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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280290, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662679

RESUMEN

The inerter is a two-terminal component that can be added to the spring-and-damper configuration of a suspension system. It has the property that the force exerted is proportional to the relative acceleration at its terminals. Studies have demonstrated the inerter's benefit of providing superior vibration isolation when it is used in the vehicle suspension of passenger cars. However, similar benefit on another common vehicle class on the roads, namely heavy vehicles, remain to be shown, as these vehicles have vastly different parameter values than passenger cars. This study is an investigation on the performance improvement brought by an inerter in the suspension of common heavy vehicles. In the study, the parameter values of a truck and a bus were adopted in the quarter vehicle model with two different spring-damper-inerter configurations (parallel and serial inerter), and the improvements in vibration isolation and road holding capability were determined by optimization of inertance. Results show that the inerter is similarly effective in providing the said improvements when implemented on heavy vehicles instead of on passenger cars, judging from reductions in sprung mass acceleration and dynamic tire load. It is also observed that the performance benefit is associated with larger optimum inertance than that for passenger cars. Overall, the inerter has been shown to be beneficial in the parallel and serial configurations, both of which are common and can be practically implemented in the suspension of heavy vehicles.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Vehículos a Motor , Automóviles , Vibración , Aceleración
2.
Prog Brain Res ; 274(1): 129-147, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167446

RESUMEN

World War II was a cataclysmic event that consumed people from many countries for at least 6 years. We discuss a large-scale study of how people from 11 nations remember the war, including 8 Allied and 3 Axis countries. The study showed dramatic differences in how people of the former Soviet Union and those of the other 10 countries remembered the war. Events listed by the Soviet Union were almost completely different from those in the other 10 countries. In addition, Russians (as representatives of the former Soviet Union) claimed greater responsibility in winning the war (75% of the war effort) than did people from any other nation (although the US and UK also claimed over 50% responsibility). However, when people of each country rated other countries' contributions to the war, they rated the US as having a greater impact than the former Soviet Union. Another interesting finding is that when asked why the US dropped the atomic bombs on Japan, most people of ten countries said it was to win the war, with the exception being people from Russia. Further, the older the person in 7 of those countries, the more they agreed with the statement that the US dropped the bombs to end the war. Our study points up the importance of national collective memory in understanding and remembering World War II and how their can be stark differences in collective memory even among allies in the war.


Asunto(s)
Recuerdo Mental , Segunda Guerra Mundial , Humanos , U.R.S.S.
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 619, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476626

RESUMEN

Motor vehicle emissions especially occur at signalized intersections during idling, acceleration, and deceleration phases. The reduction of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles is on the focus of environmental studies. The main targets of this paper are the modeling of motor vehicle particulate matter (PM10) emissions by American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and California Line Source for Queuing and Hot Spot Calculations (CAL3QHCR) models and investigating the effectiveness of a hypothetical green wave scenario as a pollution reduction strategy. The portion of D010 State Road in Zonguldak (Turkey) is selected. Vehicle counting is applied for determining the traffic volume. Then, the PM10 emission inventory is prepared. After that, PM10 pollution distribution maps at signalized intersections are created by running air quality models. Next, the CAL3QHCR model is run again for the green wave scenario which assumes free flow at signalized intersections. The maximum PM10 concentrations predicted by AERMOD and CAL3QHCR models are 16.8 µg/m3 and 14.9 µg/m3, respectively. Although these values are below the threshold value, it can be said that air quality may pose a threat to public health in the existence of other sources. With the implementation of signal optimization, the PM10 pollution is reduced by 10-50% at intersections. Cumulative model validation is employed including other PM10 sources in the study area. PM10 contribution of other sources at Zonguldak air quality monitoring station is determined by the AERMOD model. Finally, the sum of model outputs is validated against measured concentrations. According to the validation, both models are found as satisfactory and AERMOD performed better than CAL3QHCR.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Vehículos a Motor , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
4.
J Safety Res ; 71: 181-190, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862029

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: While sophisticated plans have been adopted nationally and globally to increase bicycling's share of daily commutes, safety concerns have negatively impacted targeted bicycling growth. To investigate people's preferences for bicycling in dense urban areas, it is important to recognize how bicycling perceived level of comfort (PLOC) is constructed and how it could relate to safe versus risky behavior while interacting with motorized modes of transportation. METHOD: To examine these issues, we analyzed results from an online survey with 342 participants. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to systematically investigate the construct of bicycling PLOC and simultaneously analyze bicyclists' responses to the presence of a truck in the adjacent lane near an urban loading zone. RESULTS: SEM estimation results indicated that participants who said that they engaged in more frequent distracted bicycling reported lower PLOC. On the other hand, those who felt that road users were more lawful and predictable, and who had more bicycling experience, reported higher levels of PLOC. Participants who bicycled for commuting purposes, who made shorter trips, who bicycled more frequently, and who had more exposure to downtown bicycling also reported higher levels of PLOC. Finally, findings showed that higher PLOC was significantly associated with the choice of a safe, rather than a risky response to the presence of a truck, suggesting that a way to improve bicyclist safety would be to build an environment that could increase bicyclists' PLOC.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciclismo , Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Ciudades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vehículos a Motor , Oregon , Asunción de Riesgos , Adulto Joven
5.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 24-27, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377682

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A mass grave is any site that containing two or more associated corpses, at random or on purpose placed, of people who have died as a result of extra-judicial or random executions, not including those people who have died from armed confrontations or known major catastrophes. CASE PRESENTATION: The purpose of this paper is to explain how to reconstruct a biological profile of decomposed or skeletonized bodies and clarify the efforts done by the Libyan scientist after 2011 revolution and to set a reference for other researcher. The alleged location of the grave, as well as the alleged number and identities of the persons buried in the grave were obtained exclusively from witnesses' and relatives' testimonies. CONCLUSION: As the testimonies said, the grave was located at the alleged location and seven skeletons were exhumed. Also, the osteological and DNA study made investigators to identify the exhumed skeletons. And the dental analysis support the identification of a seven man alleged to have been buried in the grave, 7 victims were discovered.


Asunto(s)
Huesos/patología , Dermatoglifia del ADN , Exhumación , Adulto , Determinación de la Edad por el Esqueleto , Entierro , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Antropología Forense , Odontología Forense , Humanos , Libia , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Determinación del Sexo por el Esqueleto , Diente/química , Guerra
6.
BMC Fam Pract ; 20(1): 13, 2019 01 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651073

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Communication between patients and providers about persistent "medically unexplained" physical symptoms (MUS) is characterized by discordance. While the difficulties are well documented, few studies have examined effective communication. We sought to determine what veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI) perceive as the most helpful communication from their providers. Veterans with GWI, a type of MUS, have historically had complex relationships with medical providers. Determining effective communication for patients with particularly complex relationships may help identify the most critical communication elements for all patients with MUS. METHODS: Two hundred and-ten veterans with GWI were asked, in a written questionnaire, what was the most useful thing a medical provider had told them about their GWI. Responses were coded into three categories with 10 codes. RESULTS: The most prevalent helpful communication reported by patients was when the provider offered acknowledgement and validation (N = 70). Specific recommendations for managing GWI or its symptoms (N = 48) were also commonly reported to be helpful. In contrast, about a third of the responses indicated that nothing about the communication was helpful (N = 63). There were not differences in severity of symptoms, disability or healthcare utilization between patients who found acknowledgement and validation, specific recommendations or nothing helpful. CONCLUSIONS: Previous research has documented the discord between patients and providers regarding MUS. This study suggests that most patients are able to identify something helpful a provider has said, particularly acknowledgement and validation and specific treatment recommendations. The findings also highlight missed communication opportunities with a third of patients not finding anything helpful.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Síntomas sin Explicación Médica , Síndrome del Golfo Pérsico , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Adulto , Anciano , Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Veteranos
7.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 36: 9-16, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312836

RESUMEN

In forensic investigations, it is important to detect traumatic axonal injuries (TAIs) to reveal head trauma that might otherwise remain occult. These lesions are subtle and frequently ambiguous on macroscopic evaluations. We present a case of TAI revealed by pre-autopsy postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR). A man in his sixties was rendered unconscious in a motor vehicle accident. CT scans revealed traumatic mild subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two weeks after the accident he regained consciousness, but displayed an altered mental state. Seven weeks after the accident, he suddenly died in hospital. Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and PMMR were followed by a forensic autopsy. PMMR showed low-intensity lesions in parasagittal white matter, deep white matter, and corpus callosum on three-dimensional gradient-echo T1-weighted imaging (3D-GRE T1WI). In some of these lesions, T2∗-weighted imaging also showed low-intensity foci suggesting hemorrhagic axonal injury. The lesions were difficult to find on PMCT and macroscopic evaluation, but were visible on antemortem MRI and confirmed as TAIs on histopathology. From this case, it can be said that PMMR can detect subtle TAIs missed by PMCT and macroscopic evaluation. Hence, pre-autopsy PMMR scanning could be useful for identifying TAIs during forensic investigations.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Diagnóstico , Lesión Axonal Difusa/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen de Difusión por Resonancia Magnética , Traumatismos Cerrados de la Cabeza/complicaciones , Neuroimagen , Anciano , Autopsia , Lesión Axonal Difusa/etiología , Lesión Axonal Difusa/patología , Patologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vehículos a Motor , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
8.
J Palliat Care ; 33(1): 53-58, 2018 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332503

RESUMEN

Cause of death information is a vital resource for family and public health, yet significant issues persist regarding its determination, documentation and communication. In this study, we aim to characterize cause of death attribution process from the perspective of next-of-kin of Veterans who died in Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. Using a semi-structured guide, we explored next-of-kin's experiences of the Veteran's terminal hospitalization and conducted a content analysis of interview texts. In over two-third of cases next-of-kin's understanding was not consistent with their recollection of physicians' determination of cause of death. Discrepancies between official cause of death and lay understanding engendered confusion and distress. Findings have relevance for shaping the context of post-death patient/family-centered clinical practice and serve as a means for improving efficacy of cause of death communication and reducing potential for misunderstandings.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte , Certificado de Defunción , Familia/psicología , Hospitales de Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuidado Terminal/estadística & datos numéricos , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 95: 121-128, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843074

RESUMEN

The Marine Resiliency Study-II examined changes in symptomatology across a deployment cycle to Afghanistan. U.S. Servicemembers (N = 1041) received clinical testing at two time points either bracketing a deployment (855) or not (186). Factor analyses were used to generate summary and change scores from Time 1 to Time 2. A between-subject design was used to examine changes across the deployment cycle with deployment (low-trauma, high-trauma, and non-deployed) and social support (low vs. high) as the grouping variables. Insomnia increased post-deployment regardless of deployment trauma (std. effect for high-trauma and low-trauma = 0.39 and 0.26, respectively). Only the high-trauma group showed increased PTSD symptoms and non-perspective-taking (std. effect = 0.40 and 0.30, respectively), while low-trauma showed decreased anxiety symptoms after deployment (std. effect = -0.17). These associations also depend on social support, with std. effects ranging from -0.22 to 0.51. When the groups were compared, the high-trauma deployed group showed significantly worse PTSD and non-perspective-taking than all other groups. Similar to studies in other military divisions, increased clinical symptoms were associated with high deployment stress in active duty Servicemembers, and social support shows promise as a moderator of said association.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Combate/etiología , Trastornos de Combate/fisiopatología , Personal Militar/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/etiología , Trauma Psicológico/fisiopatología , Percepción Social , Apoyo Social , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Campaña Afgana 2001- , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Trastornos de Combate/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/fisiopatología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Int J Health Serv ; 47(4): 807-825, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764582

RESUMEN

This article investigates whether the United States' counterinsurgency operations have inhibited polio eradication efforts in northwestern Pakistan, the world's last major reservoir of polio. Anecdotal evidence suggests that militants disrupt polio vaccination programs because of suspicions that campaigns are a cover for gathering intelligence on Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) drone targets. This paper analyzes national-level quantitative data to test this argument. Between 2004 and 2012, the number of polio cases in Pakistan closely mirrored the number of drone strikes. But from 2013 onward, polio cases increased while drone strikes fell. This can be explained by the CIA's use of a fake immunization campaign in a failed attempt to obtain the DNA of Osama bin Laden's relatives prior to his assassination in 2011. This seemingly vindicated militants' suspicions that vaccination programs were a cover for espionage. Militants consequently intensified their disruption of immunization campaigns, resulting in an increase in polio cases in Pakistan, as well as in Afghanistan, Syria, and Iraq. For politicians and military planners, drones are attractive because they are said to harm fewer civilians than conventional methods of warfare. However, this paper demonstrates that drone strikes had negative effects on the well-being of civilians in Pakistan and further afield because they undermined global efforts to eradicate polio.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad/métodos , Programas de Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas contra Poliovirus/administración & dosificación , Política , Guerra , Humanos , Pakistán
11.
Fam Process ; 56(1): 250-261, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28247583

RESUMEN

A personal journey and a scientific challenge, this is an autoethnographic study about my own family's secrecy. I knew my grandfather had been a German prisoner of war during World War II. We all knew. But nobody talked about it. Then one day I decided I wanted to do systematic research on the issue of family secrecy around my grandfather's war experiences. Researching one's own family can be called autoethnography. It could be said that autoethnography is an approach to research that aims to describe and systemically analyze (graphy) personal experience (auto) to understand social and cultural phenomena (ethno). This scientific approach is quite new in the field of family therapy. This study has been an important personal quest, but it also led to important reflections on silences in families, on my own professional development, and on methodological issues concerning autoethnographical research. For one thing, it highlights some of the positive aspects of family secrecy and silences, and invites us-when confronted with family secrecy in clinical practice-to carefully consider the potential destructive and life-giving aspects of the silence.


Asunto(s)
Antropología Cultural/métodos , Confidencialidad/psicología , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Humanos , Memoria Episódica , Segunda Guerra Mundial
12.
AIDS Care ; 29(8): 957-960, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107796

RESUMEN

Truck drivers and their assistants have been identified as groups at higher risk for HIV infection. We sought to identify and describe the social and structural factors that may contribute to HIV risk among truck drivers who visit rest stops in Iringa, Tanzania, a region characterized by high levels of migration and mobility. This analysis was part of a comprehensive strategic assessment to examine HIV risk factors in Iringa. This analysis focuses on 11 in-depth interviews with truck drivers and a transport owner. A semi-structured interview guide was developed to elicit open-ended responses and enable probing. Interviews were conducted in Swahili, transcribed, and translated into English. Data analysis followed thematic analysis procedures that included initial reading of transcripts, development of a codebook and identification of themes through in-depth reading of transcripts. Drivers described structural risk factors for HIV including work conditions, the power imbalance between male drivers and their sexual partners and minimal perceived HIV risk with certain partners (e.g., regular partners and women selling sex). Multiple and inter-related social norms associated with truck stop environments influenced HIV risk, including peer influence and expectations, presence of sex workers, ability to purchase sex throughout their travel and alcohol consumption. These distinct social norms in truck stops and other rest points facilitated behavior that many participants said they would not engage in elsewhere. HIV prevention strategies with truck drivers should address individual, social and structural barriers to HIV prevention through partnerships with the health and transportation sectors, local government and local communities. HIV prevention services should be adapted to drivers' times and places of availability, for example, condom provision where/when drivers make decisions about or have sex. A focus on positive messaging and addressing specific challenges including the continual challenge of re-choosing and reinforcing decisions to engage in safer sexual behaviors is important.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Vehículos a Motor , Trabajadores Sexuales , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Asunción de Riesgos , Tanzanía , Transportes
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 105: 44-51, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491717

RESUMEN

Accidents between right-turning motor vehicles and straight-ahead cyclists are one of the most common accident types leading to cyclist injuries at signalised junctions in Denmark. A before-after safety evaluation of applying staggered stop lines in 189 arms at 123 signalised junctions is presented. The evaluation accounts for long-term accident trends and changes in motor vehicle traffic volumes. Applying staggered stop lines gives no decline in accidents between right-turning motor vehicles and straight-ahead cyclists. However, there is a statistical tendency to a decline of these right-turn accidents involving heavy vehicles. There are several questions about factors leading to right-turn accidents that cannot be answered by recorded accident data. A study of conflicting behaviour focuses on factors leading to conflicts. Video observations have been carried out in 10 arms at signalised junctions. A total of 45 situations with conflicting behaviour between right-turning motor vehicles and straight-ahead cyclists have been investigated and compared to a reference group of simultaneous arrivals. The relative risk is lowest when both parties stop on red before entering the junction. Upon simultaneous arrival of both parties at a green light, the relative risk is highest. Cyclists tend to have a higher relative risk of being involved in conflicts if they; a) ride through on yellow, b) have a time distance of at least 2seconds to other cyclists, c) wear a black jacket, and/or d) arrive at the junction at a speed of at least 25km/h. Much less can be said about the motor vehicles or their drivers on the basis of these video observations, but motor vehicles stopping in the cycle crossing in order to yield to pedestrians or cyclists have a higher relative risk of being involved in conflicts.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciclismo/lesiones , Planificación Ambiental , Dinamarca , Humanos , Vehículos a Motor/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo , Seguridad
14.
Rev Hist Pharm (Paris) ; 65(393): 41-54, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611666

RESUMEN

Henri Schmidt was, with his fellow the senator Paul Cazeneuve, the main defender of the mention of pharmacists and pharmacy students in the articles of the law voted in 1913 for the recruitment of the army. After the description of their interventions to attain this end, and a short biography of these two politicians, the paper explains the activities of the pharmaceutical parliamentary group, during the early years of the war, in view to obtain the admittance in the medical corps of the pharmacists and students unprovided of rank, for the new creation of «auxiliary pharmacists¼, for the appointment as soon as possible of the maximum number of colleagues at this rank, and then for their promotion to the rank of «aide-major¼, resolution that appeared more difficult to obtain.


Asunto(s)
Farmacias/historia , Farmacéuticos/historia , Primera Guerra Mundial , Francia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Medicina Militar/historia , Medicina Militar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Unidades Móviles de Salud/historia , Unidades Móviles de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Farmacéuticos/legislación & jurisprudencia
15.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 48: 50-56, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27324417

RESUMEN

Just before and after the end of World War I, Sigmund Freud took on an activist role and in his writings and speeches, redirected the concept of war trauma from individual failure to a larger issue of community responsibility. Testifying in Vienna as an expert witness for the state, Freud said that the military psychiatrists-not the soldiers-had "acted like machine guns behind the front" and were the "immediate cause of all war neurosis." Freud was called on by the legal community when Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a future Nobel Prize winner (and also future Nazi Party adherent), head of the municipal Clinic for Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases, was accused of the lethal use of electrotherapy on shell-shocked soldiers. As sociological as psychoanalytic in his responses, Freud's withering critique came just 2years after he avowed that "it is possible to foresee that the conscience of society will awake." That speech on the human right to mental health care affirmed Freud's alliance to the social democratic position and inspired the second generation of psychoanalysts to develop community-based clinics throughout Europe where treatment was free of cost, for war neurosis and beyond.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Combate/historia , Servicios Comunitarios de Salud Mental/historia , Teoría Freudiana , Psicoanálisis/historia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/historia , Primera Guerra Mundial , Europa (Continente) , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
16.
Notes Rec R Soc Lond ; 69(1): 11-24, 2015 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26489180

RESUMEN

World War I is often said to have benefited British women by giving them the vote and by enabling them to take on traditionally male roles, including ones in science, engineering and medicine. In reality, conventional hierarchies were rapidly re-established after the Armistice. Concentrating mainly on a small group of well-qualified scientific and medical women, marginalized at the time and also in the secondary literature, I review the attitudes they experienced and the work they undertook during and immediately after the war. The effects of century-old prejudices are still felt today.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Civiles/historia , Historia de la Medicina , Política , Ciencia/historia , Mujeres/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Reino Unido , Primera Guerra Mundial
17.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 16 Suppl 2: S41-5, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26436241

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Although child passenger restraint use in motor vehicles has increased, there is an important minority of children who remain unrestrained. The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of and under what circumstances parents keep their children unrestrained. METHODS: A cross-sectional, online survey was distributed to parents and caregivers of children 10 years old and younger. Survey participants were asked about child restraint practices, including frequency of and reasons for nonuse of restraints. Parents were specifically asked how acceptable it would be to keep their child unrestrained in certain situations. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred eighty-five parents and guardians responded to the survey and 1,002 completed it; 23.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.3-26.6%) of respondents said they had driven with their child not fully restrained on at least one occasion. Approximately 1 in 5 parents strongly or somewhat agreed that it would be acceptable to keep their child unrestrained in certain situations, including a short drive, in a rush, an inadequate number of restraints, riding in a taxi, if somebody was holding the child, and as a reward for a child. Parents were more likely to agree that it was acceptable to keep their child unrestrained under nearly all circumstances listed if they were male, ages 18-29, with a graduate school education, in the $100,000+ income bracket, or Latino. CONCLUSIONS: There are certain situations for which parents find it acceptable to leave their children unrestrained. This has implications for targeted child passenger safety efforts designed to maximize consistent restraint use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Retención Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Vehículos a Motor , Padres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
18.
Soc Stud Sci ; 45(4): 525-45, 2015 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26502658

RESUMEN

We sketch a variety of institutional, discursive, professional, and personal 'vectors', dating back to the 1980s, in order to explain how 'national trauma' was able to go from a cultural into a professional category in Israeli mental health during the Al-Aqsa Intifada (2000-2005). Our genealogy follows Ian Hacking's approach to transient mental illnesses, both illustrating its fertility and expanding its horizon. Thus, we also explore the dynamics that developed in the Israeli mental health community with the advent of 'national trauma': while the vast majority of Israeli psychologists and psychiatrists did not adopt the category, they embraced much of its underlying logic, establishing a link between Israeli identity and the mental harm said to be caused by Palestinian terror. Remarkably, the nexus of national identity and collective psychic vulnerability also prompted the cooperation of Jewish and Palestinian-Israeli mental health scholars seeking to explore the psychological effect that the minority status of Israeli Palestinians had on them during the Al-Aqsa Intifada.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental/historia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/historia , Violencia/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Israel , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Violencia/psicología , Guerra
19.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 16: 298-303, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24983299

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Crash avoidance technologies have the potential to prevent or mitigate many crashes, but their effectiveness depends on drivers' acceptance and proper use. Owners of 2011 Dodge Charger, Dodge Durango, and Jeep Grand Cherokee vehicles were interviewed about their experiences with their vehicles' technologies. METHODS: Interviews were conducted in April 2013 with 215 owners of Dodge and Jeep vehicles with adaptive cruise control and forward collision warning and 215 owners with blind spot monitoring and rear cross-path detection. RESULTS: Most owners said that they always keep each collision avoidance technology turned on, and more than 90% of owners with each system would want the technology again on their next vehicle. The majority believed that the systems had helped prevent a collision; this ranged from 54% of drivers with forward collision warning to more than three-quarters with blind spot monitoring and rear cross-path detection. Some owners reported behavioral changes with the systems, but over-reliance on them is not prevalent. Reported use of the systems varied by the age and gender of the driver and duration of vehicle ownership to a greater degree than in previous surveys of luxury Volvo and Infiniti vehicles with collision avoidance technologies. Notably, drivers aged 40 and younger were most likely to report that forward collision warning had alerted them multiple times and that it had prevented a collision and that they follow the vehicle ahead less closely with adaptive cruise control. Reports of waiting for the alert from forward collision warning before braking were infrequent but increased with duration of ownership. However, these reports could reflect confusion of the system with adaptive cruise control, which alerts drivers when braking is necessary to maintain a preset speed or following distance but a crash is not imminent. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous surveys of luxury vehicle owners with collision avoidance technologies, acceptance and use remains high among owners of more mainstream vehicles. Varying experiences with the technologies by driver age and gender suggest that safety benefits are not uniform for all drivers, and differential benefits may become increasingly apparent as collision avoidance technologies become available to a more heterogeneous population of drivers. The potential for over-reliance on the technologies should continue to be monitored, especially as drivers gain more experience with them.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes/instrumentación , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Vehículos a Motor/estadística & datos numéricos , Equipos de Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Conducción de Automóvil/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Seguridad , Factores Sexuales
20.
J Trauma Stress ; 27(4): 483-7, 2014 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25158642

RESUMEN

Despite efforts to increase the availability of prolonged exposure therapy (PE) within the Department of Veterans Affairs, little is known about the acceptability of PE among veteran populations. We queried a sample of 58 U.S. National Guard Iraq War veterans previously deployed to combat who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as to whether they would prefer PE, treatment with an antidepressant, or no treatment. We also gathered open-ended responses regarding the veterans' reasons for their choice and potential barriers to engaging in that treatment. A majority (53.4%) of veterans who completed the interview said they would choose to participate in PE, 36.2% preferred antidepressant treatment, 8.6% chose no treatment, and 1.8% were unable to choose among the options. Credibility of the treatment rationale and beliefs about the treatment's efficacy were the most frequently given reasons for choosing PE (45.2%); past treatment experience was the most common reason for choosing antidepressant treatment (47.6%). The most commonly cited barrier for those who chose both antidepressant treatment and PE was time to participate (52.4% and 77.4%, respectively). The findings suggest that PE is a credible and acceptable treatment option for veterans with PTSD symptomology.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Terapia Implosiva , Prioridad del Paciente , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Veteranos/psicología , Adulto , Conducta de Elección , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Guerra de Irak 2003-2011 , Masculino , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/tratamiento farmacológico , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
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