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High Alt Med Biol ; 18(4): 372-383, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28846044


Nuñez, Denisse, Paola Olavegoya, Gustavo F. Gonzales, and Cynthia Gonzales-Castañeda. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, promotes skin wound healing at sea level and at high altitude in adult male mice. High Alt Med Biol 18:373-383, 2017.-Wound healing consists of three simultaneous phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Previous studies suggest that there is a delay in the healing process in high altitude, mainly due to alterations in the inflammatory phase. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a Peruvian plant with diverse biological properties, such as the ability to protect the skin from inflammatory lesions caused by ultraviolet radiation, as well as its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude on tissue repair and the effect of the topical administration of the spray-dried extract of red maca (RM) in tissue repair. Studies were conducted in male Balb/c mice at sea level and high altitude. Lesions were inflicted through a 10 mm-diameter excisional wound in the skin dorsal surface. Treatments consisted of either (1) spray-dried RM extract or (2) vehicle (VH). Animals wounded at high altitude had a delayed healing rate and an increased wound width compared with those at sea level. Moreover, wounding at high altitude was associated with an increase in inflammatory cells. Treatment with RM accelerated wound closure, decreased the level of epidermal hyperplasia, and decreased the number of inflammatory cells at the wound site. In conclusion, RM at high altitude generate a positive effect on wound healing, decreasing the number of neutrophils and increasing the number of macrophages in the wound healing at day 7 postwounding. This phenomenon is not observed at sea level.

Altitud , Lepidium , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos , Administración Cutánea , Animales , Inflamación/patología , Macrófagos , Masculino , Ratones , Neutrófilos , Perú , Piel/lesiones , Piel/patología
High Alt Med Biol ; 18(4): 322-329, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665150


Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E., Lidia Caballero, and Gustavo F. Gonzales. Association between plasma N-acylethanolamides and high hemoglobin concentration in Southern Peruvian highlanders. High Alt Med Biol 18:322-329, 2017.-High-altitude (HA) hypoxia is a stressful condition endured by organisms through different mechanisms. Failing to adapt to chronic HA exposure leads to a disease called chronic mountain sickness (CMS) characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin [Hb] ≥19 g/dL for women and ≥21 g/dL for men). Genes encoding for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subunits α and γ have been proposed as candidate genes for HA adaptation. N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) are endogenous fatty acid substances that bind to PPAR-α and -γ. NAEs are also able to modulate the endocannabinoid system, a signaling pathway activated in physiological stressful conditions. In the frame of a metabolomic study, we measured plasma levels of four NAEs: palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), stearoyl ethanolamide (SEA), and linoleoyl ethanolamide (LEA) in natives from Puno (3830 m), a city located in the Peruvian Southern Andes, and Lima (150 m). All NAEs were significantly higher in the HA population (p < 0.001, q < 0.001). Subjects with higher NAE values were those with higher Hb concentration and lower pulse oxygen saturation. However, there was no association between NAEs and CMS score. Our results suggest that PEA and OEA could be involved in physiological regulation following long-term HA exposure.

Altitud , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Hipoxia/sangre , Adulto , Mal de Altura/sangre , Amidas , Enfermedad Crónica , Endocannabinoides/sangre , Etanolaminas/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , Ácidos Linoleicos/sangre , Masculino , Ácidos Oléicos/sangre , Oxígeno/sangre , Ácidos Palmíticos/sangre , Perú , Alcamidas Poliinsaturadas/sangre , Ácidos Esteáricos/sangre