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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231838, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153467

RESUMEN

Abstract Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Resumo O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233941, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153477

RESUMEN

Abstract With occurrence mainly in the southwest Goiás, Butia purpurascens has fruits and leaves widely extracted by the regional population. Coexists with exotic grasses, frequent burnings and cattle's grazing and trampling. Young individuals are rarely seen. We aim to provide information about propagules, seedling formation and the monitoring of saplings of B. purpurascens until adults in reproductive phase. Fruits were selected, measured and benefited after harvest. Of 6,000 fruits collected 3,112 were discarded for being perforated by Conotrachelus weevils. The experiment divided 2,600 fruits into 13 treatments, distributed in ripe and immature fruits, with and without pulp. In addition, we adopt mechanical and chemical break dormancy mechanisms, different storage periods and seeding depths. After sixteen months of monitoring, the formation of eleven seedlings was obtained without distinction of any treatment. Seedlings and saplings developed slowly, taking two years to emit the first metaphyll. Over time, ten individuals died, most from fungal attack. After ten years, the only surviving palm generated two inflorescences, which produced fruit. The inefficient seedling production and the slow development of saplings, combined with the impact of the extractivism and the high rate of predation of the pyrenes, suggest the low recruitment rate of the species observed, in natural conditions. This type of data is one of the important tools for creating guidelines for the species conservation. Therefore, we suggest considering the reclassification of B. purpurascens as a Critically Endangered species in the Official List of Threatened Brazilian Species of Extinction.


Resumo Com ocorrência concentrada no sudoeste goiano, Butia purpurascens tem frutos e folhas amplamente extraídos pela população regional. Coexiste com gramíneas exóticas, queimadas frequentes, além do pastejo e pisoteamento por gado. Os indivíduos jovens raramente são vistos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fornecer informações sobre propágulos, formação de plântulas e monitoramento de indivíduos jovens de B. purpurascens até adultos em fase reprodutiva. Os frutos foram selecionados, medidos e beneficiados após a colheita. Dos 6.000 frutos coletados, 3.112 foram descartados por estarem perfurados por gorgulhos do gênero Conotrachelus. O experimento dividiu 2.600 frutos em 13 tratamentos, distribuídos em frutos maduros e imaturos, com polpa e despolpados. Além da adoção de mecanismos mecânicos e químicos de quebra de dormência, períodos de armazenamento e profundidades de plantio diferentes. Após 16 meses de monitoramento, a formação de 11 plântulas foi obtida sem distinção de qualquer tratamento. Plântulas e indivíduos jovens se desenvolveram lentamente, levando dois anos para emitir o primeiro metáfilo. Ao longo do tempo, dez indivíduos morreram, a maioria, por ataque fúngico. Após dez anos, a única planta sobrevivente gerou duas inflorescências, as quais produziram frutos. A capacidade de produção de plântulas ineficiente e o lento desenvolvimento das mudas, combinados com o impacto do extrativismo e a alta taxa de predação dos pirênios, sugerem a baixa taxa de recrutamento da espécie observada, em condições naturais. Esse tipo de dado é uma das ferramentas importantes para a criação de diretrizes para a conservação de espécies. Portanto, sugerimos considerar a reclassificação de B. purpurascens como espécie Criticamente Ameaçada na Lista Nacional Oficial de Espécies da Flora Brasileira Ameaçadas de Extinção.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 855-866, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153426

RESUMEN

Abstract The validation of many anuran species is based on a strictly descriptive, morphological analysis of a small number of specimens with a limited geographic distribution. The Scinax Wagler, 1830 genus is a controversial group with many doubtful taxa and taxonomic uncertainties, due a high number of cryptic species. One example is the pair of species Scinax constrictus and Scinax nebulosus, which share a similar morphology. Scinax constrictus is restricted to the Brazilian Cerrado savanna, while S. nebulosus is widely distributed throughout northern South America. Despite the validation of many anuran species, discriminations based only on morphological traits is quite difficult due to the high conservative morphology of some groups. In this context, the present study uses mitochondrial and nuclear genes to provide a more consistent diagnosis and test the validity of S. constrictus as a distinct species from S. nebulosus, as well as evaluate the position of these taxa within the Scinax genus. The topologies obtained herein uphold the monophyletic status of Scinax based on all molecular markers assessed in this study, in all analytical approaches, with high levels of statistical support.


Resumo A validação de muitas espécies de anuros é baseada em uma análise morfológica e descritiva de um pequeno número de espécimes com uma distribuição geográfica limitada. O gênero Scinax Wagler, 1830 é um grupo controverso com muitos táxons duvidosos e incertezas taxonômicas devido ao grande número de espécies crípticas. Um exemplo são as espécies, Scinax constrictus e Scinax nebulosus, que compartilham uma morfologia similar. Scinax constrictus é restrito à savana do Cerrado brasileiro, enquanto S. nebulosus é amplamente distribuído pelo norte da América do Sul. Apesar da validação de muitas espécies de anuros, a discriminação baseada apenas em características morfológicas é bastante difícil, devido à alta morfologia conservadora de alguns grupos. Neste contexto, o presente estudo utiliza genes mitocondriais e nucleares para fornecer um diagnóstico mais consistente e para testar a validade de S. constrictus como uma espécie distinta de S. nebulosus, bem como avaliar a posição destes táxons dentro do gênero Scinax. As topologias obtidas confirmaram o status monofilético de Scinax com base em todos os marcadores moleculares, em todas as abordagens analíticas, com altos níveis de suporte estatístico.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 544-550, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153416

RESUMEN

Abstract A feasibility analysis of tertiary treatment for Organic Liquid Agricultural Waste is presented using filamentous algae belonging to the genus Cladophora sp. as an alternative to chemical tertiary treatment. The main advantages of tertiary treatments that use biological systems are the low cost investment and the minimal dependence on environmental variables. In this work we demonstrate that filamentous algae reduces the nutrient load of nitrate (circa 75%) and phosphate (circa 86%) from the organic waste effluents coming from dairy farms after nine days of culture, with the added advantage being that after the treatment period, algae removal can be achieved by simple procedures. Currently, the organic wastewater is discarded into fields and local streams. However, the algae can acquire value as a by-product since it has various uses as compost, cellulose, and biogas. A disadvantage of this system is that clean water must be used to achieve enough water transparency to allow algae growth. Even so, the nutrient reduction system of the organic effluents proposed is friendly to the ecosystem, compared to tertiary treatments that use chemicals to precipitate and collect nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates.


Resumo Uma análise de viabilidade do tratamento terciário para Resíduos Agrícola Líquidos Orgânicos é apresentada usando algas filamentosas pertencentes ao gênero Cladophora sp. como alternativa ao tratamento químico terciário. Os tratamentos terciários que utilizam sistemas biológicos têm baixo custo de investimento e a dependência de variáveis ​​ambientais é mínima. Neste trabalho, é demonstrado que essas algas filamentosas reduzem a carga nutricional de nitrato (circa 75%) e fosfato (circa 86%) dos efluentes de resíduos orgânicos provenientes de fazendas de leite em nove dias de cultura e tem a vantagem de que as algas podem ser facilmente coletadas posteriormente. Atualmente, as águas residuais orgânicas são descartadas nos campos e córregos locais. Posteriormente, as algas podem ser consideradas como matéria prima, uma vez que possuem várias utilidades como composto, celulose e biogás. Uma desvantagem desse sistema é que água limpa deve ser usada para obter transparência de água suficiente para permitir o crescimento de algas. Mesmo assim, o sistema de redução de nutrientes dos efluentes orgânicos propostos e amigável ao ecossistema, comparado aos tratamentos terciários que utilizam produtos químicos para precipitar e coletar nutrientes como nitratos e fosfatos.

5.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 1-7, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-7180

RESUMEN

Sexual double standard (SDS) involves evaluating the same sexual behaviors in men and women using different criteria. The support for man-favorable SDS is related to sexual aggression and sexual victimization. Yet to date, studies have not examined the prevalence of SDS adherence. This study aims to identify the prevalence per gender and age of the Spanish population who adheres to the SDS typologies (man-favorable, woman-favorable, egalitarian, ambivalent) by considering sexual freedom and sexual shyness areas. A sample of 2,002 Spanish heterosexual adults (50% men, 50% women), distributed into four age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 and over 55 years old), answered the Sexual Double Standard Scale. The results showed differences in the prevalence of SDS typologies by gender and age. By gender, a higher prevalence of the man-favorable typology was observed in men and a higher prevalence of the egalitarian typology and the woman-favorable typology was observed in women. By age groups, significant differences in man-favorable and woman-favorable typologies were found in both men and women. Based on the evidence of four adherence to SDS typologies, it is recommended studying the relation of these typologies with sexual aggression/victimization to design more efficient programs for prevention and intervention of sexual violence


El doble estándar sexual (DES) consiste en evaluar los mismos comportamientos sexuales en hombres y mujeres usando diferentes criterios. El apoyo al DES favorable al hombre está relacionado con la agresión y la victimización sexual. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha, los estudios no han examinado la prevalencia de la adhesión al DES. Este estudio pretende identificar la prevalencia por género y edad de la población española que se adhiere a las tipologías de DES (favorable al hombre, favorable a la mujer, igualitaria, ambivalente) considerando los ámbitos de la libertad sexual y del recato sexual. Una muestra de 2.002 adultos heterosexuales españoles (50% hombres, 50% mujeres), distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 y más de 55 años), respondió a la Sexual Double Standard Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en la prevalencia de las tipologías de DES por género y edad. Por género se observó una mayor prevalencia de la tipología favorable al hombre en los hombres y una mayor prevalencia de la tipología igualitaria y la tipología favorable a la mujer en las mujeres. Por grupos de edad se encontraron diferencias significativas en las tipologías favorable al hombre y favorable a la mujer, tanto en hombres como en mujeres. De acuerdo con la evidencia de las cuatro tipologías de adhesión al DES, se recomienda estudiar la relación de estas tipologías con la agresión/victimización sexual para diseñar programas más eficientes de prevención de la violencia sexual e intervención en la misma

6.
Barbarói ; (58): 172-194, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1150841

RESUMEN

O presente artigo apresenta resultados de pesquisa que buscou investigar como os serviços de saúde podem (in) visibilizar atendimento ao público LGBTQIA+. O tema torna-se relevante à medida que discute a necessidade de acolhimento qualificado, bem como sua implicação na vida de lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, travestis, transexuais e transgêneros que buscam acessar serviços de saúde e que de alguma forma podem acabar sofrendo algum tipo de violência ­ nem sempre intencional - profissional ou institucional. Realizou-se pesquisa qualitativa via amostra intencional, onde foram realizadas entrevistas com onze integrantes da comunidade LGBTQIA+. Os dados foram analisados via análise conteúdo à luz do método dialético crítico. A partir dos dados coletados e reflexões geradas, fica evidente que cotidianamente ocorrem ações caracterizadas como LGBTQIAfobia. Não raro, no acolhimento perdura questões preconceituosas e de desrespeito a dignidade humana. Fica evidente, a necessidade de capacitações, diálogos e respeito à legislações que aparam o atendimento em saúde de forma ampliada.(AU)


This article presents results of research that sought to investigate how health services can (in) make the service to the LGBTQIA + public visible. The theme becomes relevant as it discusses the need for qualified reception as well as its implication in the lives of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transvestites, transsexuals and transgender people who seek access to health services and who in some way may end up suffering some type of violence - not always intentional - professional or institutional. Qualitative research was carried out via an intentional sample, where interviews were conducted with eleven members of the LGBTQIA + community. The data were analyzed via content analysis in the light of the critical dialectical method. From the data collected and reflections generated, it is evident that actions characterized as LGBTQIAphobia occur daily. Not infrequently, prejudiced questions persist and disrespect for human dignity. It is evident, the need for training, dialogues and respect for legislation that reduce health care in an expanded way.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Acogimiento , Personas Transgénero , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Servicios de Salud , Violencia , Salud Pública
7.
Barbarói ; (58): 8-29, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1150659

RESUMEN

O presente artigo resulta de uma pesquisa intervenção de cunho qualitativo, realizada com quinze adolescentes de uma instituição localizada litoral norte de Santa Catarina. Para coleta de dados foram realizadas oficinas musicais, nas quais os participantes escolheram letras de músicas para abordar questões a respeito de sua condição de vida, discorrendo sobre o território onde vivem, a percepção que têm de si e do tempo e sobre as suas redes sociais de apoio. Em um corte temático para efeitos deste artigo, as redes sociais de apoio foram eleitas como a temática a ser analisada e discutida por meio da análise temático-categorial. Os resultados apontaram para um espaço escolar com uma função indefinida, pautado na contestação das regras e normas que são impostas, onde ocorrem brincadeiras e intrigas. Quanto à rede de amigos, observou-se que essa relação é baseada nos sentimentos de confiança e de lealdade, se configurando como uma rede essencial nesse ciclo da vida, assim como a família que se apresenta como um fator de proteção, mesmo perpassando situações conflituosas, de violência, mortes e separações.(AU)


The proposal of this paper is a result from a qualitative intervention research conducted with fifteen teenagers from an institution located north coast of Santa Catarina. For data collection, music workshops were made and the participants chose music lyrics that address questions about their life condition, talking about the place where they live, their perception of themselves, their perception of the time and of the social support networks. In a cutting theme for the proposes of this article, the social support networks were chosen as the theme to be analyzed and discussed by thematic-categorical analysis. The results pointed to a school area with an undefined function, based on the contestation of the rules and regulations that are imposed, where the games and intrigues happen. Referring to the friends network, observed that this relation is based on feelings of trust and loyalty, setting up as a essential network in the life cycle, as well as the family that presents itself as a protective factor, even through conflict situations , violence, deaths an separations.(AU)


El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación de intervención con enfoque cualitativo, realizada con quince adolescentes de una institución localizada en litoral norte de Santa Catarina. Para la coleta de dados fueron realizados talleres musicales, en los cuales los miembros preferirán letras de canciones que enfoquen cuestiones con respecto a su condición de vida, disertando sobre los lugares donde viven, la percepción que tienen de sí propio, del tiempo y sus redes de apoyo social. En un tema de corte para los efectos de este artículo, se eligieron las redes de apoyo social como el tema para ser analizado y debatido por el análisis de temáticas-categóricas. Los resultados apuntaron para un espacio escolar con una función indefinida, pautado en la contestación de las reglas y normas que son impuestas, donde hay juegos y chismes. Cuanto a la rede de amistades, se ha observado que esta relación se basa en los sentimientos de confianza y de lealtad, se perfila como una red esencial en el ciclo de vida, así como la familia es presentada como un factor de protección, incluso impregna situaciones contradictorias, con violencia, muertes y separaciones.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Apoyo Social , Adolescente , Red Social , Música , Factores Protectores , Relaciones Interpersonales , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida
8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 May 05.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950045

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In college students, higher risk alcohol consumption (drunkenness and binge drinking-BD) has negative consequences on their development and and probably facilitates risk sexual behaviors. The objective was to study if risky sexual behaviors when consuming alcohol (RSBA) are associated with higher risk consumption. METHODS: Cross-sectional multicenter study with UniHcos Project, 1st year university students from 11 universities in Spain, academic years 2011-2012 to 2017-2018 data. This data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. A uni and bivariate analysis was performed, evaluated the statistical significance of the differences in prevalence with chi-square. Mean and standard deviation were used for quantitative variables and Student's t test statistic was used. RESULTS: 9,862 subjects (72.2% women). 90.3% reported having consumed alcohol and 60.9% had drunk the last year, 49% BD in last month. It was deteded in men, significantly higher consumption in the last month and drunkenness. Last month consumption and drunkenness were significantly higher in men and in <21 years. The RSBA were significantly higher among who were drunk (15.7% unprotected sex, 1.9% sexual abuse and 0.7% taking sexual advantage) and had BD (17.1%, 1.9% and 0.7 %). Women with both risk consumptions had more sexual abuse (2.2%), and men had greater behaviors of taking sexual advantage of someone (drunk: 1.2%; BD: 1.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption was above similar groups. BD consumption was similar by gender and age. Risk sexual behaviors appear mainly in problematic consumption. Gender differences are not detected in alcohol consumers in unprotected sex but deteded in the rest.

9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(3): e00218320, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950076

RESUMEN

Sleep is a fundamental aspect for maintaining physical and emotional health, as well as one's well-being. Few studies have assessed the effect of socioeconomic conditions on sleep in the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objective was to analyze the increase or incidence of sleep disorders according to demographic and economic conditions, prior to the pandemic, and according to changes in financial, occupational, and household conditions during the pandemic. This study was conducted via web access, using data from April 24 to May 24, with 45,160 Brazilians (aged 18 or older), with a sample weighted by Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) data. Change in sleep quality (outcome), monthly income, effect on family income, occupation/work, gender, age group, marital status, and change in domestic work (exposures) were reported. The percentages of onset or increase of sleep disorders and adjusted odds ratio were estimated. The chance of exacerbation of sleep disorders was 34%, 71%, and twice as high in people with income less than one minimum wage before the pandemic, in those who lost their job and in those who had a great decrease in their income/were without income, respectively. The chance of worsening sleep disorders was 82% higher in women; three times higher (OR = 3.14) in the population aged from 18 to 29, compared to the older adults; and higher with the increase in the amount of housework (OR = 2.21). Financial and occupational factors were determinants in the worsening of self-reported sleep quality, requiring rapid actions on these conditions in order to minimize this effect. Gender, age group, and household routines also deserve attention regarding sleep quality.

10.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(4): 296-303, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953447

RESUMEN

Transforming our world the 2030 agenda for sustainable development is working towards a world that reflects equity, with universal respect for human dignity, pledging to leave no one behind. However, transgender and gender-diverse individuals experience significant health inequities, including negative health outcomes and multiple barriers to accessing care. In this article, we first highlight the health inequities that transgender and gender-diverse people face globally. We describe important aspects of transgender and gender-diverse health care, including the design and provision of health services, epidemiological considerations, transition-related care, changes in transition-related goals, cultural considerations, and political and legal issues. We then review the existing global literature on incorporating transgender health into medical curricula. We make a case for prioritizing improved education in medical schools on the specific health needs of transgender and gender-diverse people as part of addressing global health inequities in care. Our recommendations for comprehensive education on transgender health include cultural humility and anti-oppression training; involvement of transgender and gender-diverse community members; integration of transgender and gender-diverse health into curricula; practice-focused and in situ training; staff development in medical schools; and improving access to careers in medicine for transgender and gender-diverse people.

12.
Gac Sanit ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934945

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is strong evidence that individuals' feminist orientation is a significant predictor of gender-based violence awareness and capability to intervene. The objective of this study is to validate the Spanish version of the Feminism and the Women's Movement Scale (FWMS) that assesses the feminist orientation. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, administering the FWMS to 407 university students of Health Sciences and Social Work. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out and the adjustment of the model was examined through confirmatory factor analysis, analyzing structural equations. RESULTS: The results revealed Cronbach's alpha=0.869 and KMO=0.923; Bartlett <0.001. The factorial model found a sole factor that merged the 10 items into a latent variable called feminist movement and explained 99.15% of the total variance. The factorial model yielded one factor that explained 99.15% of the variance. The factorial loads of the items exceeded 0.837. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the validity of the Spanish version of FWMS questionnaire.

13.
Fam Process ; 2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937988

RESUMEN

Couple relationship standards (beliefs about what makes for a satisfying couple relationship) have not included standards held about religion, which is surprising given how important religion is in many parts of the world. In the current study, we developed the Importance of Religion in Couple Relationships Scale (IRCRS) with the aim of having a scale suitable for use across different cultural and religious groups. The IRCRS was administered to three samples: 354 Pakistani residents (178 females, 176 males) who identified as Muslim; 274 Thai residents (157 females, 117 males) who identified as Buddhist; and 165 Westerners (resident in Australia or the United States, 60 males, 105 females) who identified as either not religious (n = 74) or Christian (n = 91). We developed a 13-item measure with a two level structure yielding an overall importance of religion score. The items in the IRCRS had acceptable cross-cultural structural invariance in a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis of the Pakistani Muslims, Thai Buddhists, and Westerners. Pakistani Muslims endorsed IRCRS standards most strongly, Western Christians next most strongly, Thai Buddhists next, and Westerners with no religion least strongly. There were no gender differences, and only very small differences by relationship status. The IRCRS can be used in future research to investigate the association of religious relationship standards with couple relationship satisfaction and might be a useful clinical tool to assess the importance of religion to couples.

14.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): 1-6, jan-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222347

RESUMEN

A raiva é uma antropozoonose viral que se desenvolve de forma progressiva e aguda podendo apresentar até 100% de letalidade. O seu agente etiológico é o vírus rábico do gênero Lyssavirus pertencente à família Rhabdoviridae. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo divulgar informações acerca da ocorrência da raiva em humanos em virtude da sua expressiva importância para saúde pública e analisar a percepção da população sobre a raiva humana, de forma a obter dados relacionados a conhecimentos básicos sobre a doença. Para isso, foi criada uma página informativa denominada "@contraraiva_" na rede social Instagram para a realização de postagens interativas sobre o tema abordado, e uso de um questionário criado a partir da plataforma Google Forms em diferentes mídias sociais para a obtenção e coleta de dados. Foram obtidas 1.075 respostas, provenientes de diferentes localidades. O questionário alcançou todas as regiões brasileiras, todos 26 estados e o Distrito Federal. As informações publicadas pela página criada ajudaram a sanar dúvidas relacionadas aos principais aspectos da doença. Os dados obtidos a partir do questionário contribuem para o planejamento de ações voltadas para a educação em saúde de forma mais estratégica, visando contribuir para os pontos em que a população tem menos conhecimentos.


Rabies is a viral anthropozoonosis that is developed in a progressive and acute way and can present up to 100% lethality. Its etiologic agent is the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus gene belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family. This study aimed at disseminating information about the occurrence of rabies in humans due to its expressive importance for public health, and at analyzing the population perception on human rabies in order to obtain data related to basic knowledge about the disease. For that purpose, an information page called "@ contraraiva _" was created on the social network Instagram for providing interactive posts on the topic, and a questionnaire was created from the Google Forms platform on different social media to obtain and collect data. A total of 1,075 responses were obtained from different locations. The questionnaire included all Brazilian regions, all 26 states and the Federal District. The information published on the created page helped to clarify doubts related to the main aspects of the disease. The data obtained from the questionnaire contribute towards the planning of actions aimed at health education in a more strategic way, aiming at contributing to the points where the population is less knowledgeable.


La rabia es una antropozoonosis viral que se desarrolla de forma progresiva y aguda y puede presentar hasta un 100% de letalidad. Su agente etiológico es el virus de la rabia del género Lyssavirus perteneciente a la familia Rhabdoviridae. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo difundir informaciones sobre la ocurrencia de la rabia en humanos en virtud de su importancia expresiva para la salud pública, y analizar la percepción de la población sobre la rabia humana, con el fin de obtener datos relacionados a los conocimientos básicos sobre la enfermedad. Para ello, se creó una página de información denominada "@ contraraiva _" en la red social Instagram para realizar publicaciones interactivas sobre el tema abordado, y utilizar un cuestionario creado a partir de la plataforma Google Forms en diferentes redes sociales para la obtención y recolección de datos. Se obtuvieron 1.075 respuestas de diferentes lugares. El cuestionario llegó a todas las regiones brasileñas, a los 26 estados y al Distrito Federal. Las informaciones publicadas en el sitio web creado, ayudaron a sanar dudas relacionadas a los principales aspectos de la enfermedad. Los datos obtenidos del cuestionario contribuyen a la planificación de acciones orientadas a la educación para la salud de forma más estratégica, con el objetivo de contribuir a los puntos donde la población tiene menos conocimientos.

15.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 392-397, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153365

RESUMEN

Abstract Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disease in cats. However, scarce data on its prevalence are available in Brazil. Persian cats and Persian-related breeds were assessed by molecular genotyping for a C to A transversion in exon 29 of PKD1 gene to determine ADPKD prevalence in a Brazilian population. Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral whole blood or oral swabs samples was used to amplify exon 29 of PKD1 gene employing a PCR-RFLP methodology. From a total of 616 animals, 27/537 Persian and 1/17 Himalayan cats showed the single-nucleotide variant (C to A) at position 3284 in exon 29 of feline PKD1. This pathogenic variation has been identified only in heterozygous state. The prevalence of ADPKD in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds was 5.03% and 1.6%, respectively. There was no significant association between feline breed, gender or age with ADPKD prevalence. Of note, the observed ADPKD prevalence in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds in Brazil was lower than the ones reported in other parts of the world. This finding may be related to genetic counseling and consequent selection of ADPKD-free cats for reproduction.


Resumo A doença renal policística autossômica dominante (DRPAD) é a doença genética mais comum em gatos. No entanto, poucos dados sobre sua prevalência estão disponíveis no Brasil. Gatos Persas e de raças relacionadas foram avaliados por genotipagem molecular para a transversão C→A no exon 29 do gene PKD1 felino para determinar a prevalência de DRPAD. DNA genômico extraído de sangue total periférico ou amostras de swabs orais foram utilizados para amplificar o exon 29 do gene PKD1 pela técnica de PCR-RFLP. De um total de 616 gatos, 27/537 Persas e 1/17 Himalaia mostraram a variante de nucleotídeo único (C→A) na posição 3284 no exon 29 do gene PKD1. Esta variante patogênica foi identificada apenas em heterozigose. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas foram de 5,03% e 1,6%, respectivamente. Não houve associações significativas entre raça, gênero ou idade dos felinos e incidência de DRPAD. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas no Brasil foi menor do que em outras partes do mundo, o que pode estar relacionado ao aconselhamento genético e consequente seleção de gatos sem ADPKD para reprodução.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7430, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795699

RESUMEN

Bats are known to be reservoirs of several highly pathogenic viruses. Hence, the interest in bat virus discovery has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. So far, most studies have focused on a single type of virus detection method, either PCR, virus isolation or virome sequencing. Here we present a comprehensive approach in virus discovery, using all three discovery methods on samples from the same bats. By family-specific PCR screening we found sequences of paramyxoviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses and one coronavirus. By cell culture we isolated a novel bat adenovirus and bat orthoreovirus. Virome sequencing revealed viral sequences of ten different virus families and orders: three bat nairoviruses, three phenuiviruses, one orbivirus, one rotavirus, one orthoreovirus, one mononegavirus, five parvoviruses, seven picornaviruses, three retroviruses, one totivirus and two thymoviruses were discovered. Of all viruses identified by family-specific PCR in the original samples, none was found by metagenomic sequencing. Vice versa, none of the viruses found by the metagenomic virome approach was detected by family-specific PCRs targeting the same family. The discrepancy of detected viruses by different detection approaches suggests that a combined approach using different detection methods is necessary for virus discovery studies.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Genoma Viral , /genética , Animales , Chlorocebus aethiops , Alemania , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Nairovirus/clasificación , Nairovirus/genética , Orbivirus/clasificación , Orbivirus/genética , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Rotavirus/clasificación , Rotavirus/genética , Células Vero , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7811, 2021 04 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837241

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) outbreak that emerged in late 2019 has posed a severe threat to human health and social and economic development, and thus has become a major public health crisis affecting the world. The spread of COVID-19 in population and regions is a typical geographical process, which is worth discussing from the geographical perspective. This paper focuses on Shandong province, which has a high incidence, though the first Chinese confirmed case was reported from Hubei province. Based on the data of reported confirmed cases and the detailed information of cases collected manually, we used text analysis, mathematical statistics and spatial analysis to reveal the demographic characteristics of confirmed cases and the spatio-temporal evolution process of the epidemic, and to explore the comprehensive mechanism of epidemic evolution and prevention and control. The results show that: (1) the incidence rate of COVID-19 in Shandong is 0.76/100,000. The majority of confirmed cases are old and middle-aged people who are infected by the intra-province diffusion, followed by young and middle-aged people who are infected outside the province. (2) Up to February 5, the number of daily confirmed cases shows a trend of "rapid increase before slowing down", among which, the changes of age and gender are closely related to population migration, epidemic characteristics and intervention measures. (3) Affected by the regional economy and population, the spatial distribution of the confirmed cases is obviously unbalanced, with the cluster pattern of "high-low" and "low-high". (4) The evolution of the migration pattern, affected by the geographical location of Wuhan and Chinese traditional culture, is dominated by "cross-provincial" and "intra-provincial" direct flow, and generally shows the trend of "southwest → northeast". Finally, combined with the targeted countermeasures of "source-flow-sink", the comprehensive mechanism of COVID-19 epidemic evolution and prevention and control in Shandong is revealed. External and internal prevention and control measures are also figured out.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800283

RESUMEN

In the context of externalising behaviour problems, risk factor research (RFR) focuses on risk and protective factors of juvenile delinquency, which can pertain to individual, system, and societal levels. Several instruments aiming at measuring these factors have been developed, but a comprehensive research tool is missing. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a questionnaire, the "Family, Peers, and Externalising Behaviour in adolescence" (FPEB) as a tool for assessing adolescents' tendency of externalising behaviour, the quality of relation with their parents, and peer-relations. FPEB was administered to 835 Italian students (36.8% males, age M = 13.81, SD = 1.54) together with the Moral Disengagement questionnaire to test concurrent validity. Data about socio-demographics and school performance were also collected. An EFA (Promax rotation, subsample A, n = 444) resulted in a four-factor structure that was corroborated by a CFA (subsample B, n = 388). The factors were "externalising behaviour" (var 13.16%), "peer relations difficulties" (var 11.10%), "Family conflict" (var 8.32%), and "lack of family negotiation" (var 7.11%) and showed good internal consistency (all α ≥ 0.65). There were differences between males and females in the correlational patterns of the four factors. The FPEB factors also showed good concurrent validity: two of the four factors ("lack of family negotiation" and "externalising behaviour") and the total score of the scale correlated with the "Moral disengagement scale", whereas peer relation difficulties did not. Further analyses also showed gender differences (except for "peer relations difficulties") and an association between students' school performance and "externalising behaviour", "family conflict", and the total FPEB scores. We concluded that the FPEB is a tool that is potentially useful to assess risk and protective factors and to plan targeted interventions (focusing on the specific area). Limitations and suggestions for further improvements are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Problema de Conducta , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Italia , Masculino , Principios Morales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802257

RESUMEN

This study focused on the relationships among social support, self-esteem, and depression in transgender and cisgender individuals suffering from an incurable or curable sexually transmitted disease. Data were collected from 210 participants with an STI using a semi-structured interview along with culturally adapted standardized instruments. Results indicated no differences between transgender and cisgender groups in depression, although there were large differences in social support and self-esteem. Preliminary regression analysis identified only STI type and duration of STI as significant predictors of depression. However, when moderating roles for both social support and self-esteem were tested, each added to the explained variance and, equally importantly, revealed the effects of both gender status and social support on depression. These findings not only demonstrate how the compound stressors of gender minority status and STI type affect depressive symptoms, but also reveal the critical role that social support can play in mitigating depressive symptoms in those with gender minority status. Findings are interpreted within the context of South/Central Asian cultures that have pre- and post-colonial traditions regarding the social role of non-binary individuals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Personas Transgénero , Transexualidad , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Apoyo Social
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