stakeholders.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Salud Mental , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
17.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795493

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Somnolencia Excesiva/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Sueño , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Política Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Latencia del Sueño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797350

RESUMEN

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
19.
Fam Process ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830510

RESUMEN

To quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and public health interventions on parent and child mental health and family relationships, we examined change in individual and family functioning in a sample of parents enrolled in a prevention trial; we examined change before the pandemic (2017-2019) when children were an average of 7 years old to the first months after the imposition of widespread public health interventions in the United States (2020) with paired t tests and HLM models. We examined moderation by parent gender, education, family income, and coparenting conflict. We found large deteriorations from before the pandemic to the first months of the pandemic in child internalizing and externalizing problems and parent depression, and a moderate decline in coparenting quality. Smaller changes were found for parent anxiety and parenting quality. Mothers and families with lower levels of income were at particular risk for deterioration in well-being. Results indicate a need for widespread family support and intervention to prevent potential family "scarring," that is, prolonged, intertwined individual mental health and family relationship problems.

20.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834713

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the features of the formation of gender reassignment`s ideas in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to differentiate diagnosis of these psychopathological formations with transsexualism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in the Department of Sexology and Therapy of Sexual Dysfunctions of the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry - a branch of the Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology in the period from October 2018 to May 2020. The study included 100 outpatients referred for gender reassignment. The subjects were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 58 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Paranoid schizophrenia, F20.0; Schizotypal disorder, F21; Chronic delusional disorders, F22) with ideas of sex change. The second group included 42 patients with a diagnosis of «Transsexualism¼ (F64.0). Clinical-psychopathological, pathopsychological and statistical methods were used. RESULTS: Patients with transsexualism are statistically significantly more often adapted in terms of work and family, have experience of life in the desired gender, use hormone therapy and gender-affirmative interventions before undergoing a medical commission on gender reassignment and less often hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals, compared to patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (p<0.05). Patients with schizophrenia are more likely to experience delays and disharmony in psychosexual development. Sex reassignment ideas are more common in schizotypal disorder than in other types of schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: Ideas of gender reassignment in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, as a rule, are formed on the basis of existing deviations in the early stages of the formation of gender identity. The central place in the psychopathology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with ideas of gender reassignment is occupied by depersonalization-dysmorphophobic experiences with the following formation of overvalued, delusional or paranoid ideas of sex reassignment.


Asunto(s)
Identidad de Género , Transexualidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Moscú/epidemiología , Psicopatología , Esquizofrenia Paranoide
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